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Pharaoh. ceeded them. Lastly, I find, adds Josephus, from the an very numerous and powerful, resolved to depress them Pharaok,
cient records of our nation, that from the age of Solomon by hardship and labour; and set cruel aad pitiless task.
no king of Egypt had any longer the name of Pharaoh. masters over them. But the more he oppressed them,
But Josephus is not very accurate in this passage. the faster they multiplied ; insomuch that he gave orders
True it is, Herodotus says, that Mines, or Minæus, was to the Egyptian midwives, who assisted the Hebrew
the first king of Egypt, and founder of Memphis ; that
labour, to put all the male children to
there were 330 kings after him in Egypt; that after death, and to save alive the females only. But this
them there was a queen called Nicotris, and not Nic command was not strictly executed. The midwives
caule, as Josephus writes it; but it is not true that these feared the Lord, and preserved alive not only the fe-
kings had no other name but Pharaob. Herodotus says male children, but the males also.
expressly, that in the books of the Egyptian priests were Pharaoh, seeing this project did not succeed to his
read the names and the catalogue of 330 kings; that in wishes, published a decree (Exod. i. 22.) that all the
this number of 330 there were 18 Ethiopians, and a male children born of Hebrew women should be thrown
woman that was a foreigner called Nicotris, and that all into the Nile, and that only the females should be spa-
the others were Egyptians. These princes therefore bad red. This order was rigorously executed; yet by the
every one his proper name mentioned in the catalogue providence of God Moses was preserved, and even
of the Egyptian kinge. So likewise we see in the frag- brought up in Pharaoh's own court, by bis own daugh-
ments of Manetho, that every king of Egypt had a ter, who by chance bad found the child, as be was ex-
name peculiar to bim; and we find the name Pharaoh posed upon the Nile.
only in Scripture.
Moses being grown up, and having killed an Egyp-
What Josephus adds concerning Queen Nicaule, or tian who had abused an Hebrew, was obliged to fly from
Nicotris, whom he pretends to be the same as the queen Egypt to avoid that death that Pharaoh bad threatened
of Sheba, of whon mention is made in Scripture him with.
(1 Kings X. 1, 2, &c.) is entirely fabulous; and as to Several years after, being about 80 years old, he re-
what he says, that since the time of Solomon the kings turned again by an order from God, and performed
of Egypt have no longer had the name of Pharaoh, is mighty miracles before Pharaoh. See Moses. There
manifestly false, since we still find his name in the se is a good deal of probability that this Pharaoh before
cond book of Kings, under Hezekiah (2 Kings xviii. whom Moses appeared, and in whose sight he smote
21.); under Josiah (xxiji. 29, 30, 33, &c.), where this Egypt with so many plagues, was a different person
name is joined to Necho, which was the proper name
from him who would have laid bands on bim after he
of this prince; under Jehoiakim (xxiii. 35); and in the had slain the Egyptian. This same Pharaoh having at
prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Èzekiel, who are much Jast been compelled to send away the Hebrews, and to
later than Solomon. It is very probable that the Egyp- suffer them to go out of Egypt, soon repented of the
tians gave the name of Pharaoli to their kings as long leave he had given, and pursued them at the head of
as the Egyptian language was in common use, and as long his army with his chariots. But he was drowned in the
as their kings were of their own nation : but after the Red sea, wherein he had rashly entered in the eager-
conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great, and that ness of his pursuit. Some historians pretend to give us
the Grecians introduced their language with their go the name of this Pharaoh ; some, as Apion, call him
vernment, the name of Pharaoh was known no longer Amosis or Amasis ; Eusebius calls him Chenchris ;
among them. The first prince known to us by the name Usher calls him Amenophis ; but we may assure ouro
of Pharaoh was he in whose time Abraham went down selves that there can be nothing certain in all this.
to Egypt, when Sarah, who passed only for Abraham's The fifth Pharaoh known to us is he who gave pro-
sister, was by the command of Pharaoh brought to his tection to Hadad son of the king of Edom, who gave
palace in order to become his wife. See ABRAHAM. him to wife the sister of his own queen, enriched him
But the Lord smote Pharaoh and bis family with great with lands, and brought up bis son Genubah in bis
infirmities, and gave him to know that she was Abra own court. Hadad returned to Idumea after the death
ham's wife; whereupon Pharaoh sent for Abraham, re of David.
stored him his wife, and at the same time gave orders The sixth Pharaoh is he who gave his daughter in
that he should be conducted out of Egypt, with every marriage to Solomon king of the Hebrews (1 Kings
thing that belonged to him. See SARAH.
iii. 1.); and having taken Gezer, he set it on fire,
The second Pharaoh spoken of in the Scripture is be drove the Canaanites out of it, and gave it for a present
who reigned when Joseph arrived there. This prince or to Solomon, in lieu of a dowry for his daughter, whom
his successor had the mysterious dream of the fat and he had married to this prince (1 Kings ix. 16.).
lean kine, and the seven full and barren ears of corn, The seventh is Shishak, who entertained Jeroboam in
which Joseph explained so much to bis satisfaction, that his dominions, a rebellious subject of Solomon, and of-
he made him governor of his bonse and of all Egypt, fered him a refuge in opposition to the king his master.
reserving only to himself the name of a king.
The same Shisbak declared war against Reboboam the
the same Pharaoh who sent for and entertained the pa son and successor of Solomon, besieged and took Jerusa-
triarch Jacob and his family in Egypt, and gave them lem, carried away all the king's treasures, and those of
the land of Gosben for their habitation. See JOSEPH the house of God, and particularly the golden bucklers
that Solomon had made. See SHISHAK.
The third Pharaoh known in holy writ is he who per The eighth is that Pharaoh with whom Hezekiah
secuted the Israelites. Moses tells us that he was a new made a league against Sennacherib king of Assyria, in
king, and had no knowledge of Joseph (Exod. i. 8.). the year of the world 3290. See SENNACHERIB. This
This prince, observing that the Israelites had become Pharaoh is probably the same whom Herodotus names
Pharaoh, Sethon, priest of Vulcan, who came to meet Senna.
Pharaon Pharaon, cherib before Pelusium, and to whose assistance Vulcan
2 X N-I n 1
11 sent an army of rats, which gnawed the bowstrings fourth case, the gain of the banker, or the loss of the
Pharisees. and the thongs of the bucklers of Sennacherib's sol. diers.
21-5 ponte, is
-y, or n—1x1~3.
supposing The ninth is Pharaoh Necho, or Nechos, son of
2Xn-1 X1-3 Psammiticus, who made war with Josiah, and subdued y=; De Moivre has calculated a table, exhibiting him. Herodotus also mentions this prince. See Ne this gain or loss for any particular circumstance of the cho and Egypt, No 11.
play; and he observes, that at this play the least disThe tenth is Pharaoh Hophrah, who entered into an advantage of the ponte, under the same circumstances alliance with Zedekiah king of Judah, and attempted to of cards remaining in the stock, is when the card of the come to his assistance against Nebuchadnezzar king of ponte is but twice in it, the next greater when three Chaldea. It was against this Pharaoh that Ezekiel pro- times, the next when once, and the greatest when four nounced several of his prophecies (see Ezekiel xxix. xxx.
times. He has also demonstrated, that the wbole gaia
xxxi. xxxii.). He is called Apries in Herodotus, lib. ii. per cent. of the banker, upon all the money that is ad.
c. 161. He is also mentioned in Habakkuk ii. 15, 16. ventured at this game, is 2l. 199. Iod. See De Moivre's
See also Isaiah xix. xx. and Jeremiah xlvi. 16, &c. See
Doctrine of Chances, p. 77, &c. p. 105, &c.
APRIES, and EGYPT, No 13, &c.
PHAREZ, son of Judah and Tamar (Gen. xxxvïïi.
PHARAON is the name of a game of chance, the 27, 28, &c.). Tamar being just ready to lie in, found
principal rules of which are: the banker bolds a pack herself with child of twins. One of the in appeared first,
consisting of 52 cards; he draws all the cards one after and putting his arm out, he immediately drew it back
the other, and lays them down alternately at his right again. The midwife tied a scarlet thread upon his arni,
and left hand; then the ponte may at his pleasure set
to distinguish him for the first-born ; but having with.
one or more stakes upon one or more cards, either drawn his hand, his brother got before him into the
before the banker has begun to draw the cards, or world: whereupon he was called by his mother Pharez,
after he has drawn any number of couples. The i. e. one breaking forth ; as the other, with the thread
banker wins the stake of the ponte when the card of on his hand, was called Zarah. The sons of Pharez
the ponte comes out in an odd place on his right land, were Hezron and Hamul (Numb. xxvi. 20, 21.). F.
but loses as much to the ponte when it comes out in Calmet, upon this article, explains the text as if Pha-
an even place on his left hand. The banker wins half rez, and not Zarah, bad put out his hand, and drew it
the ponte's stake when it happens to be twice in one
couple. When the card of the ponte being but once PHARISEES, a famous sect of the Jews, who di-
in the stock happens to be the last, the ponte neither stinguished themselves by their zeal for the traditions of
wins nor loses ; and the card of the ponte being but the elders, which they derived from the same fountain
twice in the stock, and the last couple containing his with the written word itself; pretending that both were
card twice, he then loses his whole stake. De Moivre delivered to Moses from Mouut Sinai, and were there.
bas shown how to find the gain of the banker in any
fore both of equal authority. From their rigorous ob-
circumstance of cards remaining in the stock, and of servance of these traditions, they looked upon them.
the number of times that the ponte's cards is contained selves as more holy than other men ; and therefore se-
in it. Of this problem he enumerates four cascs, viz. parated themselves from those whom they thought sin.
when the ponte's card is once, twice, three, or four ners or profane, so as not to eat or drink with them;
times in the stock. In the first case, the gain of the and hence, from the Hebrew word pharic, which sig-
nifies" to separate," they had the name of Pharisces or banker is 5, n being the number of cards in the stock. Separatists.
This sect was one of the most ancient and consider. in the second case, his gain is
able among the Jews; but its original is not very well
n X1I n Xn-I known (A); however, it was great repute in the
supposing y=;. In the third case, his
time of our Saviour; and must bave had its original at
the same time with the traditions, and they grew up to-
(A) The Jesuit Serrarius places their first rise about the time of Esdras; because it was then that the Jews first
began to have interpreters of their tradition. Maldonat, on the other hand, will not have this sect to have arisen
among the Jews till a little before the time of Christ. Others, perhaps, with more probability, refer the origin of
the Pharisees to the time of the Maccabees.
Dr Lightfoot thinks, that Pharisaism rose up gradually, from a period which he does not assign, to the maturity
It is certain, from the account given by Josephus, that in the time of John Hyrcanus, the high priest
and prince of the Asmonean line, about 108 years before Christ, the sect was not only formed, but made a consi-
derable figure; and that it had advanced to a bigh degree of popularity and power about 80 years before Christ.
Jos. Ant. lib. xiii
. cap. 10. § 5, 6. cap. 15. § 5. and cap 16. § 1. According to Basnage, Hist. of the Jews, book ii. cap. 9. § 2. one Aristobulus, an Alexandrian Jew, and a Peripatetic philosopher, who flourished about 125 years before Christ, and wrote some allegorical commentaries on the scripture, was the author of those tradi. cione, by an adherence to which the Pharisees were principally distinguished from other sects.
Phariseen. gether, till at length they had gained ground so far, one of the prophets (Matt. xvi. 14.), the meaning can Plarisees
that the traditional law swallowed up the written, and only be, that they thought he was come into the world
those who were the propagators of it the whole bulk of with the soul of Elias, Jeremias, or some other of the Pharos
, the Jewish nation.
old prophets, transmigrated into bim. With the Es. The extraordinary pretences of the Pharisees to right. senes, they held absolute predestination ; and with the eousness drew after them the common people, who held Sadducees free-will: but how they reconciled these them in the highest esteem and veneration. Our Savi. seemingly incompatible doctrines is nowhere sufficiently our frequently, lowerer, charges them with hypocrisy, explained. The sect of the Pharisees was not estinand making the law of God of no effect through their guished by the ruin of the Jewish commonwealth. The traditions (Matth. ix. 2. xv. I~-6. xxiii. 13–33. and greatest part of the modern Jews are still of this sect; Luke xi. 39-52.). Several of these traditions are par being as much devoted to traditions or the oral law as. ticularly mentioned in the gospel; but they had a vast their ancestors were. See the articles CABBALISTS, number more, which may be seen in the Talmud, the CARAITES, ESSENES, SADDUCEES, &c. whole subject whereof is to dictate and explain those PHARMACA, among the ancients, meant meditraditions which this sect imposed to be believed and ob cated or enchanted compositions of herbs, minerals, &c. served.
some of which, when taken inwardly, were supposed to The Pharisees, contrary to the opinion of the Sad cause blindness, madness, love, &c.: others infected by ducees, held a resurrection from the dead, and the exist touch ; such was the garment sent by Medea to Creusa, ence of angels and spirits (Acts xxüi. 8.). But accord prepared secundum artem: and others operated upon ing to Josephus, this resurrection of theirs was no more persons at a distance. Pharmaca soteria were employthan a Pythagorean resurrection, that is, of the soul only, ed as antidotes against these mischievous compositions : by its transmigration into another body, and being born Thus the herb moly preserved Ulysses from the magical anew with it. From this resurrection they excluded all influence of Circe. The laurel, the rhamnus, the flea.. that were notoriously wicked, being of opinion that the bane, the jasper-stone, were used for similar purposes. souls of such persons were transmitted into a state of See Potter's Græc. Ant. everlasting woe. As to lesser crimes, they held they PHARMACI, were two persons who were employed were punished in the bodies which the souls of those in the lustration or purification of cities. Some say who committed them were next sent into.
they were both men; but others maintain, that a mani Josephus, however, either mistook the faith of his to represent the males, and a woman to represent ibe countrymen, or, which is more probable, wilfully mis- females, performed this office. They performed sacrirepresented it, to render their opinions more respect fice, and wore figs about their necks called onscades; ed by the Roman philosophers, whom he appears to those of the men were blackish, and those of the wonian have on every occasion been desirous to please. The white. Figs were an emblem of fertility, which they Pharisees bad many pagan notions respecting the soul ; doubtless prayed for on these solemn occasions. but Bishop Bull, in bis Harmonia Apostolica, has clearly PHARMACEUTICAL, any thing connected with proved, that they held a resurrection of the body, and pharmacy, or the operations or processes employed in the . that they supposed a certain bone to remain uncor preparation of medicines. rupted, to furnish the matter of wbich the resurrection PHARMACOCHEMIA, an old term denoting that body was to be formed. They did not, however, be part of the chemical art which treats of the preparation lieve that all mankind were to be raised from the dead. of medicines ; by way of distinction from that chemistry, A resurrection was the privilege of the children of which is wholly employed about the transmutation of Abraham alone, who were all to rise on Mount Zion; metals by means of the philosopher's stone ; this being their incorruptible bones, wherever they might be bu- called spagirico-chemia. ried, being carried to that mountain below the surface PHÁRMACOLOGY, is a treatise of medicines, or of the earth. The state of future felicity, in which the the art of preparing, judging of them, &c. Pharisees believed, was very gross: They imagined, PHARMACOPOEIA (from Quguaxoy, remedy, and that men in the next world, as well as in the present, ποιειν, to make), means a dispensatory, or a treatise dewere to eat and drink, and enjoy the pleasures of love, scribing the preparations of the several kinds of medi. each being reunited to his former wife. Hence the cines, with their uses, manner of application, &c. Sadducee, who believed in no resurrection, and suppo We have various pharmacopæias, as those of Baused our Saviour to teach it as a Pharisee, very shrewdly deron, Quercetan, Zwelfer, Charas, Bates, Salmon, urged the difficulty of disposing of the woman who had Lemery, Lewis, &c. But the Edinburgh, London, in this world been the wife of seven husbands. Had and Dublin pharmacopoeias, are chiefly consulted and the resurrection of Christianity been the Pharisaical re followed in Britain in the present day. surrection, this difficulty would have been insurmount PHARMACOPOLA, or PHARMACOPEIUS, an apoable; and accordingly we find the people, and even thecary, or a person who prepares and sells medicines; some of the Pharisees themselves, struck with the man but this word is rarely used but in the way of ridicule. ner in which onr Saviour removed it.
It is composed of paguanov, medicine, and foluv, to sell. This sect seems to have had some confused notions, Hor. Sat. ii. lib. i. ver. 1. probably derived from the Chaldeans and Persians, re PHARMACUM, Qrepeaxov, a medicine or medicaspecting the pre-existence of souls; and hence it was ment, either of a salutary or deleterious quality. that Christ's disciples asked him concerning the blind PHARMACY, the art of preparing, preserving, and man (John ix. 2.), Who did sin, this man or his pa- compounding medicines. See MATERIA MEDICA. See rents, that he was born blind ?' And when the disciples also PRESCRIPTIONS, Extemporaneous. told Christ, that some said he was Elias, Jeremias, or PHAROS, (Homer, Strabo, &c.), a small oblong 4
Pharos island, adjoining to the continent of Egypt, over-against danus, and both together into the Penens. Between Pharsalia.
Alexandria. On this island stood a cognominal light- Pharsalus and Eni peus, Pompey drew up bis men at the
Pharsalia. tower, of four sides, each side a stadium in length; and fatal battle of Pharsalia.
the tower so high as to be seen 100 miles off. Some af. In this battle, the advantage with respect to num-
firm, each of its four corners rested on a large sea-crabbers was greatly on the side of Pompey. That general
of glass or of hard transparent stone of Ethiopia or Mem. himself was on the left with the two legions which Cæ-
this. Others imagine the crabs were only added ex sar had returned to him at the beginning of the war.
ternally to the base by way of ornament, or as emble- Scipio, Pompey's father-in-law, was in the centre, with
matical of its situation and use. The architect was so the legions he had brought from Syria, and the rein-
strates the Cnidian, as appears by an inscription on the forcements sent by several kings and states of Asia. The
tower, under Prolemy Philadelphus, who laid out 800 Cilician legion, and some cohorts which had served in
it. On account of the port of Alexandria, Spain, were in the right, under the command of Afra-
the entrance to which was difficult and dangerous, the nius. As Ponipey's right wing was covered by the Eni.
Pharos was called the key of the Egyptian sea, or even peus, he strengthened the left with his slingers, archers,
of Egypt itself (Lucan): and Pharos, from being a pro and the 7000 Roman horse, on whom chiefly his party
per vame, became an appellative to denote all lights founded their hopes of victory. The whole army was
drawn up in three lines, with very little spaces between
Pharos, or Phare, a light-house; a pile raise:) near them. In conformity to this disposition, Cæsar's army
a port, where fire is kept burning in the night, to was drawn up in the following order : The tenth le-
guide and direct vessels near at hand. The pharos of gion, which bad on all occasions signalized itself
Alexandria, built in the island of Pharos, at the inouth above all the rest, was placed in the right wing, and
of the Nile, was anciently very famous, insomuch as to - the ninth in the left; but as the latter had been con-
communicate its name to all the rest. This most mag- siderably weakened in the action at Dyrrhachium, the
nificent tower consisted of several stories and galleries, eighth legion was posted so near as to be able to sup-
with a lantern at top, in which a light being conti- port and reinforce it upon occasion. The rest of Cæ-
nually burning, might be seen for many leagues at sea, sar's forces filled up the space between the tivo wings.
and along the coast. It was aceounted one of the seven Mark Antony commanded the left wing, Sylla the
wonders of the world. It was built by the famed archi- right, and Cneius Domitius Calvinus the main body.
tect Sostrates, a native of Cnidos, or, according to some, As for Caesar, be posted himself in the right over-
by, Deiphanes, the father of Sostrates; and cost Ptolemy against Pompey, that he might have him always in his
Philadelphus 800 talents. The several stories were sight.
adorned with columns, ballustrades, galleries of the finest Thus was the whole plain covered, from Pharsalia to
marble and workmanship; to which some add, that the the Enipens, with two armies, dressed and armed after
architect bad contrived to fasten some looking-glasses so the same manner, and-bearing the same ensigns, the Ro-
artificially against the highest galleries, that one could man eagles. Pompey observing how well the enemy
see in them all the ships that sailed on the sea for a kept their ranks, expecting quietly the signal of battle,
great way. Instead of which noble structure, one sees and on the contrary how impatient and unsteady his own
now only a kind of irregular castle, withont ditches or men were, running up and down in great disorder for
out works of any strength, the whole being accommodat want of experience, he began to be afraid lest his ranks
ed to the inequality of the ground on which it stands, should be broken upon the first onset ; and therefore
and which it seems is no higher than that which it commanded the foot in the front to keep their ground,
should command.. Out of the midst of this clumsy and quietly wait for the enemy. The two armies, though
building rises a tower, which serves for a light-house, within reach of each other, kept a mournful silence;
but which has nothing of the beanty and grandeur of the but at length the trumpets sounded the charge, and Cæ-
the old one. The Colossus of Rhodes also served as a sar's army advanced in good order to begin the attack,
being encouraged by the example of one Cains Crasti.
PHARPAR, or PHARPHAR, is one of the rivers of nus, a centurion, who at the head of 120 men, threw
Damascus, or rather it is an arm of the Barrady or Chry- himself upon the enemy's first line with incredible fury,
sorrhoas, which waters the city of Damascus and the This he did to acquit himself of a promise he had so-
country about it (2 Kings v. 12.). " Are not Abana lemnly made to Cæsar, who, meeting him as he was go-
and Pharpar, rivers of Damascus, better than all the ing out of his tent in the morning, asked him, after some
waters of Israel ?" The river of Damascus has its foun discourse, What his opinion was touching the event of the
tain in the mountains of Libanus. At its approach to battle? To which he, stretcliing out his hand, replied
the city it is divided into three arms, one of which aloud, Thine is the victory, Cæsar; thou shalt gloriously
passes through Damascus. The other two water the conquer, and I myself this day will be the subject of thy
gardens round about, and then reuniting, they lose praise either dead or alive. In pursuance of this promise
themselves at four or five leagues from the city, to be broke out of his rank as soon as the trompet sound-
wards the north. See Maundrell's Travels from Alep- ed; and, at the head of his company, ran in upon the
po to Jerusalem; see also the articles ABANA and DA enemy, and made great slaughter of them. But while
he was still pressing forward, forcing his way through PHARSALIA, PAARSALIUM, Pharsalus, or Phar the first line, one of Pompey's men ran him in at the salos, in Ancient Geography, a town of the Phthiotes, a mouth with such violence, that the point of his sword. district of Thessaly, near Pheræ and Larissa, to which came out at the hind part of bis neck. Upon his death last place Pompey fled from the plains of Pharsalus; Pompey's soldiers took courage, and with great bravery watered by the river Enipeus, wbicb falls into the Api- stood the enemy's onset. Wbile the foot were thus
Pharsalia. sharply engaged in the centre, Pompey's horse in the honours to the body of Crastinus, who had begun the Pharsalia,
left wing marched up confidently ; and having first wi battle ; and ordered his ashes to be deposited in a tomb,
dened their ranks, with a design to surround Cæsar's which he erected to his memory. On Pompey's side,
right wing, charged his cavalry, and forced them to the number of the dead amounted to 15,000 accord.
give ground. Hereupon Cæsar ordered his horse to re-
ing to some, and to 25,000 according to others. Cæ.
treat a little, and give way to the six cohorts which he sar took 24,000 prisoners, eight eagles, and 180 en-
had posted in the rear as a body of reserve. These, up signs.
on a signal given, coming up, charged the enemy's horse PHARSALIA, an epic poem, composed by Lucan on
with that resolution and good order which is peculiar to the civil war between Pompey and Cæsar, and parti-
men who have spent all their lives in camps. They cularly on the victory of the latter over the former,
remembered their instructions, not striking at the legs of which we have given an accouut in the preceding
or thighs of the enemy, but aiming only at their faces. article. It is a poem universally acknowledged to have
This unexpected and new manner of fighting had the great beauties and great defects; but we are the less
desired effect. For the young patricians, whom Cæ- capable of estimating its merit as a whole, that either
sar contemptuously calls the pretty young dancers, not time has deprived us of the last books, or its author
being able to beai the thoughts of having their faces has left it incomplete. “The subject of the Pharsalia Blair's
deformed with scars, turned their backs, and, covering (says an excellent critic) carries undoubtedly all the Lectures.
their faces with their hands, fled in the utmost con epic grandeur and dignity: neither does it want unity
fusion, leaving the foot at the mercy of the enemy. of object, viz. the triumph of Cæsar over the Roman
Cæsar's men did not pursue the fugitives; but cbar liberty. In the choice of that subject, be thinks, bow-
ging the foot of that wing, now naked and un ever, that the author was not happy. The civil wars
guarded, surrounded them, and cut most of them in were too recent to admit in the description of them the
embellishments of fiction and machinery. The fables
Pompey was so transported with rage, in seeing the of the gods mixed with the exploits of Cæsar and Pom-
flower of his forces thus put to flight or cut in pieces, pey, instead of raising, would have diminished, the dig.
that he left bis army, and retired slowly towards his nity of such well known facts.” Another objection to
camp, looking re like a man distracted and beside the subject, perhaps more forcible than this, arises from
himself than one who by his exploits had acquired the the success of the war and the abilities of the generals.
name of the Great. When he had reached the camp, Lucan was a friend to liberty, and wished to raise the
he retired to his tent without speaking a word to any ; character of Pompey and Cato; but in spite of his ut-
and continued there, like one distracted and out of his most efforts, they are always eclipsed by the superior ta.
senses, till his whole army was defeated. Cæsar no soon lents and consequent success of Cæsar. All bis charac-
er saw himself master of the field than he marched to
ters, however, are drawn with spirit, and with uncom-
attack the enemy's entrenchments, that Pompey might mon regard to truth ; and some of the speeches which
not have time to recollect himself. When Pompey was he puts into the mouths of his heroes are equal for mo-
informed that his rival was advancing to attack his en ral sublimity to any thing that is to be found in all an-
trenchments, he then first seemed to have recovered his tiquity.
senses, and cried out, What, into my camp too! He “ There are in the Pharsalia (continues the critic al-
said no more ; but immediately laying aside the marks ready quoted) several very poetical and spirited de-
of his dignity, and putting on such a garment as might scriptions. But the author's chief strength does not
best favour his flight, he stole out at the decuman gate, lie either in narration or description. His narration
and took the road to Larissa, which city had hitherto is often dry and harsh ; his descriptions are often over-
shown great attachment to him. In the mean time wrought, and employed too upon disagreeable objects.
Cæsar began the attack on the enemy's camp, which His principal merit consists in his sentiments, which are
was vigorously defended by the cohorts Pompey had generally noble and striking, and expressed in that glow-
left to guard it; but they were at length forced to ing and ardent manner which peculiarly distinguishes
yield. Cæsar was not a little surprised, when, after him. Lucan is the most philosophical and the most
having forced the entrenchments, he found the enemy's public-spirited poet of all antiquity. He was the ne-
tents and pavilions richly adorned with carpets and phew of the famous Seneca the philosopher; was him-
hangings, their couches strewed with flowers, their self a Stoic; and the spirit of that philosopliy breathes
tables ready spread, and sideboards set out with abun throughout his poem. We must observe, too, that he is
dance of plate, bowls, and glasses, and some of them the only ancient epic poet whom the subject of bis poem
even filled with wine. So great was the confidence of really and deeply interested. Lucan recounted no fic-
Pompey's party, that they made preparations before tion. He was a Roman, and bad felt all the direful ef-
land for pleasures to be enjoyed after the victory, which fects of the Roman civil wars, and of that severe despo-
they thought certain. In Pompey's tent, Cæsar found tism which succeeded the loss of liberty. His high
the box in which he kept his letters: but, with a mo and bold spirit made him enter deeply into this sub.
deration and magnanimity worthy of himself, he burntject, and kindle, on many occasions, into the most real
them all, without reading one ; saying, that he had warmth. Hence, be abounds in exclamations and
rather be ignorant of crimes, than obliged to punish apostrophes, which are almost always well-timed, and
supported with a vivacity and fire that do bim no small
The next day, when the dead were numbered, it honour.
appeared that Cæsar had scarce lost 200 men ; among “ But it is the fate of this poet, that his beauties can
whom were about 30 centurions, wbom Cæsar caused never be mentioned, without their suggesting his ble-
to be buried with great solemnity. He did particular mishes also. As his principal excellency is a lively and