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Peyrere of the Prince of Conde, who was much pleased with of excellence. 2. Because it is presumable, if the kings Peștere, the singularity of his genius. From the perasal of St of France possess the virtue of curing the evil or scrofu
-Peyronins. Paul's writings he took into bis head to aver, that Adam Ja, which can only afflict the bodies of the Jews; that was not the first of the human race; and, in order to they will likewise have the power of curing their obstiprove this extravagant opinion, he published in 1655 a nate incredulity, and the o:her inveterate diseases of book, which was printed in Holland in 4to and in their souls. 3. Because the kings of France have for - 1 2mo, with this title: Præadamitæ, sive exercitatio super their arms a fleur de luce; and because the beauty of versibus 12, 13, 14. cap. 15. Epistola Pauli ad Roma the church is in scripture compared to the beauty of nos. This work was burnt at Paris, and the author im lilies. 4. Because it is probable that France will be the prisoned at Brussels, through the influence of the arch- country wbither the Jews shall first be invited to come bishop of Malines's grand vicar. The Prince of Conde and embrace the Christian faith, and whither they shall baving obtained his liberty, he travelled to Rome in retreat from the persecution of the nations that have 1656, and there gave in to Pope Alexander VII. a so dominiou over them; for France is a land of freedom, lemn renunciation both of Calvinism and Preadamism. it admits of no slavery, and whoever touches it is free. His conversion was not thought to be sincere, at least Peyrere, after explaining his strange system, proposes a with regard to this last heresy. His desire to be the method of converting the Jews to Christianity; a mehead of a new sect is evident ; and his book discovers thod, says Niceron, which will not be acceptible to mahis ambition ; for be there pays many compliments to ny. He proposes to reduce the whole of religion to a the Jews, and invites them to attend his lectures. Upon bare faith or belief in Jesus Christ; taking it for granthis return to Paris, not withstanding the earnest solicita ed, without any shadow of proof, that “it is as difficult tions of bis boliness to remain at Rome, he went again to comprehend the articles of our faith, as to observe into the Prince of Conde's service in the quality of the ceremonies of Moses.-From this scheme (says he) Jibrarian. Some time aster be retired to the seminary there would result a double advantage to the church ; des Vertus, where he died the 30th of January 1676, at the reunion of the Jews, and of all those Christians who the age of 82, after the sacraments of the church had are separated from the body of the church.” Peyrere, been administered to him. Father Simon says, that when when he wrote this book, was a Calvinist; but bis Calhe was importuned in his last moments to retract the vinism too nearly resembled the Deism of our age. He opinion which he had formed respecting the Preada confessed himself, that his reason for quitting the Protemites, his answer was, Hi quæcunque ignorant blasphe stants was on account of their being the first and princimant. His having no fixed sentiments of religion is pal opposers of his book concerning the Preadamites. -supposed to proceed more from a peculiar turn of nind II. A curious and entertaining account of Greenland, than a corruption of the heart; for good nature, sim- printed in 8vo, 1647. When he was asked, on occasion plicity of manners, and humanity, seem to bave formed of this work, why there were so many witches in the his character. “ He was (says Niceron) a man of a north ? he replied, “ It is because part of the property very equal temper, and most agreeable conversation. of these pretended conjurers, when condemned to suffer He was a little too fond, however, of indulging his death, is declared to belong to their judges.” III. An wit, which sometimes bordered on raillery; but he took equally interesting account of Iceland, 1663, 8vo. IV. .care never to hurt nor wound the feelings of his neigh A letter to Philotimus, 1658, in 8vo, in which he exbour. His learning was extremely limited. He knew plains the reasons of bis recantation, &c. We find in nothing either of Greek or Hebrew; and yet he ven Moreri the following epitaph of him, written by a poet tured to give a new interpretation of several passages of of his own times. the sacred volume. He piqued himself on bis knowledge of the Latin ; but excepting a few poets which
La Peyrere ici gît, ce bon Israelite, he had read, he was by no means an adept in that lan
Huguenot, Catholique, enfin Preadamite :
Quatre religions lui plurent à la fois,
Et son indifference etoit si peu commune,
Qu'après quatre-vingts ans qu'il eut à faire un
Le bon homme partit, & n'en choisit pas une.
At his death, wbich happened at Versailles the
Peyronius, that town, with 100,000 livres, for the purpose of In the year 1785, he was appointed to the command Peyronse Peyrouse. erecting there a chirurgical amphitheatre. He appoint- of some ships employed in a voyage round the world, ed the same society universal legatee for the third of bis which unfortunately proved his last. Of this voyage, as
was admirably qualified to discharge such a trust. He
pointed inspector general of some coasting vessels, he re-
His fa expected from a votary of the muses. But as, at the ther intended to train him up to a maritime life, same time, he showed too much baughtiness, a complaint +which purpose he sent him, when very young, to the was brought against him to the court, and he was bamarine school, where he became enthusiastically attach nished to his country seat, where he died soon after, in ed to his profession, and ambitious to emulate the fame the beginning of 1778. He was the intimate friend of the most celebrated navigators.
and companion of Dorat. He had studied, and success-
Peyrouse reaped some advantage from his acquaintance full of charming landscapes, but written with too little
accuracy. 3. Les Soirées Provençales, in manuscript,
out of the rock on which it stands, and appears to have
provisions and arms to defend themselves against the natural order of fungi, belonging to the cryptogamia
class. See BOTANY Inder.
Phaca PHACA, a genus of plants belonging to the diadel. Thracian; and was born, as there is reason to conclude, Phaedrus
phia class; and in the natural method ranking under some years before Julius Cæsar made himself master of W Phædrus, the 22d order, Papilionacea. See BOTANY Index. the Roman empire. How he came into the service of Phaeton.
PHÆA, in Antiquity, a famous sow which infested Augustus is not known : but his being called Augustus's the neighbourhood of Cromyon. Theseus destroyed it freedman in the title of the book, shews that he had as he was travelling from Trozene to Athens to make been that emperor's slave. The fables of Phædrus are bimself known to his father. Some imagine that the valued for their wit and good sense, expressed in very boar of Calydon sprang from this sow. According to pure and elegant language ; and it is remarkable that some authors, Phæa was a woman who prostituted her they remained buried in libraries altogether unknown to self to strangers, whom she murdered, and afterwards the public, until they were discovered and published by plundered.
Peter Pithou, or Pitheus, a learned French gentleman,
remarkable appearance, whether in the heavens or
rally aeknowledged to be the son of Phæbus and ClyPHÆDRA, in fabulous history, was a daughter of menc.
menc. He was naturally of a lively disposition, and a Misos and Pasiphae ; she married Theseus, by whom handsome figure. Venus became enamoured of him, she was the mother of Acamas and Demophoon. They and entrusted him with the care of one of her temples.had already lived for some time in conjugal felicity, This distinguishing favour of the goddesa rendered him when Venus, who hated all the descendants of Apollo, vain and aspiring, and when Epaphus, the son of lo, because he bad discovered her amours with Mars, inspi- had told him, to check his pride, that he was not the red Phædra with the strongest passion for Hippolytus son of Phoebus, Phaeton resolved to know his true ori. the son of Theseus, by the amazon Hippolyte. This gin, and at the instigation of his mother he visited the: passion she long attempted to stifle, but in vain ; and palace of the sun. He begged Phæbus, that if he realtherefore, in the absence of Theseus, she addressed Hip ly were his father, he would give him incontestable polytus with all the impatience of desponding love. proofs of his paternal tenderness, and convince the world He rejected her with horror and disdain. She, how- of his legitimacy. Phoebus received him with great ever, incensed by the reception she had met, resolved to tenderness, and swore by Styx to grant whatever he repuoish his coldness and refusal; and at the return of quested as a proof of bis acknowledging him for his. Theseus she accused Hippolytus of attempts upon her son. The youth boldly asked the direction of the chavirtue. He listened to her accusation ; and without riot of the sun for one day. His father, grieved and hearing Hippolytus's defence, he banished him from his surprised at this demand, used all his arguments to diskingdom, and implored Neptune, who had promised to suade him from the rash attempt; but all was in vain : grant three of his requests, to punish bim in an exen and being by his oath reduced to submit to his obstina. plary manner. As Hippolytus Aed from Athens, his cy, entrusted him with the reins, after he had directed horses were suddenly terrified by a sea monster, which bim how to use them. The young adventurer was how Neptune had sent on the shore ; and he was thus drag, ever soon sensible of his madness. He was unable to ged through precipices and over rocks, trampled under guide the fiery steeds; and loosing the reins, Jupiter, to the feet of his borses, and crushed under the wheels of prevent his consuming the heavens and the earth, struck his chariot. When his tragical end was known at A him with a thunderbolt, and hurled him from his seat thens, Phædra confessed her crime, and hung herself in into the river Eridanus or Po. His sisters Phaëthusa,. despair, unable to survive one whose death her extreme Lambetia, and Phoebe, lamenting his loss upon its banks, guilt had occasioned. The death of Hippolytus, and the were changed by the gods into black poplar trees; infamous passion of Pbædra, is the subject of one of the and Cycnus king of Liguria, also grieving at his fate, tragedies of Euripides and of Seneca. She was buried was transformed into a swan. at Træezene, where her tomb was still to be seen in the The poets say, that while Phaeton was driving the time of the geographer Pausanias, near the temple of chariot of his father, the blood of the Ethiopians was. Venus, which she had built to render the goddess favour dried up; and their skin became black; a colour which able to her incestuous passion. Near her tomb was a is still preserved among the greatest part of the inhabi. myrtle, whose leaves were full of small holes, which, it tants of the torrid zone. The territories of Libya was reported, Phædra had done with a hair pin, when were also, they tell us, parched up, on account of their the vehemence of her passion had rendered her melan. too great vicinity to the sun ; and ever since, Africa, choly and almost desperate. She was represented in a unable to recover her original verdure and fruitfulness, painting in Apollo's temple at Delphi, as suspended in has exhibited a sandy country and uncultivated waste. the air, while her sister Ariadne stood near to her, According to those who explain this poetical fable, and fixed her eyes upon her.
Phaeton was a Ligurian prince, who studied astronomy, PHÆDRUŠ, an ancient Latin writer, who compo- and in whose age the neighbourhood of the Po was vised five books of fables, in iambic verse. He was a sited with uncommon heats..
Phaeton PHAETON, a genus of birds belonging to the order of their dying groans resembled the roaring of a bull. The Phalaris See ORNITHOLOGY Index.
artist brought it to the tyrant, expecting a great rePhalaris.
Phalti, PHAGEDÆNA, in Medicine, denotes a corroding ward. Pbalaris admired the invention and werk manulcer.
ship, but ordered the inventor to be put into it to make PHAGEDENIC MEDICINES, those used to eat off the first trial. In allusion to which, Ovid says, proud or fungous flesh ; such as are all the caustics. PHIGEDENIC Water, in Chemistry, denotes a water
Neque enim lex æquior ulla,
Quam necis artifices arte perire sua. make from quicklime and sublimate; and is very efficacious in the core of phagedenic ulcers. To prepare this The end of this detestable tyrant is differently relatwater, put to pounds of fresh quicklime in a large ed; but it is very generally believed, with Cicero, that earthen pan, and pour upon it about ten pounds of he fell by the hands of the Agrigentines; and, as some rain-water ; let them stand together for two days, stir- suppose, at the instigation -of Pythagoras. Ovid tells ring them frequently: at last leave the lime to settle us, that his tongue-was eut out; and that he was then Well, then pour off the water by inclination, filtrate it, put into the bull to perish by the same slow fire by which and put it in a glass bottle, adding to it an ounce of nteans he had murdered so many before. Others say corrosive sublimate in powder; which from white be that he was stoned to death; and all agree that bis end comes yellow, and sinks to the bottom of the vessel. was violent. » He reigned, Eusebius says, 28 years; The water being settled, is fit for use in the cleansing others say 16. After all, there is great uncertainty of wounds and ulcers, and to eat off superfluous flesh, both as to his life, death, and history. Many of the and especially in gangrenes; in which case may be ad circumstances related of him, as they are collected by ded to it a third or fourth part of spirit of wine. Mr Boyle, depend upon the authenticity of those epis
PHALÆNA, the Moth, a genus of iosects be tles which under the name of the tyrant ; and which longing to the order of lepidoptera. See ExTOMOLO- have been justly questioned, and-with great probability GY Index.
rejected, as the spurious production of some modern suPHALANGIUM, a genus of insects belonging to phist. See BENTLEY, p. 177. col. 2. the order of aptera. See ENTOMOLOGY Index. PHALARIS, or Canary-grass, a genus of plants be
PHALANGOSIS, in Surgery, is a tumour and re- i longing to the triandria class. "See BOTANY Index. laxation of the eyelids, often so great as to deform the PHALERÆ, among the ancient Romans, were mieye, and considerably to impede vision. Sometimes the litary rewards bestowed for some signal act of bravery. eyelid when in this state subsides or sinks down, occa- - Authors do not agree whether the Phaleræ were a suit sioned perhaps either by a palsy of the muscle which of rich trappings for a horse, or golden chains somesustains and elevates the eyelid, or else from a relaxa- thing like the torques, but so formed as to hang down tion of the cátis above, from various causes. But in the to the breast and display a greater profusion of ornaparalytic or relaxed case, the use of cordial and nervous ment. The last opinion appears to have the greater medicines must be proposed internally ; and outwardly, prevalence, but perhaps both are true. balsam of Peru and Hungary water are to be employ PHALEREUS (Nepos), a village and port of A. ed. If all these fail, the remaining method of cure is thens; this last neither large nor commodious, for which to extirpate a sufficient quantity of the relaxed cutis. reason Themistocles put the Athenians on building the
PHALANX, in Grecian antiquity, a square batta- Piræus ; both joined to Athens by long walls. The lion of soldiers, with their shields joined and pikes cros Phalereus lay nearer the city (Pausanias). Demesing each other; so that it was next to impossible to trius Phalereus, the celebrated scholar of Theophrastus, break it.
was of this place ; to whom the Athenians erected above The Macedonian 'phalanx is supposed by some to 300 statues ; which were afterwards destroyed by his have had the advantage in valour and strength, over enemies, on his flight to Ptolemy king of Egypt (Strathe Roman legion. Its number was 8000 men. But bo). Here Demosthenes was wont to declaim, to acthe word phalanx is used for a party of 28, and several custom his voice to surmount the noise and roaring of other numbers; and even sometines for the whole body the sea ; a just and lively emblem of popular assemblies. of foot. See LEGION.
PHALEUCIAN VERSE, in ancient poetry, a kind PHALANX is applied, by anatomists, to the three of verse consisting of five feet; the first of which is a rows of small bones which form the fingers. See Ana- spondee, the second a dactyl, and the three last trochees. - TOMY Inder.
PHALLUS, the MOREL, a genus of plants of the PHALARJS, a remarkable tyrant, born at Crete, order of fungi,
and belonging to the cryptogamia class.
circumstance which has chiefly contributed to preserve especially by those who were barren. This custom was
Phalinion Phalti did not meddle with Michal all the time she Egypt and Arabia Petræa; or, according to Ptolemy, Phara
) continued in his house, for fear that both of them should Phara.
at a promontory situated between the Sinus Heroopo U incur the penalty of death, to be inflicted on adulterers lites and Elaniticus of the Red sea;
where Ismael is said
Pharaoh. (Levit. xx. 10.), because Michal had not been legally to have dwelt. In Hebrew it is Paran, and in most divorced; but these reasons are frivolous. Saul looked interpreters ; Pharan, Septuagint and Vulgate. Phaupon David as a rebel to his king, and an outlaw, ranitæ, the people (Ptolemy). Paran or Pharan, the whose goods and wives belonged to him, and which he name of the wilderness in its neighbourhood, adjoining could absolutely dispose of. He would not have given to Cadesh. Michal to Phalti, nor would he have received her, if he PHARÆ, in Ancient Geography, a town of Achaia had not thought he might use her as his wife. If Mi- in Peloponnesus, on the river Pierus, 70 stadia from the chal had no children by Phalti, by whom then were sea, and to the south of Patræ 150 stadia. Another, of those children that the scripture says she had, since it is Crete (Pliny); a colony from the Pharæ of Messenia known she had none by David ? see 2 Sam. xxi. 8. and (Stephanus). A tbird Phare, or Phere (Strabo, Provi. 23. PÅANATIC, or Fanatic, a visionary ; one who
lemy); Phara, -&, (Polybius); a town of Messenia,
on the river Nedo (.Strabo) ; on the north side of the fancies he sees spectres, spirits, apparitions, or other Sinus Messenius, and to the north-west of Abea. An imaginary objects, even when awake; and takes them ciently read Pharis in Homer : (Pausanias, Statius), to be real. See PHANTASY and Fanatic.
though now read Phare. Pharifæ is the name of the Such are phrenetics, necromancers, hypochondriac people. persons, lycanthropi, &c. See PHRENETIC, Hypo PHARAMOND is the name which is given by the CHONDRIAC, LYCANTHROPI,
generality of historians to the first king of France. He Hence the word is also applied to enthusiasts, pre is said to have reigned at Trevez, and over a part of tenders to revelation, new lights, prophecies, &c. See France, about the year-420; and to have been sucENTHUSIAST, and Second Sight.
ceeded by his son Clodion : but the account which is PHANTASIA was the daughter of Nicarchus of giveo of, ihese two princes is very uncertain. It is proMemphis in Egypt. It has been supposed that she bable Pliaramond was properly no more than a general wrote a poem on the Trojan war, and another on the of an army, the head of a military society of Franks, Teturn of Ulysses to Ithaca, from which compositions who were masters of their persons and their fortunes. Homer copied the greatest part of his Iliad and Odys- Gregory of Tours seems to have been of this opinion. sey, when be visited Memphis, where they were depo “ It is not generally known (says he) who was the first sited.
king of the French Sulpitius Severus, who mentions PHANTASM, a term sometimes used in a synony several things respecting that nation, takes no notice of mous sense with idea, or notion retained in the mind, of its first monarch; he only says that it had generals." an external object.
Be that as it may, the institution of the famous Salique PHANTASMAGORIA, an optical deception. Sce law (so named from the Salians the most illustrious SCIENCE, Amusements of.
of the Franks) is generally attributed to Pharamond. PHANTASY, or FANCY, the Imagination; one of “ This law fixed the punishment of crimes, and various the powers of the mind, by wbich the spucies of objects points of police. There is no just ground for believing received by the external organs of sense are retained that it expressly settled the right of succession to the recalled, further examined, and either compounded, crown ; it only says, that, with relation to the Salic or divided : See IMAGINATION ; and METAPHysics, land, women bave no share of heritage, without restrictPart I. Chap. ii. Or it is that internal sense whereby ing it to the royal family in particular; for all those the ideas of absent things are formed, and represented were generally called Salic lands, which were.beld by to the mind as if they were present. In melancholics right of conquest ; and it is easy to conceive that a naand madmen this faculty is very strong, representing tion of soldiers, whose general was their king, would many extravagant and monstrous things, and framing not submit to be governed by a .woman. its images as lively as those of sensation : whence the custom, supported by the principles of the nation, visions and deceptions those persons are liable to. came in time to be the established law of the king
PHANUEL, of the tribe of Asher, the father of a dom." (See Al. Abbé Alillot, Elem. de l'Histoire de holy widow and prophetess called Aona, who was in the France, tom. i.). temple when our Saviour was presented there by bis
PHARAOH, a common name of the kings of Erents (Luke ïi. 36, 37, 38.).
gypt. Josephus says, that all the kings of Egypt, from PHAON, a young man of Mytilene, in the island of Minæus the founder of Memphis, who lived several ages Lesbos, received from Venus, as fable reporta, an ala before Abraham, have always had the name of Phabaster vase filled with an essence which had the virtue raoh, down to the times of Solomon, for more tian of conferring beauty. He had no sooner anointed bis 3300 years. He adds, that in the Egyptian language body with it than he became the most beautiful of men. the word Pharouh signifies a king; and that those princes The ladies of Mytilene fell desperately in love with did not assume this name but when they ascended the him; and the celebrated Sappho threw herself down a throne, at wbich time they quitted also their former precipice because he would not encourage her passion.
From hence it comes to pass, says Josephus, He is said to have been killed by a husband who sur that Herodotus names none of the kings of Egypt after prised him with his wife. We have in Ovid a letter Minæus the builder of Memphis, though he had 330 from Sappho to Phaon, whiel Mr Pope has translated kings for his successors, because they had all the name into English verse.
of Pharaoh ; but because this name did not pass to mo-