Gambar halaman


Petrifuc- le changed into clay. These are found either loose and çalx, which has assumed the place or shape of extraneous Parifaction. friable, or indurated. Of the former kind is a piece of bodies. These are either loose or indurated. Of the tion,

porcelain clay met with in a certain collection, with all loose kind are some roots of trees found at the lake Lan- Petriled the marks of the root of a tree upon it. Of the latter gelma in Finland. The indurated kinds are exemplified

kind is the osteocolla ; which is said to be the roots of in some wood found at Orbissan in Bobemia. 6. Where
the poplar-tree changed, and not to consist of any calca- the iron is mineralized, as in the pyritaceous larvæ, al-
reous substance. A sort of fossil ivory, with all the ready described.
properties of clay, is said likewise to be found in some VII. Where the bodies are tending to decomposition,

or in a way of destruction. Among these, our author
IV. Larvæ insalitæ ; where the substances are im enumerates MOULD and TURF. Sce likewise the ar-
pregnated with great quantities of salts. Human bodies ticle Fossil.
have been twice found impregnated with vitriol of iron We shall add the following description of a very cu-
in the mine of Falun, in the province of Dalarne in rious animal petrifaction. The Abbé de Sauvages, ce-
Sweden. One of them was kept for several years in a lebrated for his refined taste and knowledge in natural
glass case, but at last began to moulder and fall to pieces. history, in a tour through Languedoc, between Alais
Turf and roots of trees are likewise found in water and Uzes, met with a narrow vein of no more than two
strongly impregnated with vitriol. They do not flame, toises wide, which crosses the road, and is bordered on
but look like a coal in a strong fire; neither do they one side by a gray dirty soil, and on the other by a dry
decay in the air.

sandy earth, each of a vast extent, and on a level with
V. Bodies penetrated by mineral inflammable sub the narrow vein which separates them. In this narrow
stances. 1. By pit-coal, such as wood; whence some vein only are contained petrified shells, cemented toge-
have imagined coal to have been originally produced ther by a whitish marl. They are in prodigious plen-
from wood. Some of these substances are fully sata ty; among which there is one species which the abbé
rated with the coally matter ; others not. Among the does not remember to have known to have been any.
former Cronstedt reckons jet; among the latter the where described, and may probably be a new acquisition
substance called mumia vegetabilis, which is of a loose to natural history.
texture, resembling amber, and may be used as such. This shell has the shape of a horn, somewhat incur
2. Those penetrated by asphaltum or rock-oil. The vated towards the base. It seems composed of several
only example of these given by our author is a kind cups, let into each other, which are sometimes found
of turf in the province of Skone in Sweden. The E. separate. They have all deep channels, which extend,
gyptian mummies, he observes, cannot have


place as in many other shells, from the base to the aperture; among this species, as they are impregnated artificially the projecting ribs which form these channels are mostwith asphaltum, in a manner similar to what happens ly worn away, being rarely to be found entire. Somenaturally with the wood and coally matter in the last times several are grouped together; and as a proof that species. 3. Those impregnated with sulphur which has they are not a fortuitous assemblage caused by the petridissolved iron, or with pyrites. Human bodies, bivalve faction, they are fixed together through their whole and univalve shells and insects, have been all found in length, in such sort, that their base and aperture are this state ; and the last are found in the alum slate at regularly turned the same way. The abbé should have Andrarum, in the province of Skone in Sweden. - referred this to the genus which Linnæus and the mar

VI. Larvæ metalliferæ ; where the bodies are im- quis d'Argenville named dentalis, had they not been let pregnated with metals. These are, 1, Covered with into each other. He found some of them whose apernative silver ; which is found on the surface of shells ture or hollow was not stopped up by the petrifaction, in England. 2. Where the metal is mineralized with and seemed as cones adapted to one another, forming a copper and sulphur. Of this kind is the falhertz or row of narrow cells, separated by a very thin partition : gray

silver in the shape of ears of corn, and sup- this row occupied not more than one balf of the cavity posed to be vegetables, found in argillaceous slate at of the shell. Frankenberg and Tablitteren in Hesse. 3. Larvæ cu Our article bas already extended to such a length as prifere, where the bodies are impregnated with copper. to preclude any further additions ; we cannot, however, To this species principally belong the turquoise or Tur-finish it without observing, that fossil bones are very key stones, improperly so called; being ivory and bones common in Dalmatia. They are of various kinds, and of the elephant or other animals impregnated with cop- in their nature apparently very extraordinary; but we per. At Simore in Languedoc there are bones of ani- have found no tolerable account or probable conjecture mals dug up, which, during calcination, assume a blue of their origin. Vitaliano Donati of Padua, in his Sagcolour ; but according to Cronstedt it is not probable gio sopra la storie naturale dell'Adriatico, was the first that these owe their colour to copper. 4. With mine. who took notice of them; and Fortis, in his Travels into ralized copper. Of these our author gives two exam- Dalmatia, has given a copious account of them. They ples. One is where the copper is mineralized with sul. are most common in the islands of Cherso and O.sero. phur and iron, forming a yellow marcasitical ore. With See Fortis's Travels into Dalmatia ; and those of our this some shells are impregnated which lie upon a bed of readers who wish to prosecute this inquiry may consult loadstone in Norway. Other petri factions of this kind with advantage Parkinson's Organic Remains of a Forare found in the form of fish in different parts of Ger mer World, two vols. 4to. many. The other kind is where the copper is impreg

PETRIFIED CITY. The story of a petrified city nated with sulphur and silver. Of this kind is the gray is well known all over Africa, and has been believed silver ore, like ears of corn, found in the slate quarries by many considerable persons even in Europe. Louis at Hesse. 5. Larvæ ferriferæ, with iron in form of a XIV. was so fully persuaded of its reality, that he ori 4




Petrified dered his ambassador to procure the body of a man pe man of the bashaw of Tripoli, was preferred by him to PetrificaCity. trified from it at any price. Dr Shaw's account of this be the bey or viceroy of the province of Darna, where tion,

affair is as follows : “ About 40 years ago (now more Ras Sem was immediately under his jurisdiction. His Petrobrustban 70), when M. le Maire was the French consul at account was likewise the same; neither had he ever Tripoli

, he made great inquiries, by order of the French seen, in bis frequent journeys over this district, any court, into the truth of the report concerning a petri- other petrifications than what are above mentioned. fied city as Ras Sem; and amongst other very curious So tbat the petrified city, with its walls, castles, streets, accounts relating to this place, he told me a remarkable shops, cattle, inhabitants, and utensils, were all of them circumstance, to the great discredit, and even confuta at first the mere inventions of the Arabs, and afterwards tion, of all that had been so positively advanced with propagated by such persons, who, like the Tripoli -amregard to the petrified bodies of men, children, and bassador, and his friend above mentioned, were creduother animals.

lous enough to believe them. “ Some of the janizaries, who, in collecting tribute, However, there is one remarkable circumstance traversed the district of Ras Sem, promised him, that, relating to Ras Sem that deserves well to be recorded. as an adult person would be too cumbersome, they When the winds have blown away the billows of sand, would undertake, for a certain number of dollars, to which frequently cover and conceal these petrifications, bring him from thence the body of a little child. Af- they discover, in some of the lower and more depressed ter a great many pretended difficulties, delays, and dis- places of this district, several little pools of water, appointments, they produced at length a little Cupid, which is usually of so ponderous a nature, that, upon which they had found, as he learned afterwards, among drinking it, ic passes through the body like quicksilver. the ruins of Leptis; and, to conceal the deceit, they This per haps may be that petrifying fluid which has broke off the quiver, and some other of the distinguish- all along.contributed to the conversion of the polm trees ing characteristics of that deity. However, he paid and the echini into stone : for the formation not only them før it, according to promise, 1000 dollars, which of these, but of petrifications of all kinds, may be enis about 15ɔl

. sterling of our money, as a reward for tirely owing to their having first of all lodged in a bed their faithful service and hazardous undertaking ; ba of loam, clay, sand, or sone other proper nidus or ma. ving run the risk, as they pretended, of being strangled trix, and afterwards gradually been acted upon and perif they should have been discovered in thus delivering vaded by such a petrifying Huid as we may suppose this up to an infidel, one of those unfortunate Mahometans,

to be." as they take them originally to have been.

To this account it may not be amiss to subjoin the “ But notwithstanding this cheat and imposition had memorial of Cassem Aga, the Tripoli ambassador at the made the consul desist from searching after the petri- court of Britain. The city, he says, is situated two days fied bodies of men and other animals ; yet there was journey south from Onguela, and in days journey from one matter of fact, as he told me, which still very Tripoli by caravan to the south-east.

• As one of my strangely embarrassed him, and even strongly engaged friends (says the ambassador) desired me to give him in him in favour of the current report and tradition. This writing an account of what I knew touching the petriwas some little loaves of bread, as he called them, fied city, I told him what I bad heard from different which had been brought to him from that place. His persons, and particularly from the mouth of one man of reasoning, indeed thercupon, provided the pretended credit who had been on the spot : that is to say, that it matter of fact had been clear and evident, was just and was a very spacious city, of a round form, having great satisfactory; for where we find loaves of bread, there, and small streets therein, furnished with shops, with a as he urged, some persons must have been employed in vast castle magnificently built : that he had seen there making them, as well as others for whom they were pre several sorts of trees, the most part olives and palnas, pared. One of these loaves he had, among other petri- all.of stone, and of a blue or rather lead colour : that he

fortunately brought with him to Cairo, saw also figures of men in a posture of exercising their where I saw it, and found it to be an echinites of the different employments; some holding in their hands discoid kind, of the same fashion with one I had lately stuffs, others bread, every ove doing something, even found and brought with me from the deserts of Marah. women suckling their children, and in the embraces of We may therefore reasonably conclude, that there is their husbands, all of stone : that he went into the castle nothing to be found at Ras Sem, unless it be the trunks by three different gates, though there were many more, of trees, echinites, and such petrifications as have been where he saw a man lying upon a bed of stone : that discovered at other places.

there were guards at the gates with pikes and javelins, “ M. le Maire's inquiries, which we find were sup in their bands : in short, that he saw in this wonderful ported by the promise and performance of great rewards, city many sorts of animals, as camels, oxen, horses, have brought nothing further to light. He could never asses, sheep, and birds, all of stone, and of the colour learn that any traces of walls, or buildings, or animals, above mentioned. or utensils, were ever to be seen within the verge of We have subjoined this account, because it shows in these pretended petrifications. The like account I bad striking colours the amazing credulity of mankind, and from a Sicilian renegado, who was the janisary that at the avidity with wbich they swallow the marvellous, and tended me whilst I was in Egypt; and as in his earlier the difficulty of discovering the truth respecting places years be had been a soldier of Tripoli, he assured me or things at a distance from us. that he had been-several times at Ras Sem. This I had PETROBRUSSIANS, a religious sect, which had confirmed again in my return from the Levant by the its rise in France and the Netherlands about the year interpreter of the British factory at Tunis, who was like 1110. The name is derived from Peter Bruys, a Prowise a Sicilian renegado; and being the libertus or freed- vençal, who made the most laudable attempt to reform VOL. XVI. Part I,




fications, very



Petrobrus- the abuses and remove the superstition that disgraced country he had been appointed quæstor, the ship in which Petronics. sians tbe beautiful simplicity of the gospel. His followers he sailed was taken by Scipio, who caused all the soldiers

were numerous; and for 20 years his labour in the mi. to be put to the sword, and promised to save the quæPetronius

nistry was exemplary and unremitted. He was how stor's life, provided that he would renounce Cæsar's
ever, burnt in the year 1130 by an enraged populace party. To this proposal Petronius replied, that Cæsar's
set on by the clergy.

officers were accustomed to grant life to others, and not
The chief of Bruys's followers was a monk named to receive it ;" and, at the same time, he stabbed bim-
Henry; from whom the Petrobrussians were also called self with bis own sword.
Henricians. Peter the Venerable, abbot of Clugny, has PETRONIUS Arbiter, Titus, a celebrated critic and
an express treatise against the Petrobrussians; in the polite writer of antiquity, the favourite of Nero, sup-
preface to which he reduces their opinions to five heads. posed to be the same mentioned by Tacitus in the 16th
1. They denied that children before the


book of his Annals. He was proconsul of Bithynia, can be justified by baptism, in regard it is our own faith and afterwards consol, and appeared capable of the that saves by baptism. 2. They held that no churches greatest employments. He was one of Nero's princishould be built, but that those that already are should pal confidants, and in a manner the superintendant of his be pulled down ; an inn being as proper for prayers as a pleasures; for that prince thought nothing agreeable or temple, and a stable as an altar. 3. That the cross ought delightful but what was approved by Petronius. The to be pulled down and burnt, because we ought to abhor great favours shown him drew upon him the envy of Tjthe instruments of our Saviour's passion. 4. That the gellinus, another of Nero's favourites, who accused him real body and blood of Christ are not exhibited in the of being concerned in a conspiracy against the emperor;. eucharist, but merely represented by their figures and on which Petronius was seized, and was sentenced to die. symbols. 5. That sacrifices, alms, prayers, &c. do not He met death with a striking indifference, and seems to avail the dead. F. Langlois objects Manicheism to the have tasted it nearly as he had done his pleasures. He Petrobrussians; and says, they maintained two gods, the would sometimes open a vein, and sometinies close it, conone good, the other evil : but this we rather esteem an versing with his friends in the meanwhile, not on the im. effect of his zeal for the catholic cause, which deter mortality of the soul, which was no part of his creed, mined him to blacken the adversaries thereof, than any but on topics which pleased bis fancy, as of love-verses, real sentiment of the Petrobrussians.

agrecable and passionate airs; so that it has been said PETROJOANNITES, were followers of Peter “his dying was barely ceasing to live." of this disciple John, or Peter Joannis, i.e. Peter the son of John, who of Epicurus, Tacitus gives the following character: flourished in the 12th century. His doctrine was not He was (says he) neither a spendthrift nor a debauknown till after his death, when his body was taken out chee, like the generality of those who ruin themselves ; of his grave and burnt. His opinions were, that he but a refined voluptuary, who devoted the day to sleep, alone had the knowledge of the true sense wherein the and the night to the duties of his office, and to pleasure. apostles preached the gospel; that the reasonable soul This courtier is much distinguished by a satire which be is not the form of man; that there is no grace

infused wrote, and secretly conveyed to Nero ; in which he inby baptism ; and that Jesus Christ was pierced with a geniously describes, under borrowed names, the character lance on the cross before he expired.

of this prince. Voltaire is of opinion that we bave no PETROLEUM, or Rock OIL; a thick oily sub more of this performance but an extraet made by some stance exuding from the earth, and collected on the sur obscure libertine, without either taste or judgment. face of wells in many parts of the world. See MINE. Peter Petit discovered at Traw in Dalmatia, in 1665, RALOGY Index.

a considerable fragment containing the sequel of TriPETROMYZON, the LAMPREY, a genus of fishes malcion's Feast. This fragment, which was printed the belonging to the order Cartilaginei. See ICHTHYOLO. year after at Padua and at Paris, produced a paper war GY Index.

among the learned. While some affirmed that it was the PETRONIUS was a renowned Roman senator. work of Petronius, and others denied it to be 80,

Petit When governor of Egypt, he permitted Herod, king of continued to assert his right to the discovery of the mathe Jews, to purchase in Alexandria any quantity of nuscript, and sent it to Rome, where it was acknow. corn which he should judge necessary for the supply of ledged to be a production of the 15th century. The his subjects, who were afflicted with a severe famine. French critics, who had attacked its authenticity, were When Tiberius died, Caius Caligula, who succeeded him, silent from the moment it was deposited in the royal took from Vitellius the government of Syria, and gave library. It is now generally attributed to Petronius, it to Petronius, who discharged the duties of his office and found in every subsequent edition of the works of with dignity and honour. From his inclination to favour that refined voluptuary. The public did not form the the Jews, be run the risk of losing the emperor's friend. same favourable opinion of some other fragments, which ship and his own life; for when that prince gave orders were extracted from a manuscript found at Belgrade in to have his statue deposited in the temple of Jerusalem, 1688, and printed at Paris by Nodot in 1694, though Petronius, finding that the Jews would rather suffer they are ascribed by the editor Charpentier, and several death than see that sacred place profaned, was unwilling other learned men, to Petronius ; yet, on account of the to have recourse to violent measures; and therefore pre Gallicisms, and other barbarous expressions with which ferred a moderation, dictated by humanity, to a cruel they abound, they have generally been considered as obedience. We must not confound him with another unworthy of that author. His genuine works are, 1. A of the same name, viz. Petronius Granius, who was a Poem on the civil war between Cæsar and Pompey, centurion in the eighth legion, and served under Cæsar translated into prose by Abbé de Marolles, and into in the Gallic war. In his voyage to Africa, of which French verso by President Bouhier; 1737, in 4to. Pe3


Petronius tropius, full of fire and enthusiasm, and disgusted with Latins sumptio, misio, and usus ; and the Italians presa, Petteia,

Lucan's flowery language, opposed Pharsalia to Phar- mescolamento, and uso. The last of these is called by the Petty. Petteie salia ; but his work, though evidently superior to the Greeks milwau, and by the Italians pettia ; which there

other in some respects, is by no means in the true style fore means the art of making a just discernment of all
of epic poetry. 2. A Poem on the Education of the the manners of ranging or combining sounds among
Roman Youth. 3. Two Treatises ; one upon the Cor- themselves, so as they may produce their effect, i.e.
ruption of Eloquence, and the other on the Causes of may express the several passions intended to be raised.
the Decay of Arts and Sciences. 4. A Poem on the Thus it shows what sounds are to be used, and what
Vanity of Dreams. 5. The Shipwreck of Licas. 6. not; how often they are severally to be repeated ; with
Reflections on the Inconstancy of Human Life. And, which to begin, and with which to end; whether with
7. Trimalcion's Banquet. To this last performance a grave sound to rise, or an acute one to fall, &c. The
morality is not much indebted. It is a description of petteia constitutes the manners of the music; chooses
the pleasures of a corrupted court; and the painter is out this or that passion, this or that motion of the soul,
rather an ingenious courtier than a person whose aim is to be awakened; and determines whether it be proper
to perform abuses. The best editions of Petronius are to excite it on this or that occasion. The petteia, there-
those published at Venice, 1499, in 4to; at Amsterdam, fore, is in music much what the manners are in poetry.
1669, in 8vo, cum notis variorum ; Ibid. with Boschius's It is not easy to discover whence the denomination
notes, 1670, in 24t0; and 1900, two vols. in 24t0. should bave been taken by the Greeks, ndless from
The edition of variorum was reprinted in 1743, in two mil, their game of chess, the musical petteia being
vols. 4to, with the learned Peter Burman's commenta a sort of combination and arrangement of sounds, as
ries. Petronius died in the year 65 or 66.

chess is of pieces called avslu, calculi, or “ chess-men.”
PETRONIUS Maximus, was born in the year 395, of

PETTY, SIR WILLIAM, son of Anthony Petty, a an illastrious family, being at first a senator and consul clothier, was born at Rumsey, a small town in Hampof Rome. He put on the imperial purple in 455, aftershire, in 1623 ; and while a boy took great delight having effected the assassination of Valentinian III. In in spending his time among the artificers, whose trades order to establish himself upon the throne, he married he could work at when but twelve years of age. Eudoxia the widow of that unfortunate prince; and Then he went to the grammar school tbere: at fifas she was ignorant of his villany, he confessed to her, teen he was master of the Latin, Greek, and French in a transport of love, that the strong desire he had of tongues, and of arithmetic and those parts of practical being her husband, had made him commit this atrocious geometry and astronomy useful to navigation. Soon crime. Whereupon Eudoxia privately applied to Gen- after he went to Caen in Normandy, and Paris, where seric, king of the Vandals, who coming into Italy with he studied anatomy, and read Vesalius with Mr Hobbes. a very powerful army, entered Rome, where the usurper Upon his return to England, he was preferred in the then was.

The unhappy wretch endeavoured to make king's navy. In 1643, when the war between the king
his escape; but the soldiers and people, enraged at his and parliament grew hot, he went into the Netherlands
cowardice, fell upon him, and overwhelmed him with a and France for three years ; and having vigorously pro-
shower of stones. His body was dragged through the secuted his studies, especially in physic, at Utrecht, Ley-
streets of the city for three days; and, after treating den, Amsterdam, and Paris, he returned home to Rum-
it with every mark of disgrace, they threw it into the sey. In 1647, he obtained a patent to teach the art of
Tiber the 12th of June the same year, 455. He reign- double writing for seventeen years. In 1648, he pub-
ed only 77 days. He had some good qualities. He loved lished at London “ Advice to Mr Samuel Hartlib, for
and cultivated the sciences. He was prudent in his the advancement of some particular parts of learning."
councils, circumspect in his actions, equitable in bis At this time he adhered to the prevailing party of the
judgments; a facetious companion, and steady friend. kingdom; and went to Oxford, where he taught ana-
He had the good fortune to win the affections of every tomy and chemistry, and was created a doctor of physic.
body, while he remained a private character; but as a In 1650, be was made professor of anatomy there ; and
prince, he was so much the more detestable, in that, af soon after a member of the college of physicians in Lon-
ter he had obtained the throne by villany, he kept pos don. The same year he became physician to the army
session of it only by violence. The crown was scarcely in Ireland ; where he continued till 1659, and acquired
on his head before it appeared to him an insupportable a great fortune. After the restoration, he was introdu-
burden. “ Happy Democles (exclaimed he in his de ced to King Charles II. who knighted bim in 1661. In
spair), thou wert a king during a single entertainment.” 1622, he published " A Treatise of taxes and contribu-

PETROSA OSSA, in Anatomy, a name given to the tions." Next year he was greatly applauded in Ireland
fourth and fifth bones of the cranium, called also ossa for his invention of a double-bottemed ship. He died
temporum and ossa squamosa ; the substance whereof, at London, in 1687, of a gangrene in the foot, occa-
as their first and last names express, is squamose and sioned by the swelling of the gout.
very hard. See ANATOMY Index.

The character of his genius is sufficiently seen in his
PETROSELINUM (APIUM PETROSELINUM, Lin.) writings, which were much more numerous than those
Parsley, a plant which is commonly cultivated for culi. we have mentioned above.

we have mentioned above. Among these, it is said, be
nary purposes. See BOTANY and GARDENING Index. wrote the history of bis own life, which unquestionably

PETTEIA, in the ancient music, a term to which contained a full account of his political and religious we have no one corresponding in our language. principles, as may be conjectured from what he has left

The melopoeia, or the art of arranging sounds in suc- us upon those subjects in his will. In that he has these cession so as to make melody, is divided into three parts, remarkable words: “ As for legacies to the poor, I am which the Greeks call lepsis, mixis, and chresis ; the at a stand ; and for beggars by trade and eleetion, I give

H h 2


Petty them nothing: as for impotents by the hand of God, the particularly the magnificent seat of the Percies, earls of Pet wortda

public ought to maintain them : as for those who can get Northumberland, many of whom lie buried in a sepa 0 Petworth, no work, the magistrates should cause them to be em rate vault of its church. In the duke of Somerset's ar Peyrere.

ployed; which may he well done in Ireland, where are mory, in this place, there is a sword which, by circun-
fifteen acres of improveable land for every head : as for stances, appears to have been the weapon of the famous
prisoners for crimes by the king, or for debt by their Henry Hotspur, though it is less unwieldy than other
prosecutors, those who compassionate the sufferings of ancient swords.
any object, let them relieve themselves by relieving such PEUCEDANUM, or SULPHUR-WORT, a genus of
sufferers; that is, give them alms (A), &c. I am con plants belonging to the pentandria class, and in the na-
tented that I have assisted all my poor relations, and tural method ranking under the 45th order, Umbelluia.
put many into a way of getting their own bread, and See BOTANY Index.
have laboured in public works and inventions, and have PEUTEMAN, PETER, was born at Rotterdam in
sought out real objects of charity; and do hereby con 1650, and was a good painter of inanimate objects; but
jure all who partake of my estate, from time to time to the most memorable particular relative to this artist was
do the same at their peril. Nevertheless, to answer cus-

the incident which occasioned his death.
tom, and to take the sure side, I give twenty pounds to He was requested to paint an emblematical picture Dict. of
the most wanting of the parish wherein I die.” As for of mortality, representing human skulls and bones, sur- Painters.
his religion, be says, “ I die in the profession of that rounded with rich gems and musical instruments, to ex-
faith, and in the practice of such worship, as I find press the vanity of this world's pleasures, amusements,
established by the laws of my country; not being able or possessions ; and that he might imitate nature with
to believe what I myself please, nor to worship God bet the greater exactness, he went into an anatomy room,
ter than by doing as I would be done unto, and observ- where several skeletons hung by wires from the ceiling,
ing the laws of my country, and expressing my love and and bones, skulls, &c. lay scattered about; and imnie-
honour to Almighty God, by such signs and tokens as diately prepared to make his designs.
are understood to be such by the people with whom I While he was thus employed, either by fatigue, or
live.” He died possessed of a very large fort:me, and by inte a e study, insensibly he fell asleep; but was sud-
bis family was afterwards ennobled.

denly roused by a shock of an earthquake, which hapThe variety of pursuits in which Sir William Petty pened at that instant, on the 18th of September 1692. was engaged, shows bim to have bad a genius capable 'The moment he awoke, he observed the skeletons move of any thing to which he chose to apply it; and it is about as they were shaken in different directions, and very extraordinary, that a man of so active and busy a the loose skulls roll from one side of the room to the spirit could find time to write so many things as it ap- other; and being totally ignorant of the cause, he was

struck with such a horror, that he threw himself down Petty, any thing little or diminutive, when compa- stairs, and tumbled into the street half dead. His red with another.

friends took all possible pains to efface the impression Petty-Bag, an office in chancery; the three clerks made on his mind by that unlucky event, and acquaintof which record the return of all inquisitions out of every ed him with the real cause of the agitation of the skecounty, and make all patents of comptrollers, gaugers, letons ; yet the transaction still affected bis spirits in so customers, &c.

violent a manner, that it brought on a disorder, which Petty-Chaps. See MOTACILLA, ORNITHOLOGY in a short time ended bis days. His general subjects Index.

were either allegorical or emblematical allusions to the Petty-Fogger, a little tricking solicitor or attorney, · shortness and misery of human life. without either skill or conscience.

PEWIT, SEA-CROW, or Mire-Crow. See LARUS, PETTY, or Petit, Larceny. See LARCENY.

ORNITHOLOGY Index. Petty-Patees, among confectioners, a sort of small PEWTER, a factitious metal used in making domespies, made of a rich crust filled with sweetmeats. tic utensils, as plates, dishes, &c.—The basis of the nie

Petty-Singles, among falconers, are the toes of a hawk. tal is tin, united to small portions of lead, zinc, bismuth,

Perry-Tally, in the sea language, a competent al. . and antimony. “ We have (says Dr Watson) three lowance of victuals, according to the number of the ship’s sorts of pewter in common use; they are distinguished company.

by the name of Plate, Trifle, or Ley. The plate pewPETTY, or Petit, Treason. See TREASON.

ter is used for plates and disbes; the trifle, chiefly for PETUNSE, in Natural History, one of the two sub- pints and quarts; and the ley-metal for wine measures, stances, of which porcelain or china-ware is made. The &c. Our very best pewter is said to consist of 100 petunse is a coarse kind of flint or pebble, the surface of parts tin, and 17 of antimony, though others allow only which is not so smooth when broken as that of our com 10 parts of the latter *.” Besides this composition, Chom mon flint. See PORCELAIN.

there are other kinds, compounded of tin, antimony, bis- Essays PETWORTH, in Sussex in England, five miles muth, and copper, in several proportions.

iv. 107. from Midharst and the Sussex Downs, and 49 from PEYRERE, ÍSAAC LA, a remarkable character for London, is a large and handsome town, with 2664 in- versatility in religious opinions, was born at Bourdeaux, habitants. It is adorned with several seats of gentlemen, of Protestant parents, in 1594. He entered the service


pears he did.

(A) In the town of Rumsey there is a house which was given by him for the maintenance of a charity-schod : the rent of which is still applied to that use.

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