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Petrifuc- le changed into clay. These are found either loose and çalx, which has assumed the place or shape of extraneous Parifaction. friable, or indurated. Of the former kind is a piece of bodies. These are either loose or indurated. Of the tion,
porcelain clay met with in a certain collection, with all loose kind are some roots of trees found at the lake Lan- Petriled the marks of the root of a tree upon it. Of the latter gelma in Finland. The indurated kinds are exemplified
or in a way of destruction. Among these, our author
sandy earth, each of a vast extent, and on a level with
place as in many other shells, from the base to the aperture; among this species, as they are impregnated artificially the projecting ribs which form these channels are mostwith asphaltum, in a manner similar to what happens ly worn away, being rarely to be found entire. Somenaturally with the wood and coally matter in the last times several are grouped together; and as a proof that species. 3. Those impregnated with sulphur which has they are not a fortuitous assemblage caused by the petridissolved iron, or with pyrites. Human bodies, bivalve faction, they are fixed together through their whole and univalve shells and insects, have been all found in length, in such sort, that their base and aperture are this state ; and the last are found in the alum slate at regularly turned the same way. The abbé should have Andrarum, in the province of Skone in Sweden. - referred this to the genus which Linnæus and the mar
VI. Larvæ metalliferæ ; where the bodies are im- quis d'Argenville named dentalis, had they not been let pregnated with metals. These are, 1, Covered with into each other. He found some of them whose apernative silver ; which is found on the surface of shells ture or hollow was not stopped up by the petrifaction, in England. 2. Where the metal is mineralized with and seemed as cones adapted to one another, forming a copper and sulphur. Of this kind is the falhertz or row of narrow cells, separated by a very thin partition : gray
silver in the shape of ears of corn, and sup- this row occupied not more than one balf of the cavity posed to be vegetables, found in argillaceous slate at of the shell. Frankenberg and Tablitteren in Hesse. 3. Larvæ cu Our article bas already extended to such a length as prifere, where the bodies are impregnated with copper. to preclude any further additions ; we cannot, however, To this species principally belong the turquoise or Tur-finish it without observing, that fossil bones are very key stones, improperly so called; being ivory and bones common in Dalmatia. They are of various kinds, and of the elephant or other animals impregnated with cop- in their nature apparently very extraordinary; but we per. At Simore in Languedoc there are bones of ani- have found no tolerable account or probable conjecture mals dug up, which, during calcination, assume a blue of their origin. Vitaliano Donati of Padua, in his Sagcolour ; but according to Cronstedt it is not probable gio sopra la storie naturale dell'Adriatico, was the first that these owe their colour to copper. 4. With mine. who took notice of them; and Fortis, in his Travels into ralized copper. Of these our author gives two exam- Dalmatia, has given a copious account of them. They ples. One is where the copper is mineralized with sul. are most common in the islands of Cherso and O.sero. phur and iron, forming a yellow marcasitical ore. With See Fortis's Travels into Dalmatia ; and those of our this some shells are impregnated which lie upon a bed of readers who wish to prosecute this inquiry may consult loadstone in Norway. Other petri factions of this kind with advantage Parkinson's Organic Remains of a Forare found in the form of fish in different parts of Ger mer World, two vols. 4to. many. The other kind is where the copper is impreg
PETRIFIED CITY. The story of a petrified city nated with sulphur and silver. Of this kind is the gray is well known all over Africa, and has been believed silver ore, like ears of corn, found in the slate quarries by many considerable persons even in Europe. Louis at Hesse. 5. Larvæ ferriferæ, with iron in form of a XIV. was so fully persuaded of its reality, that he ori 4
Petrified dered his ambassador to procure the body of a man pe man of the bashaw of Tripoli, was preferred by him to PetrificaCity. trified from it at any price. Dr Shaw's account of this be the bey or viceroy of the province of Darna, where tion,
affair is as follows : “ About 40 years ago (now more Ras Sem was immediately under his jurisdiction. His Petrobrustban 70), when M. le Maire was the French consul at account was likewise the same; neither had he ever Tripoli
, he made great inquiries, by order of the French seen, in bis frequent journeys over this district, any court, into the truth of the report concerning a petri- other petrifications than what are above mentioned. fied city as Ras Sem; and amongst other very curious So tbat the petrified city, with its walls, castles, streets, accounts relating to this place, he told me a remarkable shops, cattle, inhabitants, and utensils, were all of them circumstance, to the great discredit, and even confuta at first the mere inventions of the Arabs, and afterwards tion, of all that had been so positively advanced with propagated by such persons, who, like the Tripoli -amregard to the petrified bodies of men, children, and bassador, and his friend above mentioned, were creduother animals.
lous enough to believe them. “ Some of the janizaries, who, in collecting tribute, “ However, there is one remarkable circumstance traversed the district of Ras Sem, promised him, that, relating to Ras Sem that deserves well to be recorded. as an adult person would be too cumbersome, they When the winds have blown away the billows of sand, would undertake, for a certain number of dollars, to which frequently cover and conceal these petrifications, bring him from thence the body of a little child. Af- they discover, in some of the lower and more depressed ter a great many pretended difficulties, delays, and dis- places of this district, several little pools of water, appointments, they produced at length a little Cupid, which is usually of so ponderous a nature, that, upon which they had found, as he learned afterwards, among drinking it, ic passes through the body like quicksilver. the ruins of Leptis; and, to conceal the deceit, they This per haps may be that petrifying fluid which has broke off the quiver, and some other of the distinguish- all along.contributed to the conversion of the polm trees ing characteristics of that deity. However, he paid and the echini into stone : for the formation not only them før it, according to promise, 1000 dollars, which of these, but of petrifications of all kinds, may be enis about 15ɔl
. sterling of our money, as a reward for tirely owing to their having first of all lodged in a bed their faithful service and hazardous undertaking ; ba of loam, clay, sand, or sone other proper nidus or ma. ving run the risk, as they pretended, of being strangled trix, and afterwards gradually been acted upon and perif they should have been discovered in thus delivering vaded by such a petrifying Huid as we may suppose this up to an infidel, one of those unfortunate Mahometans,
to be." as they take them originally to have been.
To this account it may not be amiss to subjoin the “ But notwithstanding this cheat and imposition had memorial of Cassem Aga, the Tripoli ambassador at the made the consul desist from searching after the petri- court of Britain. The city, he says, is situated two days fied bodies of men and other animals ; yet there was journey south from Onguela, and in days journey from one matter of fact, as he told me, which still very Tripoli by caravan to the south-east.
• As one of my strangely embarrassed him, and even strongly engaged friends (says the ambassador) desired me to give him in him in favour of the current report and tradition. This writing an account of what I knew touching the petriwas some little loaves of bread, as he called them, fied city, I told him what I bad heard from different which had been brought to him from that place. His persons, and particularly from the mouth of one man of reasoning, indeed thercupon, provided the pretended credit who had been on the spot : that is to say, that it matter of fact had been clear and evident, was just and was a very spacious city, of a round form, having great satisfactory; for where we find loaves of bread, there, and small streets therein, furnished with shops, with a as he urged, some persons must have been employed in vast castle magnificently built : that he had seen there making them, as well as others for whom they were pre several sorts of trees, the most part olives and palnas, pared. One of these loaves he had, among other petri- all.of stone, and of a blue or rather lead colour : that he
fortunately brought with him to Cairo, saw also figures of men in a posture of exercising their where I saw it, and found it to be an echinites of the different employments; some holding in their hands discoid kind, of the same fashion with one I had lately stuffs, others bread, every ove doing something, even found and brought with me from the deserts of Marah. women suckling their children, and in the embraces of We may therefore reasonably conclude, that there is their husbands, all of stone : that he went into the castle nothing to be found at Ras Sem, unless it be the trunks by three different gates, though there were many more, of trees, echinites, and such petrifications as have been where he saw a man lying upon a bed of stone : that discovered at other places.
there were guards at the gates with pikes and javelins, “ M. le Maire's inquiries, which we find were sup in their bands : in short, that he saw in this wonderful ported by the promise and performance of great rewards, city many sorts of animals, as camels, oxen, horses, have brought nothing further to light. He could never asses, sheep, and birds, all of stone, and of the colour learn that any traces of walls, or buildings, or animals, above mentioned. or utensils, were ever to be seen within the verge of We have subjoined this account, because it shows in these pretended petrifications. The like account I bad striking colours the amazing credulity of mankind, and from a Sicilian renegado, who was the janisary that at the avidity with wbich they swallow the marvellous, and tended me whilst I was in Egypt; and as in his earlier the difficulty of discovering the truth respecting places years be had been a soldier of Tripoli, he assured me or things at a distance from us. that he had been-several times at Ras Sem. This I had PETROBRUSSIANS, a religious sect, which had confirmed again in my return from the Levant by the its rise in France and the Netherlands about the year interpreter of the British factory at Tunis, who was like 1110. The name is derived from Peter Bruys, a Prowise a Sicilian renegado; and being the libertus or freed- vençal, who made the most laudable attempt to reform VOL. XVI. Part I,
Petrobrus- the abuses and remove the superstition that disgraced country he had been appointed quæstor, the ship in which Petronics. sians tbe beautiful simplicity of the gospel. His followers he sailed was taken by Scipio, who caused all the soldiers
were numerous; and for 20 years his labour in the mi. to be put to the sword, and promised to save the quæPetronius
nistry was exemplary and unremitted. He was how stor's life, provided that he would renounce Cæsar's
officers were accustomed to grant life to others, and not
book of his Annals. He was proconsul of Bithynia, can be justified by baptism, in regard it is our own faith and afterwards consol, and appeared capable of the that saves by baptism. 2. They held that no churches greatest employments. He was one of Nero's princishould be built, but that those that already are should pal confidants, and in a manner the superintendant of his be pulled down ; an inn being as proper for prayers as a pleasures; for that prince thought nothing agreeable or temple, and a stable as an altar. 3. That the cross ought delightful but what was approved by Petronius. The to be pulled down and burnt, because we ought to abhor great favours shown him drew upon him the envy of Tjthe instruments of our Saviour's passion. 4. That the gellinus, another of Nero's favourites, who accused him real body and blood of Christ are not exhibited in the of being concerned in a conspiracy against the emperor;. eucharist, but merely represented by their figures and on which Petronius was seized, and was sentenced to die. symbols. 5. That sacrifices, alms, prayers, &c. do not He met death with a striking indifference, and seems to avail the dead. F. Langlois objects Manicheism to the have tasted it nearly as he had done his pleasures. He Petrobrussians; and says, they maintained two gods, the would sometimes open a vein, and sometinies close it, conone good, the other evil : but this we rather esteem an versing with his friends in the meanwhile, not on the im. effect of his zeal for the catholic cause, which deter mortality of the soul, which was no part of his creed, mined him to blacken the adversaries thereof, than any but on topics which pleased bis fancy, as of love-verses, real sentiment of the Petrobrussians.
agrecable and passionate airs; so that it has been said PETROJOANNITES, were followers of Peter “his dying was barely ceasing to live." of this disciple John, or Peter Joannis, i.e. Peter the son of John, who of Epicurus, Tacitus gives the following character: flourished in the 12th century. His doctrine was not “ He was (says he) neither a spendthrift nor a debauknown till after his death, when his body was taken out chee, like the generality of those who ruin themselves ; of his grave and burnt. His opinions were, that he but a refined voluptuary, who devoted the day to sleep, alone had the knowledge of the true sense wherein the and the night to the duties of his office, and to pleasure. apostles preached the gospel; that the reasonable soul This courtier is much distinguished by a satire which be is not the form of man; that there is no grace
infused wrote, and secretly conveyed to Nero ; in which he inby baptism ; and that Jesus Christ was pierced with a geniously describes, under borrowed names, the character lance on the cross before he expired.
of this prince. Voltaire is of opinion that we bave no PETROLEUM, or Rock OIL; a thick oily sub more of this performance but an extraet made by some stance exuding from the earth, and collected on the sur obscure libertine, without either taste or judgment. face of wells in many parts of the world. See MINE. Peter Petit discovered at Traw in Dalmatia, in 1665, RALOGY Index.
a considerable fragment containing the sequel of TriPETROMYZON, the LAMPREY, a genus of fishes malcion's Feast. This fragment, which was printed the belonging to the order Cartilaginei. See ICHTHYOLO. year after at Padua and at Paris, produced a paper war GY Index.
among the learned. While some affirmed that it was the PETRONIUS was a renowned Roman senator. work of Petronius, and others denied it to be 80,
Petit When governor of Egypt, he permitted Herod, king of continued to assert his right to the discovery of the mathe Jews, to purchase in Alexandria any quantity of nuscript, and sent it to Rome, where it was acknow. corn which he should judge necessary for the supply of ledged to be a production of the 15th century. The his subjects, who were afflicted with a severe famine. French critics, who had attacked its authenticity, were When Tiberius died, Caius Caligula, who succeeded him, silent from the moment it was deposited in the royal took from Vitellius the government of Syria, and gave library. It is now generally attributed to Petronius, it to Petronius, who discharged the duties of his office and found in every subsequent edition of the works of with dignity and honour. From his inclination to favour that refined voluptuary. The public did not form the the Jews, be run the risk of losing the emperor's friend. same favourable opinion of some other fragments, which ship and his own life; for when that prince gave orders were extracted from a manuscript found at Belgrade in to have his statue deposited in the temple of Jerusalem, 1688, and printed at Paris by Nodot in 1694, though Petronius, finding that the Jews would rather suffer they are ascribed by the editor Charpentier, and several death than see that sacred place profaned, was unwilling other learned men, to Petronius ; yet, on account of the to have recourse to violent measures; and therefore pre Gallicisms, and other barbarous expressions with which ferred a moderation, dictated by humanity, to a cruel they abound, they have generally been considered as obedience. We must not confound him with another unworthy of that author. His genuine works are, 1. A of the same name, viz. Petronius Granius, who was a Poem on the civil war between Cæsar and Pompey, centurion in the eighth legion, and served under Cæsar translated into prose by Abbé de Marolles, and into in the Gallic war. In his voyage to Africa, of which French verso by President Bouhier; 1737, in 4to. Pe3
Petronius tropius, full of fire and enthusiasm, and disgusted with Latins sumptio, misio, and usus ; and the Italians presa, Petteia,
Lucan's flowery language, opposed Pharsalia to Phar- mescolamento, and uso. The last of these is called by the Petty. Petteie salia ; but his work, though evidently superior to the Greeks milwau, and by the Italians pettia ; which there
other in some respects, is by no means in the true style fore means the art of making a just discernment of all
chess is of pieces called avslu, calculi, or “ chess-men.”
PETTY, SIR WILLIAM, son of Anthony Petty, a an illastrious family, being at first a senator and consul clothier, was born at Rumsey, a small town in Hampof Rome. He put on the imperial purple in 455, aftershire, in 1623 ; and while a boy took great delight having effected the assassination of Valentinian III. In in spending his time among the artificers, whose trades order to establish himself upon the throne, he married he could work at when but twelve years of age. Eudoxia the widow of that unfortunate prince; and Then he went to the grammar school tbere: at fifas she was ignorant of his villany, he confessed to her, teen he was master of the Latin, Greek, and French in a transport of love, that the strong desire he had of tongues, and of arithmetic and those parts of practical being her husband, had made him commit this atrocious geometry and astronomy useful to navigation. Soon crime. Whereupon Eudoxia privately applied to Gen- after he went to Caen in Normandy, and Paris, where seric, king of the Vandals, who coming into Italy with he studied anatomy, and read Vesalius with Mr Hobbes. a very powerful army, entered Rome, where the usurper Upon his return to England, he was preferred in the then was.
The unhappy wretch endeavoured to make king's navy. In 1643, when the war between the king
PETROSA OSSA, in Anatomy, a name given to the tions." Next year he was greatly applauded in Ireland
The character of his genius is sufficiently seen in his
we have mentioned above. Among these, it is said, be
PETTEIA, in the ancient music, a term to which contained a full account of his political and religious we have no one corresponding in our language. principles, as may be conjectured from what he has left
The melopoeia, or the art of arranging sounds in suc- us upon those subjects in his will. In that he has these cession so as to make melody, is divided into three parts, remarkable words: “ As for legacies to the poor, I am which the Greeks call lepsis, mixis, and chresis ; the at a stand ; and for beggars by trade and eleetion, I give
H h 2
Petty them nothing: as for impotents by the hand of God, the particularly the magnificent seat of the Percies, earls of Pet wortda
public ought to maintain them : as for those who can get Northumberland, many of whom lie buried in a sepa 0 Petworth, no work, the magistrates should cause them to be em rate vault of its church. In the duke of Somerset's ar Peyrere.
ployed; which may he well done in Ireland, where are mory, in this place, there is a sword which, by circun-
the incident which occasioned his death.
denly roused by a shock of an earthquake, which hapThe variety of pursuits in which Sir William Petty pened at that instant, on the 18th of September 1692. was engaged, shows bim to have bad a genius capable 'The moment he awoke, he observed the skeletons move of any thing to which he chose to apply it; and it is about as they were shaken in different directions, and very extraordinary, that a man of so active and busy a the loose skulls roll from one side of the room to the spirit could find time to write so many things as it ap- other; and being totally ignorant of the cause, he was
struck with such a horror, that he threw himself down Petty, any thing little or diminutive, when compa- stairs, and tumbled into the street half dead. His red with another.
friends took all possible pains to efface the impression Petty-Bag, an office in chancery; the three clerks made on his mind by that unlucky event, and acquaintof which record the return of all inquisitions out of every ed him with the real cause of the agitation of the skecounty, and make all patents of comptrollers, gaugers, letons ; yet the transaction still affected bis spirits in so customers, &c.
violent a manner, that it brought on a disorder, which Petty-Chaps. See MOTACILLA, ORNITHOLOGY in a short time ended bis days. His general subjects Index.
were either allegorical or emblematical allusions to the Petty-Fogger, a little tricking solicitor or attorney, · shortness and misery of human life. without either skill or conscience.
PEWIT, SEA-CROW, or Mire-Crow. See LARUS, PETTY, or Petit, Larceny. See LARCENY.
ORNITHOLOGY Index. Petty-Patees, among confectioners, a sort of small PEWTER, a factitious metal used in making domespies, made of a rich crust filled with sweetmeats. tic utensils, as plates, dishes, &c.—The basis of the nie
Petty-Singles, among falconers, are the toes of a hawk. tal is tin, united to small portions of lead, zinc, bismuth,
Perry-Tally, in the sea language, a competent al. . and antimony. “ We have (says Dr Watson) three lowance of victuals, according to the number of the ship’s sorts of pewter in common use; they are distinguished company.
by the name of Plate, Trifle, or Ley. The plate pewPETTY, or Petit, Treason. See TREASON.
ter is used for plates and disbes; the trifle, chiefly for PETUNSE, in Natural History, one of the two sub- pints and quarts; and the ley-metal for wine measures, stances, of which porcelain or china-ware is made. The &c. Our very best pewter is said to consist of 100 petunse is a coarse kind of flint or pebble, the surface of parts tin, and 17 of antimony, though others allow only which is not so smooth when broken as that of our com 10 parts of the latter *.” Besides this composition, Chom mon flint. See PORCELAIN.
there are other kinds, compounded of tin, antimony, bis- Essays PETWORTH, in Sussex in England, five miles muth, and copper, in several proportions.
iv. 107. from Midharst and the Sussex Downs, and 49 from PEYRERE, ÍSAAC LA, a remarkable character for London, is a large and handsome town, with 2664 in- versatility in religious opinions, was born at Bourdeaux, habitants. It is adorned with several seats of gentlemen, of Protestant parents, in 1594. He entered the service
pears he did.
(A) In the town of Rumsey there is a house which was given by him for the maintenance of a charity-schod : the rent of which is still applied to that use.