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Peliver Madras-patanæ, et Africanæ, à Jacobo Petivero ad opus the senate and people on the 8th of April 1341. “The Petr:reb.
consunmandum collatæ, &c. Many of his small tracts ceremony of his coronation (says Gibbon) was perform Petrarch. having become scarce, his works were collected and ed in the Capitol, by his friend and patron the supreine
published, exclusive of his papers in the Transactions, magistrate of the republic. Twelve patrician youths in 2 vols. folio, in the year 1764.
were arrayed in scarlet ; six representatives of the most PETIVERIA, a genus of plants belonging to the illustrious families, in green robes, with garlands of hexandria class, and in the natural method ranking un- flowers, accompanied the procession; in the midst of der the 12th order, Holoraceæ. See BOTANY Index. the princes and nobles, the senator, count of Anguil
PETRA, (Cæsar, Lucian), a town of Greece, on lara, a kinsman of the Colonna, assumed his throne; the coast of Illyricum, near Dyrrhachium, and not far and at the voice of a herald Petrarch arose. Alter disfrom the mouth of the river Panyasus.- Another PE- coursing on a text of Virgil, and thrice repeating his TRA, (Livy); a town of Mædica, a district of Tbrace, vows for the prosperity of Rome, he kuelt before the lying towards Macedonia ; but in what part of Mace- throne, and received from the senator a laurel crown, donia, be does not say,
with a more precious declaration, “This is the reward PETRA (Ptolemy), Petræa (Silius Italicus), Petrina of merit.' The people shouted, "Long life to the Ca(Italicus), in both which last urbs is understood ; an pitol and the poet!' A sonnet in praise of Rome was inland town of Sicily, to the south-west of Engyum. accepted as the effusion of genius and gratitude; and Now Petraglia (Cluverius).
after the whole procession had visited the Vatican, the Petra Jecktael (2 Kings xiv.), a town of the Ama. profane wreath was suspended before the shrine of St lekites; near the Adscensus Scorpionis (Judges i.) and Peter. In the act or diploma which was presented to the valley of Salt in the south of Judea ; afterwards in Petrarch, the title and prerogatives of poet-laureat are the possession of the Edomites, after destroying the A- revived in the Capitol after the lapse of 1300 years ; malekites.
and he receives the perpetual privilege of wearing, at Petra Recem, or Rekem, so called from Rekem his choice, a crown of laurel, ivy, or niyrtle; of assum-. king of the Midianites, slain by the Israelites (Num. ing the poetic habit; and of teaching, disputing, interxxxi.). Formerly called Arce, now Petra; the capital preting, and composing, in all places whatsoever, and of Arabia Petræa (Josephus). Ptolemy places it in on all subjects of literature. The grant was ratified by Long. 66. 45. from the Fortunate islands, and Lat. 30. the authority of the senate and people ; and the charac20.
It declines therefore 80 miles to the south of the ter of citizen was the recompense of his affection for parallel of Jerusalem, and 36 miles, more or less, from its the Roman name. They did him honour, but they did meridian to the east. Josephus says, that the mountain him justice. In the familiar society of Cicero and on which Aaron died stood near Petra; which Strabo Livy, he had imbibed the ideas of an ancient patriot ; calls the capital of the Nabatæi; at the distance of three and his ardent fancy kindled every idea to a sentiment, or four days journey from Jericho. This Petra seems and every sentiment to a passion.” His love of soli-. to be the Sela of Isaiah xvi. 1. and xlii. 11. the He- tude at length induced him to return to Vaucluse ; brew name of Petra, rock :” Though some imagine but, after the death of the beautiful Laura, Provence Petra to be no older than the time of the Macedonians. became insupportable to him, and he returned to Italy
PETRARCH, FRANcis, a celebrated Italian poet, in 1352 ; when, being at Milan, Galeas Viceconti was born at Arezzo in 1304, and was the son of Pe made him counsellor of state. Petrarch spent almost trarco di Parenzo. He studied grammar, rhetoric, and all the rest of his life in travelling to and from the philosophy, for four years at Carpentras; from whence different cities in Italy. He was archdeacon of Parhe went to Montpelier, where he studied the law under ma, and canon of Padua ; but never received the order John Andreas and Cino of Pistoia, and probably from of priesthood. All the princes and great men of bis the latter received a taste for Italian poetry. As Pe- time gave him public marks of their esteem ; and wbile trarch only studied the law out of complaisance to his he lived at Arcqua, three miles from Padua, the Flofather, who on his visiting him at Bologna had thrown rentines deputed Boccace to go to bim with letters, hy in the fire all the Latin poets and orators except Virgil which they invited him to Florence, and informed bin, and Cicero ; he, at 22 years of age, hearing that his fa that they restored to him all the estate of wbich his father and mother were dead of the plague at Avignon, ther and mother bad been deprived during the dissenreturned to that city to settle bis domestic affairs, and sions between the Guelphs and Gibelines. He died a purchased a country house in a very solitary but agree- few years after at Arcqua, in 1374. He wrote many able situation, called Vaucluse ; where he first knew the works that bave rendered his meinory immortal ; these beautiful Laura, with whom he fell in love, and whom have been printed in four volumes folio. His life has he has immortalized in his poems. He at length travel been written by several authors, Amongst these there led into France, the Netherlands, and Germany; and was one by Mrs Susanna Dobson, in 2 volumes 3vo, at his return to Avignon entered into the service of Pope collected and abridged from the French. In this work John XXII. who employed him in several important we have the following elegant and just character of Pe. affairs. Petrarch was in hopes of being raised to some trarch. considerable post: but being disappointed, be applied “ Few characters, perhaps, have set in a stronger himself entirely to poetry ; in which he met with much light the advantages of well regulated dispositions than applause, that in one and the same day he received that of Petrarch, from the contrast we behold in letters from Rome and the chancellor of the univer one particular of bis life, and the extreme misery sity of Paris, by which they invited bim to receive he suffered from the indulgence of an affeotion, which, the poetic crown. By the advice of his friends, he though noble and delightful when justly placed, becomes preferred Rome 10 Paris, and received that crown from a reproach and a torment to its possessor when once di
Petrarch. rected to an improper object. For, let us not deceive between this admired poet and our late famous Yorick. Petrarcia
ourselves or others; though (from the character of -Both, we know, had great wit and genius, and no
Laur.) they are acquitted of all guilt in their personal less imprudence and eccentricity; both were canons, or Petrifac-
intercourse, yet, as she was a married woman, it is not prebendaries, the Italian of Padua, &c. and the Eng-
possible, on the principles of religion and morality, to lishman of York; they both “ ran over France, with-
clear them from that just censure which is due to every out any business there.” If the bishop of Lombes pa-
defection of the mind from those laws which are the tronised and corresponded with the one, a prelate * of * Dr Gil.
foundating of order and peace in civil society, and the English church, now deceased, desired, in a letter, bert, Archi,
which are stamped with the sacred mark of divine au to shandyiset with the other. In their attachments to York.
Laura and Eliza, both married women, these two pre-Grace's
“ In this particular of his character, therefore, it bendaries were equally warm, and equally innocent.
is sincerely hoped that Petrarch will serve as a warn And, even after death, a most remarkable circumstance pression.
ing to those unhappy minds, who, partaking of the bas attended them both; some persons, we are told,
same feelings under the like circumstances, but not yet stole Petrarch's bones, in order to sell them; and, in
suflering his misery, may be led, by the contemplation like manner, Yorick’s body, it is confidently affirmed,
of it, by a generous regard to the honour of human na was also stolen, and his skoll has been exbibited at Ox-
ture, and by a view to the approbation of that all-seeing ford.
Judge who penetrates the most secret recesses of the PETRE, or SALTPETRE. See NITRE, CHEMISTRY
heart, to check every unhappy inclination in its birth, and MINERALOGY Index.
and destroy, while yet in their power, the seeds of those PETREA, in Botany, a genus of plants belonging to
passions which may otherwise destroy them.
the didynamia class; and in the natural method rank-
“ As to the cavils or censures of those who, incapa ing under the 40th order, Personatæ. See BOTANY,
ble of tenderness themselves, can neither enjoy the view Index.
of it when presented in its most perfect form, nor pity PETREL. See PROCELLARIA, ORNITHOLOGY
its sufferings when, as in this work, they appear unbap- Index.
pily indulged beyond the bounds of judgment and PETRIFACTION, in Natural History, denotes,
tranquillity; to such minds I make no address, well the conversion of wood, bones, and other substances,
convinced, that, as no callous heart can enjoy, neither principally animal or vegetable, into stone. These
will it ever be in danger of being misled, by the example bodies are more or less altered from their original state,
of Petrarch in this tender but unfortunate circumstance according to the different substances they have lain
of his character.
buried among in the earth ; some of them baving suf-
“ To susceptible and feeling minds alone Petrarch fered very little change, and others being so highly im-
will be ever dear.. Such, while they regret bis failings, pregnated with crystalline, sparry, pyritical, or other
and consider them as warnings to themselves, will love extraneous matter, as to appear mere masses of stone or
his virtues; and, touched by the glowing piety and lumps of the matter of the common pyrites ; but they
heart-felt contrition which often impressed his soul, will are generally of the external dimensions, and retain
ardently desire to partake with him in those pathetic more or less of the internal figure, of the bodies into
and sublime reflections which are produced in grateful the pores of which this matter has made its
The and affectionate hearts, on reviewing their own lives, animal substances thus found petrified are chiefly seaand contemplating the works of God.
shells; the teeth, bony palates, and bones of fish; the “ Petrarch had received from nature a very dangere bones of land animals, &c. These are found variously ous present. His figure was so distinguished as to at altered, by the insinuation of stony and mineral mattract universal admiration. He appears, in his portraits, ter into their pores; and the substance of some of them with large and manly features, eyes full of fire, a is now wholly gone, there being only stony, sparry, or blooming complexion, and a countenance that bespoke other mineral matter remaining in the shape and form. all the genius and fancy which shone forth in his works. Respecting the manner in which petrisaction is acIn the flower of his youth, the beauty of his
complished, we know but little. It has been thought so very striking, that wherever he appeared, he was the by many philosophers, that this was one of the rare object of attention. He possessed an understanding ac processes of nature; and accordingly such places as tive and penetrating, a brilliant wit, and a fine imagi- afforded a view of it, have been looked upon as great nation. His heart was candid and benevolent, suscep- curiosities. However, it is now discovered, that petible of the most lively affections, and inspired with the trifaction is exceedingly common : and that every kind noblest sentiments of liberty.
of water carries in it some earthly particles, which be“ But his failings must not be concealed. His tem- ing precipitated from it, become stone of a greater or per was, on some occasions, violent, and his passions lesser degree of bardness : and this quality is most reheadstrong and unruly. A warmth of constitution hur markable in those waters which are much impregnated ried him into irregularities, which were followed with with selenitic matter. It has been found by observarepentance and remorse. -No essential reproach, how. tion, that iron contributes greatly to the process : and ever, could be cast on his manners, till after the 23d this it may do by its precipitation of any aluminous year of his age. The fear of God, the thoughts of earth which happens to be dissolved in the water by death, the love of virtue, and those principles of reli means of an acid; for iron has the property of precipigion which were inculcated by bis mother, preserved tating this earth. Calcareous earth, however, by being bim from the surrounding temptations of his earlier soluble in water without any acid, must contribute very life.”
much to the process of petrifaction, as they are capable A resemblance has been traced, in several instances, of a great degree of hardness by means only of being
Petrifac- joined with fixed air, on which depends the solidity of the size or of the shape ; but it occasions, both at the Potrifueour common cement or nortar used in building houses. surface and in the inside, a change of substance, and
tion. The name petrifaction belongs only, as we have seen, the ligneous texture is inverted; that is to say, that to bodies of vegetable or animal origin ; and in order to which was pore in the natural wood, becomes solid in determine their class and genus, or even species, it is that which is petrified; and that which was solid or necessary that their texture, their primitive form, and full in the first state, becomes porous in the second. in some measure their organization, be still discernible. In this way, says M. Musard, petrified wood is much Thus we ought not to place the stony kernels, moulded less extended in pores than solid parts, and at the same in the cavity of some shell, or other organized body, in time forms a body much more dense and heavy than the rank of petrifactions, properly so called.
the first. As the pores communicate from the circum-
Petrifactions of the vegetable kingdom are almost all ference to the centre, the petrifaction ought to begin
either gravelly or siliceous; and are founů in gullies, at the centre, and end with the circumference of the
trenches, &c. Those which strike fire with steel are organic body subjected to the action of the lapidific
principally found in sandy fissures ; those which effer- fluids. Such is the origin of petrifactions. They are
vesce in acids are generally of animal origin, and are organized bodies which bave undergone changes at the
found in the horizontal beds of calcareous earth, and bottom of the sea or the surface of the earth, and which
sometimes in beds of clay or gravel: in which case the have been buried by various accidents at different depths
nature of the petrifaction is different. As to the sub- under the ground.
stances which are found in gypsum, they seldom under In order to understand properly the detail of the
go any alteration, either with respect to figure or com formation of petrified bodies, it is necessary to be well
position, and they are very rare.
acquainted with all their constituent parts. Let us
Organized bodies, in a state of petrifaction, general- take wood for an example. Wood is partly solid and
ly acquire a degree of solidity of which they were not partly porous. The solid parts consist of a substance,
possessed before they were buried in the earth, and hard, ligneous, and compact, which forms the support
some of them are often fully as hard as the stones or of the vegetable; the porous parts consist of vessels
matrices in which they are enveloped. When the stones or interstices which run vertically and horizontally
are broken, the fragments of petrifactions are easily across the ligneous fibres, and which serve for conduc-
found, and easily distinguished. There are some or ting air, lymph, and other fluids. Among these ves-
ganized bodies, however, so changed by petrifaction, as sets, the trachia which rise in spiral forms, and which
to render it impossible to discover their origin. That contain only air, are easily distinguished. The cylin-
there is a matter more or less agitated, and adapted for dric vessels, some of which contain lymph, and others
penetrating bodies, wbich crumbles and separates their the succus proprius, are full only during the life of the
parts, draws them along with it, and disperses them here vegetable. After its death they become vacant by
and there in the fluid which surrounds them, is a fact the evaporation and absence of the fluids with which :
of which nobody seems to entertain any doubt. Indeed they were formerly filled. All these vessels, whether
we see almost every substance, wbether solid or liquid, ascending or descending, unite with one another, and
insensibly consume, diminish in alk, and at last, in the for great cavities in the wood and in the bark. Ac-
lapse of time, vanish and disappear.
cording to Malpighi and Duhamel, the ligneous fibres
A petrified substance, strictly speaking, is nothing are themselves tubular, and afford a passage to certain
more than the skeleton, or perhaps image, of a body liquors ; in short, the wood and bark are interspersed
which bas once bad life, either animal or vegetable, with utriculi of different shapes and sizes. The aug-
combined with some mineral. Thus petrified wood mentation of the trunk in thickness, according to
is not in that state wood alone. One part of the com- Malpighi is accomplished by the annual addition of
pound or mass of wood having been destroyed by local a new exterior covering of fibres and of trachiæ. 0.
causes, has been compensated by earthy and sandy sub thers think that a concentric layer of sap-wood is every
stances, diluted and extremely minute, which the wa year hardened, whilst a new one is forming from the
ters surrounding them had deposited while they them bark. But it is on all sides agreed that the concentric
selves evaporated. These earthy substances, being then layers of wood are distinct from one another, because at:
moulded in the skeleton, will be more or less indurated, the point of contact betwixt any two of them, the new
and will appear to have its figure, its structure, its size, vessels, as well as new fibres, are more apparent and
in a word, the same general characters, the same spe- perceptible than they are in any
other place. Having
cific attributes, and the same individual differences. made these preliminary remarks on the structure of ve..
Farther, in petrified wood, no vestige of ligneous mat- getables, we shall now proceed to give an abridged ac,
ter appears to exist. We know that common wood is. count of the manner in wbich M. Mongez explains
a body in which the volume of solid parts is greatly ex their petrifaction.
ceeded by that of the pores. When wood is buried in In proportion to the tenderness and bad quality of
eertain places, lapidific fluids, extremely divided and wood, it imbibes the greater quantity of water ; there-
sometimes coloured, insinuate themselves into its pores fore this sort will unquestionably petrify more easily
and fill them up. These fluids are afterwards moulded, than that which is hard. It is thought that all the pe-
and condensed. The solid part of the wood is decom trified wood so often found in Hungary has been origi.
posed and reduced into powder, which is ex pelied with- nally soft, such as firs or poplars. Suppose a piece of
out the mass by aqueous filtrations. In this 'manner, wood buried in the earth; if it be very dry, it will suck
the places which were formerly occupied by the wood up the moisture which surrounds it like a sponge. This
are now left empty in the form of
opera moisture, by penetrating it, will dilate all the parts of tion of nature produces no apparent difference either of which it is composed. The tracbiæ, or air-vessels, will
Parifas. be filled first, and then thic lymphatic vessels and those fluid : from this reaction a colour arises which stains Petrilor.
which contain the succus proprius, as they are likewise more or less the new deposit; and this colour will make
empty. The water which forms this moisture keeps in it easily distinguishable from that which has been laid in
dissolution a greater or a less quantity of earth; and the inside of the vessels. lo all petrified wood this
this earth, detached, and carried along in its course, is sbade is generally perceptible.
reduced to such an attenuated state, that it escapes our We bave then, says M. Mongez, four distinct epochs
eyes and keeps itself suspended, whether by the medium in the process by wbich nature converts a piece of wood
of fixed air or by the motion of the water. Such is the into stone, or, to speak more justly, by which she sub-
lapidific fluid. Upon evaporation, or the departure of stitutes a stony deposit in its place : 1. Perfect vegetable
the menstruum, this earth, sand, or metal, again ap wood, that is to say, wood composed of solid and of
pears in the form of precipitate or sediment in the cavi.. empty parts, ligneous fibres, and of vessels. 2. Wood
ties of tbe vessels, which by degrees are filled with it. having its vessels obstructed and choked up by an
This carth is there moulded with exactness : The lapse earthy deposit, while its solid parts remain unaltered.
of time, the simultaneous and partial attraction of the 3. The solid parts attacked and decomposed, forming
particles, makes them adhere to one another; the lateral new cavities betwixt the stony cylinder, which remain
Suction of the surround fibres, the obstruction of the in the same state, and which support the whole mass.
moulds, and the hardening of the moulded earth, be 4. These new cavities filled with new deposits, which in-
come general; and there consists nothing but an earthy corporate with the cylinders, and compose nothing else
substance which prevents the sinking of the neighbour but one general earthy niass representing exactly the
ing parts. If the deposit is formed of a matter in ge piece of wood.
neral pretty pure, it preserves a wbiter and clearer co Among the petrifactions of vegetables called dendro-
lour than the rest of the wood; and as the concentric lites, are found part of shrubs, stems, roots, portions of
layers are only perceptible and distinct in the wood, be. the trunk, some fruits, &c. We must not, however,
cause the vessels are there more apparent on account of confound the impressions of mosses, ferns, and leaves,
their size, the little earthy cylinders, in the state of pe or incrustations, with petrifactions.
trified wood, must be there a little larger, and conse. Among the petrifactions of animals, we find shells,
quently must represent exact!y the turnings and separa crustaceous animals, polyparii, some worms, the bony
tions of these layers. At the place of the utriculi, glo parts of fishes and of amphibious animals, few or no real
bules are observed, of which the shapes are as various as insects, rarely birds and quadrupeds, together with the
the moulds wherein they are formed. The anastomoses bony portions of the human body. The cornu ammonis
of the proper and lymphatic vessels, form besides points are petrified shell-fish; and with regard to figured and
of support or reunion for this stony substance.
accidental bodies, these are lusus naturæ.
With regard to holes formed by worms in any bits of In order, says M. Bertrand, in his Dictionnaire des
*wood before they had been buried in the earth, the la Fossiles, that a body should become petrified, it is ne-
pidific fluid, in penetrating these great cavities, deposits cessary that it be, 1. Capable of preservation under
there as easily the earthy sediment, which is exactly ground : 2. That it be sheltered from the air and run-
moulded in them. These vermiform cylinders are some ning water (the ruins of Herculaneum prove that bodies
what less in bulk than the holes in which they are found, which have no connection with free air, preserve them-
which is owing to the retreat of the more refined earth selves untouched and entire). 3. That it be secured
and to its drying up.
from corrosive exhalations. 4. That it be in a place
Let any one represent to himself this collection of where there are vapours or liquids, loaded either with
little cylinders, vertical, horizontal, inclined in differ metallic or stony particles in a state of dissolution, and
ent directions, the stony masses of utriculi and of anas which, without destroying the body, penetrate it, im-
tomoses, and he will have an idea of the stony substance pregnate it, and unite with it in proportion as its parts
which forms the ground-work of petrifaction. Hither are dissipated by evaporation.
to not a single ligneous part is destroyed ; they are all It is a question of great importance among naturalists,
existing, but surrounded on every side with earthy de to know the time which Nature employs in petrify-
posits: and that body which, during life, was composed ing bodies of an ordinary size.-It was the wish of the
of solid and of empty parts, is now entirely solid : its emperor, duke of Lorraine, that some means should
destruction and decomposition do not take place till be taken for determining this question. M. le Cheva-
after the formation of these little deposits. In propor lier de Baillu, director of the cabinet of natural history
tion as the water abandons thiem, it penetrates the ligne- of his imperial majesty, and some other naturalists, had,
ous substance, and destroys it by an insensible fermenta several years ago, the idea of making a research which
tion. The woody fibres being decomposed, form in might throw some light upon it. His imperial majesty
their turn voids and interstices, and there remains in the being informed by the unanimous observations of mo-
whole piece nothing but little stony cylinders. But in dern historians and geographers, that certain pillars
proportion as these woody fibres disappear, the surround which are actually seen in the Danube in Servia, near
ing moisture, loaded with earth in the state of dissolution, Belgrade, are remains of the bridge which Trajan con-
does not fail to penetrate the piece of wood, and to re structed over that river, presumed that these pillars ba-
main in its new cavities. The new deposit assumes ex ving been preserved for so many ages beloved to be
actly the form of decomposed fibres ; it envelopes in its petrified, and that they would furnish some information
turn the little cylinders which were formed in their ca with regard to the time which nature employs in
vities, and ends by incorporating with them.
changing wood into stone. The emperor thinking this
suppose here, that in proportion as it decomposes, there hope well founded, and wishing to satisfy bis curiosity,
is a reaction of the ligneous part against the lapidific ordered his ambassador at the court of Constantinople
Petrifuc. to ask permission to take up from the Danube one of by the name of Mineralia Larrata, and defines them fetrisection. the pillars of Trajan's bridge. The petition was grant. to be “ mineral bodies in the form of animals or vege tion. e:l, and one of the pillars was accordingly taken up;
tables.” The most remarkable observations concerning from which it appeared that the petrifaction bad only them, according to Mr Kirwan, who differs in some advanced three fourths of an inch in the space of 1500 particulars from Mongez, are as follow. . Those of years. There are, however, certain waters in which shells are found on or near the surface of the earth; this transmutation is more readily accomplished.-Pe those of fish deeper; and those of wood deeper still. trifactions appear to be formed more slowly in earths Shells in substance are found in vast quantities, and at that are porous and in a slight degree moist than in wa considerable depths. 2. The substances most suscepter itself.
tible of petrifaction are those which most resist the pü-
When the foundations of the city of Quebec in Ca trefactive process ; of which kind are shells, the harder
nada were dug up, a petrified savage was found among kinds of wood, &c. ; while the softer parts of animals,
the last beds to which they proceeded. Although there wbich easily putrefy, are seldom met with in a petri-
was no idea of the time at which this man had been fied state. 3. They are most commonly found in strata
buried under the ruins, it is however true, that his quiver of marl, chalk, limestone, or clay: seldom in sandstone,
and arrows were still well preserved. In digging a lead still more seldom in gypsum ; and never in gneiss, gra-
mine in Derbyshire, in 1744, a human skeleton was nite, basaltes, or schoerl. Sometimes they are found
found among stags borns. It is impossible to say how in pyrites, and ores of iron, copper, and silver; con-
many ages this carcase had lain there. In 1695 the sisting almost always of that kind of earth or other mia
entire skeleton of an elephant was dug up near Tonna neral which surrounds them; sometimes of silex, agate,
in Thuringia. Some time before this epoch the petri or cornelian. 4. They are found in climates where the
fied skeleton of a crocodile was found in the mines of auimals themselves could not bave existed. 5. Those
that country. We might cite another fact equally cu found in slate or clay are compressed and flattened.
rious which happened at the beginning of the last cen The different species of petrifactions, according to
tury. John Munte, curate of Slægarp in Scania, and
several of his parishioners, wishing to procure turf from I. Terre Larvatæ ; extraneous bodies changed into
a drained marshy soil, found, some feet below ground a limy substance, or calcareous changes. These are, 1.
an entire cart with the skeletons of the horses and car. Loose or friable. 2. Indurated. The former are of a
ter. It is presumed that there had formerly been a cbalky nature in form of vegetables or animals ; the
lake in that place, and that the carter attempting to second filled with solid limestone in the same forms.
pass over on the ice, had by that means probably perish- Some are found entirely changed into a calcareous spar.
ed. In fine, wood partly fossil and partly coaly, has All of them are found in France, Sweden, and other
been found at a great depth, in the clay of which tile countries in great plenty.
was made for the abbey of Fontenay. It is but very On these petrifications Cronstedt observes, that shells
lately that fossil wood was discovered at the depth of 75 and corals are composed of limy matter even when still
feet in a well betwixt Issi and Vauvres near Paris. This inhabited by their animals, but they are classed among
wood was in sand betwixt a bed of clay and pyrites, and the petrifactions as soon as the calcareous particles
water was found four feet lower than the pyrites. M. have obtained a new arrangement; for example, when
de Laumont, inspector general of the mines, says they have become sparry ; filled with calcareous earth
(Journal de Physique, Mai 1736), that in the lead either hardened or loose, or when they lie in the strata
mine at Pontpéan near Rennes, is a fissure, perhaps the of the earth. “ These, says he, form the greatest part
only one of its kind. In that fissure, sea-shells, round of the fossil collections which are so industriously made,
ed pebbles, and an entire beech, have been found 240 often without any regard to the principal and only use
feet deep. This beech was laid horizontally in the they can be of, viz. that of enriching zoology. Minera-
direction of the fissure. Its bark was converted into logists are satisfied with seeing the possibility of the
pyrites, the sap-wood into jet, and the centre into changes the limestone undergoes in regard to its parti- -
cles; and also with receiving some insight into the alter-
A great many pieces of petrified wood are found in ation with the earth has been subject to from the state
different counties of France and Savoy. In Cobourg of the strata which are now found in it.” The calcined
in Saxony, and in the mountains of Misnia, trees of a shells, where the petrifactions are of a limy or chalky
considerable thickness have been taken from the earth, nature, answer extremely well as a manure ; but the in-
which were entirely changed into a very fine agate, as durated kind serve only for making grottoes. Gypseous
also their branches and their roots. In sawing them, petrifactions are extremely rare ; however, Chardin in-
the annual circles of their growth have been distin forms us that he had seen a lizard inclosed in a stone of
guished. Pieces have been taken up, on which it was that kind in Persia.
distinctly seen that they had been gnawed by worms ; II. Larvæ, or bodies changed into a flinty substance.
others bear visible marks of the hatchet. In fine, pie. These are all indurated, and are of the following spe-
ces have been found which were petrified at one end, cies. 1. Cornelians in form of shells from the river
while the other still remained in the state of wood fit Tomm in Siberia. 2. Agate in form of wood; a piece
for being burned. It appears then that petrified wood of which is said to be in the collection of the Count de
is a great deal less rare in nature than is commonly ima- Tessin. 3. Coralloids of white lint (Millepora) found
4. Wood of yellow flint found in Italy, in:
Cronstedt has excluded petrifactions from any place Turkey near Adrianople, and produced by the waters
in the body of bis system of mineralogy, but takes of Lough-neagh in Ireland.
notice of them in his appendix. He distinguisbes them III. Laruce Argillaceæ ; where the hodies appear to