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Perynnus tual, though exceeding cruel method. Most of the ci. PERICARDIUM, in Anatomy, a membranous bag Pericardi

ties in the kingdom had no other water than what was filled with water, which contains the heart in man and Perian brought from a considerable distance in aqueducts. many other animals. It is formed by a duplicature These Aquilius did not demolish, but poisoned the wa of the mediastinum, or membrane which divides the

Perigraphe. ter, which produced the greatest abhorrence of him thorax into two unequal parts. See ANATOMY, N° throughout all the east. At last, however, the whole country being reduced, Aquilius triumphed, the unlap

PERICARPIUM, (from me, "round," and xaqnos, }'Y

Aristonicus was led in chains before his chariot, and “ fruit,"') the seed-vessel ; that organ of a plant contain-
probably ended his miserable life in a dungeon. The ing the seeds, which it discharges when ripe. The seed.
country remained subject to the Romans while their vessel is in fact the developed seed-bud, and may very
empire lasted, but is now in the hands of the Turks. properly be compared to the fecundated ovary in ani.
The city is half ruined, and is still known by the name mals; for it does not exist till after the fertilizing of
of Pergamus. It is inhabited by about 3000 Turks, the seeds by the male dust, and the consequent fall of
and a few families of poor Christians. E. Long. 27. the flower. All plants, however, are not furnished
27. N. Lat. 30. 3.

with a seed-vessel ; in such as are deprived of it, the
PERGUNNAH, in the language of Hindostan, receptacle or calyx performs its functions by inclosing
means the largest subdivision of a province, whereof the the seeds as in a matrix, and accompanying them to
revenues are brought to one particular head Cutchery, perfect maturity.
from whence the accounts and cash are transmitted to PERICHORUS, in antiquity, a name given by the
the general Cutchery of the province.

Greeks to their profane games or combats, that is, to
PERIAGOGE, in Rhetoric, is used where many such as were not consecrated to any of the gods.
things are accumulated into one period which might PERICLES, was one of the greatest men that ever
have been divided into several.

flourished in Greece. He was educated with all ima-
PERIAGUA, a kind of large canoe made use of ginable care ; and beside other masters, he had for his
in the Leeward islands, South America, and the gulf tutors Zeno, Eleates, and Anaxagoras. He learned
of Mexico. It is composed of the trunks of two trees from the last of these to fear the gods without supersti-
hollowed and united together; and thus differs from the tion, and to account for an eclipse from a natural cause.
canoe, which is formed of one tree.

Many were unjust enough to suspect him of atheism,
PERIANDER, tyrant of Corinth and Corcyra, because he had perfectly studied the doctrine of that
was reckoned among the seven wise men of Greece; philosopher. He was a man of undoubted courage ;
though he might rather have been reckoned among and of such extraordinary eloquence, supported and im-
the most wicked men, since he changed the govern- proved by knowledge, that he gained almost as great
ment of his country, deprived liis countrymen of their an autbority under a republican government as if he
liberty, usurped the sovereignty, and committed the had been a monarch ; but yet he could not escape the
most shocking crimes. In the beginning of his reign satirical strokes of the comic poets. His dissoluteness
he behaved with mildness ; but after his having sent with women was one of the vices with which he was
to the tyrant of Syracuse to consult him on the safest chiefly charged. He died the third year of the Pelo-
method of government, he abandoned bimself to cruel. ponnesian war, after long sickness, which had weaken-
ty. The latter, having beard Periander's envoys, took ed his understanding. Aspasia, Pericles's favourite,
them into a field, and, instead of answering them, was a learned woman of Miletus : she taught Socrates
pulled up before them the ears of corn which exceed rhetoric and politics. As Pericles cared not much for
ed the rest in height. Periander, on being told of his wife, he willingly gave her op to another, and mar-
this action, understood what was meant by it. He ried Aspasia, whom he passionately loved.
first secured himself by a good guard, and then put PERICRANIUM, in Anatomy, a thick solid coat
the most powerful Corinthians to death. He aban or membrane covering the outside of the cranium or
doned himself to the most enormous crimes ; commit skull. See ANATOMY, N° 4.
ted incest with bis mother, kicked to death his wife PERIGEE, in Astronomy, that point of the sun
Melissa, daughter of Procles king of Epidaurus, not or moon's orbit wherein they are at the least distance
withstanding her being with child; and was so enraged from the earth ; in which sense it stands opposed to
at Lycophron, his second son, for lamenting his mo apogee.
ther's death, that he banished him into the island of PERIGORD, a province of France, which makes
Corcyra. Yet he passed for one of the greatest poli- part of Guienne, bounded on the north by Angoumois
ticians of his time, and Heraclides tells us, that he and a part of Marche, and on the east by Quercy and
forbade voluptuousness ; that he imposed no taxes, con Limosin ; on the south by Agenois and Bazadois ; and
tenting himself with the custom arising from the sale on the west, by Bourledois, Angumois, and a part of
and the import and export of commodities; that, though Saintonge. It is about 83 miles in length, and 60 in
wicked bimself, he hated the wicked, and caused all breadth. It abounds in iron mines, and the air is pure
pimps to be drowned ; lastly, that be established a se-. and healthy. Perigueux is the capital town.
nate, and settled the expence of its members. He died Perigord-Stone, is supposed to be an ore of manga-

nese, of a dark gray colour, like basalt.
PERIANTHIUM, (from me,“ round," and avbos, PERIGRAPHÉ, a word usually understood to ex-
" the flower,") the flower cup properly so called, the press a careless or inaccurate delineation of any thing;
most common species of calyx, placed immediately un but in Vesalius it is used to express the wbite lines or
der the flower, which is contained in it as in a cup. impressions that appear on the musculus rectus of the
Sce BOTANY Index,

abdomen. VOL. XVI, Part I.




585 B. C.

This period

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Perigueux . PERIGUEUX, an ancient town of France, capital Hipparchus's Period, is a series of 304 solar years, Puricd.

11 of the province of Perigord, seated on the river Isle, returning in a constant round, and restoring the new Period. in E. Long. 0. 33. N. Lat. 45.18.

It is remark and full moons to the same day of the solar year, ac-
able for the ruins of the temple of Venus, and an am cording to the sentiment of Hipparchus.

arises by multiplying the Calippic period by four.-
PERIHELIUM, in Astronomy, that part of a pla- Hipparchus assumed the quantity of the solar year to
net or comet's orbit wherein it is in its least distance be 365 days 5 hours 55' 12"; and hence concluded,
from the sun; in which sense it stands in opposition to that in 104 years Calippus's period would err a whole

day. He therefore multiplied the period by four,
PERIMETER, in Geometry, the bounds or limits and from the product cast away an entire day. But
of any figure or body. The perimeters of surfaces or even this does not restore the new and full mioons to
figures are lines ; those of bodies are surfaces. In cir. the same day throughout the whole period; but they
cular figures, instead of perimeter, we say circumfe are sometimes anticipated 1 day 8 hours 23' 29" 20".
rence, or periphery.

PERINÆUM, or PERINEUM, in Anatomy, the Julian Period. See JULIAN.
space between the anus and the parts of generation, Period, in Grammar, denotes a small compass of
divided into two equal lateral divisions by a very

distinct discourse, containing a perfect sentence, and distin-
line, which is longer in males than in females.

guished at the end by a point, or full stop, thus (.);
PERIOD, in Astronomy, the time taken up by a and in members or divisions marked by commas, co-
star or planet in making a revolution sound the sun; or lons, &c.
the duration of its course till it return to the same part Father Buffier observes two difficulties in the use of
of its orbit. See PLANET.

the period, or point ; i. e. in distinguishing it from the
The different periods and mean distances of the seve colon, or double point; and in determining justly the
ral planets are as follows :

end of a period, or perfect sentence. It is remarked

that the supernumerary members of a period, separated Days. b.

mean Dist.

from the rest by colons and semicolons, usually com-


1908352 mence with a conjunction: yet it is true these same con-
10759 51

954-72 junctions sometimes rather begin new periods than su-
4332 14 27

520279 pernumerary members of old ones. It is the sense of
686 23 30 35

152369 things, and the author's own discretion, that must make

365 6

the proper distinction which of the two in effect it is.
224 16 49

72333 No rules will be of any service, unless this be admitted

15 43
38710 as one, that when what follows the conjunction is of as

much extent as what precedes it, it is usually a new pe-
There is a wonderful harmony between the distances , jod; otherwise not.
of the planets from the sun, and their periods round The second difficulty arises hence, that the sense ap-
him ; the great law wbereof is, that the squares of pears perfect in several short detached phrases, wherein
the periodical times of the primary planet, are to each it does not seem there should be periods; a thing pre-
other as the cubes of their distances from the sun ? quent in free discourse: as, We are all in suspense : make
and likewise, the squares of the periodical times of the your proposals immediately : you will be to blame for
secondaries of any planet are to each other as the detaining us longer. Where it is evident, that simple
cubes of their distances from that primary. This har. phrases have perfect senses like periods, and ought to be
mony among the planets is one of the greatest confir marked accordingly; but that the shortness of the dis-
mations of the Copernican hypothesis. See ASTRO-

course making them easily comprehended, the pointing
NOMY, p. 100 and 101.

is neglected.
For the periods of the moon, see Moon, ASTRONOMY De Colonia defines period a short but perfect sen-

tence, consisting of certain parts or members, depending
The periods of several comets are now pretty well one on another, and connected together by some com-
ascertained. See ASTRONOMY, N° 306.

mon vinculum. The celebrated definition of Aristotle PERIOD, in Chronology, denotes a revolution of a is, a period is a discourse which has a beginning, * certain number of years, or a series of years, whereby, middle, and an end, all visible at one view. Rhetoriin different nations, and on different occasions, time is cians consider period, which treats of the structure of measured; such are the following.

sentences, as one of the four parts of composition. The
Calippic Period, a system of seventy-six years. See' periods allowed in oratory are three: A period of two

members, called by the Greeks dicolos, and by the La-
Dionysian Period, or Victorian Period, a system of tins bimembris; a period of three members, tricolos, tri-
532 lunæ-solar and Julian years; wbich being elapsed, mcmbris; and a period of four,quadrimembris,tetracolos.
the characters of the moon fall again upon the same See PunctUATION.
day and feria, and revolve in the same order, accord PERIOD, in numbers, is a distinction made by a point
ing to the opinion of the ancients.

or comma, after every sixth place, or figure; and is used
This period is otherwise called the great paschal in numeration, for the readier distinguishing and naming
cycle, because the Christian church first used it to find the several figures or places; which see under NUMERA-
the true time of the pascha or easter. The sum of these TION.
years arises by multiplying together the cycles of the PERIOD, in Medicine, is applied to certain diseases
sun and moon.

which have intervals and returns, to denote an entire


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Peripate- again.


Period course or circle of such disease; or its progress from and metaphysical about the first being, his affections,
any state through all the rest till it return to the same truth, unity, goodness, &c. from the Scriptures; and

adds from Clearchus, one of Aristotle's scholars, that
Galen describes period as a time composed of an in he made use of a certain Jew, who assisted hin, there-
tension and remission ; whence it is usually divided into in.
two parts, the paroxysm or exacerbation, and remis Aristotle's philosophy preserved itself in puris natura.

libus for a long time : in the earlier ages of Christianity,
In intermitting fevers, the periods are usually stated the Platonic philosophy was generally preferred ; but
and regular ; in other diseases, as the epilepsy, gout, this did not prevent the doctrine of Aristotle from for-
&c. they are vague or irregular.

cing its way into the Christian church. Towards the Period, in Oratory. See there, No


end of the fifth century, it rose into great credit ;'the PERIODIC, or PERIODICAL, something that ter Platonics interpreting in their schools some of the wriminates and comprehends a period ; such is a periodic tings of Aristotle, particularly his dialectics, and remonth; being the space of time wherein the moon di commending them to young persons. This appears to spatches her period.

have been the first step to that universal dominion which PERIOECI, Tigoixos, in Geography, such inhabitants Aristotle afterwards obtained among the learned, wbich of the earth as have the same latitudes, but opposite was at the same time much promoted by the controverlongitudes, or live under the same parallel and the same sies which Origen had occasioned. This father was meridian, but in different semicircles of that meridian, zealously attached to the Platonic system ; and there. or in opposite points of the parallel. These have the fore, after his condemnation, many, to avoid the impusame common seasons throughout the year,

and the same tation of his errors, and to prevent their being counted phenomena of the heavenly bodies ; but when it is noon among the number of his followers, openly adopted the day with the one, it is midnight with the other, there philosophy of Aristotle. Nor was any philosophy more being twenty-four hours in an east or west direction. proper for furnishing those weapons of subtle distinctions These are found on the globe by the hour-index, or by and captious sophisms, which were used in the Nestorian, turning the globe half round, that is, 180 degrees either Arian, and Eutychian controversies. About the end way.

of the sixth century, the Aristotelian philosophy, as well PERIOSTEUM, or Periostium, in Anatomy, a as science in general, was almost universally decried ; nervous vascular membrane, endued with a very quick and it was chiefly owing to Boetius, who explained and sense, immediately surrounding, in every part, both the recommended it, that it obtained a bigher degree of internal and external surfaces of all the bones in the bo credit among the Latins than it had hitherto enjoyed. dy, excepting only so much of the teeth as stand above Towards the end of the seventh century, the Greeks the gums, and the peculiar places on the bones in which abandoned Plato to the monks, and gave themselves up the muscles are inserted. It is hence divided into the entirely to the direction of Aristotle; and in the next external and internal periosteum; and where it exter- century, the Peripatetic philosophy, was taught everynally surrounds the bones of the skull, it is generally where in their public schools, and propagated in all placalled the pericranium. See ANATOMY Index.

ces with considerable success. John Damascenus very PERIPATETICS, philosophers, followers of Ari much contributed to its credit and influence, by comstotle, and maintainers of the peripatetic philosophy; posing a concise, plain, and comprehensive view of the called also Aristotelians. Cicero says, that Plato left doctrines of the Stagirite, for the instruction of the two excellent disciples, Xenocrates and Aristotle, who more ignorant, and in a manner adapted to common cafounded two sects, which only differed in name : the pacities. Under the patronage of Photius, and the proformer took the appellation of Academics, who were tection of Bardas, the study of philosophy for some those that continued to hold their conferences in the time declined, but was revived again about the end of Academy, as Plato had done before; the others, who the ninth century. About the middle of the 11th cenfollowed Aristotle, were called Peripatetics, from rigira- tury, a revolution in philosophy commenced in France ; TIW, “ I walk;" because they disputed walking in the when several famous logicians, who followed Aristotle Lyceum.

as their guide, took nevertheless the liberty of illustraAmmonius derives the name Peripatetic from Plato ting and modelling anew his philosophy, and extending himself, who only taught walking; and adds, that the it far beyond its ancient limits. In the 12th century, disciples of Aristotle, and those of Xenocrates, were three methods of teaching philosophy were in use by equally called Peripatetics; the one Peripatetics of the the different doctors : the first was the ancient and plain Academy, the other Peripatetics of the Lyceum : but method, which confined its researches to the philosophithat in time the former quitted the title Peripatetic forcal notions of Porphyry, and the dialectic system, comthat of Academic, on account of the place where they monly attributed to St Augustine, and in which was assembled ; and the latter retained simply that of Peri- laid down this general rule, that philosophical inquiries patetic. The greatest and best part of Aristotle's phi were to be limited to a small number of subjects, lest losophy was borrowed from Plato. Serranus asserts, and by their becoming too extensive, religion might suffer says he could demonstrate, that there is nothing exqui- by a profane mixture of buman subtilty with its divine site in any part of Aristotle's philosopby, dialectics, wisdom. The second method was called the Aristoethics, politics, physics, or metaphysics, but is found telian, because it consisted in explications of the works in Plato. And of this opinion are many of the ancient of that philosopher, several of whose books being transauthors, such as Clemens Alexandrinus, &c. Gale at lated into Latin, were almost everywhere in the bands tempts to show, that Aristotle borrowed a"good deal of of the learned. The third was termed the free method, his philosophy, both physical, about the first matter, employed by such as were bold enough to search


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Peripate- after truth, in the manner the most adapted to render of Rome. The Hebrews also had a vessel for puris. Per

their inquiries successful, without rejecting the succours cation.

of Aristotle and I'lato. A reformed system of the Pe. PERISCII, in Gcography, the inhabitants of either Perirrhan

ripatetic philosophy was first introduced into the schools frigid zone, between the polar circles and the poles,
in the university of Paris, from whence it soon spread where the sui, wlien in the summer signs, moves only
throughout Europe; and has subsisted in some universi round about them, without setting; and consequently
ties even to this day, under the name of school philoso- their shadows in the same day turn to all the points of
phy. The foundation thereof is Aristotle's doctrine, the horizon.
often misunderstood, but oftener misapplied: whence PERISTALTIC, a vermicular spontaneous motion
the retainers thereto may be denominated Reformed of the intestines, performed by the contraction of the
Peripatetics. Out of these liave sprung, at various circular and longitudinal fibres of which the fleshy coats
times, several branches; the chief are, the Thomists, of the intestines are composed; by means whereof the
SCOTISTS, and NOMINALISTS. See these articles. chyle is driven into the orifices of the lacteal veins, and

The Peripatetic system, after having prevailed with the fæces are protruded towards the anus.
great and extensive dominion for many centuries, be PERISTYLE, in Ancient Architecture, a building
gan rapidly to decline towards the close of the 17th, encompassed with a row of columns on the inside.
when the disciples of Ramus attacked it on the one PERITONÆUM, in Anatomy, is a thin, smooth,
hand, and it had still more formidable adversaries to and lubricous membrane, investing the whole internal
encounter in Descartes, Gassendi, and Newton. See surface of the abdomen, and containing most of the vis-

cera of that part as it were in a bag. See ANATOMY
PERIPATON, in antiquity, the name of that walk Index.
in the Lyceum where Aristotle taught, and whence the PERITROCHIUM, in Alechanics, denotes a wheel, ,
name of Peripatetics given to his followers.

or circle, concentric with the base of a cylinder, and
PERIPETIA, in the drama, that part of a tragedy moveable together with it about its axis. See ME-
wherein the action is turned, the plot unravelled, and
the whole concludes. See CATASTROPHE.

PERJURY, in Law, is defined by Sir Edward Coke
PERIPHERY, in Geometry, the circumference of to be a crime committed when a lawful oath is admi-
a circle, ellipsis, or any other regular curvilinear figure. nistered, in some judicial proceeding, to a person who

swears wilfully, absolutely, and falsely, in a matter ma-
PERIPHRASIS, circumlocution, formed of trigo, terial to the issue or point in question. In ancient times

" and Qersw, “ I speak;” in rhetoric, a circuit it was in some places punished with death ; in others it or tour of words, much affected by orators, to avoid made the false swearer liable to the punishment due to common and trite manners of expression. The peri- the crime he had charged the innocent person with ; in phrasis is of great use on some occasions; and it is often others a pecuniary mulct was imposed. But though it necessary to make things be conceived which are not escaped human, yet it was thought, amongst the ancients proper to name.

It is sometimes polite to suppress the in general, that the divine vengeance would most cernames, and only intimate or design them. These turns tainly overtake it; and there are many severe inflictions of expression are also particularly serviceable in ora from the hand of God upon record, as monuments of tory; for the sublime admitting of no direct citations, the abhorrence in which this atrocious crime is held by there must be a compass taken to insinuate the authors the Deity. The souls of the deceased were supposed to whose authority is borrowed. A periphrasis, by turn be employed in punishing perjured persons.

Even the ing round a proper name to make it understood, ampli- inanimate creation was thought to take revenge for this fies and raises the discourse; but care must be taken crime. The Greeks supposed that no person could swear it be not too much swelled, nor extended, mal à pro- falsely by Styx without some remarkable punishment ; pos; in which case it becomes flat and languid. See and that no person guilty of perjury could enter the CIRCUMLOCUTION and ORATORY.

cave of Palæmon at Corinth without being made a me PERIPLOCA, VIRGINIAN SILK : a genus of plants morable example of divine justice. In Sicily, at the belonging to the pentandria class; and in the natural temple of the Palici, there were fountains called Delli, method ranking under the 30th order, Contorte. See from which issued boiling water, with flames and balls BOTANY Index.

of fire ; and we are told that if any person swore falsePERIPNEUMONY, Meqstvev movid, formed from ly near them, he was instantly struck dumb, blind, lame, Tilli

" about," and Tyeupewi, lungs,” in Medicine, an or dead, or was swallowed up by the waters. But al-
inflammation of some part of the thorax, properly of the though perjury was thus held in general abhorrence,
Jungs; attended with an acute fever, and a difficulty of notwithstanding the credit wbich was given to such ac,
breathing. See MEDICINE, No 184.

counts of divine inflictions, it was so much practised.
PERIRRPANTERIUM, a vessel of stone or brass by the Greeks, that Græra fides became a proverb.
which was filled with holy water, and with which all Lovers perjuries, however, were supposed to pass onno-
those were sprinkled who were admitted by the ancients ticed, or to be very slightly punished with blackness of
to their sacrifices. Beyond this vessel no profane person the nails, a decayed tooth, or some small diminution of
was allowed to pass. We are told by some, that it was beauty.
placed in the adytum, or inmost recess of the temple ; The ancient philosophers, however, were so afraid of
others say it was placed at the door, which indeed seems perjury, that even an oath before a judge was never ade.
to be the most likely opinion. It was used both by mitted but for want of other proof. Plato's precept
Greeks and Romans, and has been evidently borrow was, “ Not to administer an oath wantonly, but on deep
ed, like many other Pagan ceremonies, by the church grounds, and with the strictest caution.” Ulpian gives



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Perjury. his opinion thus : “ Some are forward to take oaths escape within the time. It has sometimes been wished, Perjury

from a contempt of religion ; others, from an extraordi that perjury, at least upon capital accusations, whereby 11
nary awe of the Divine Majesty, carry their fear to an another's life has been or might have been destroyed, Perizzites.
unreasonable superstition; so make an equitable decision was also rendered capital, upon a principle of retalia-
of a judge necessary." “ No man will perjure himself tion; as it was universally by the laws of France.
(says Aristotle) who apprehends vengeance from Hea And certainly the odiousness of the crime pleads strong-
ven and disgrace among men.” Clinias was so very ly in behalf of the French law. But it is to be consider.
scrupulos, that rather than take an oath (though law- ed, that they admitted witnesses to be heard only on
fully), he suffered the loss of three talents. Perjury, in the side of the prosecution, and used the rack to extort
the time of Philo Judeus, was abominated and capitally a confession from the accused. In such a constitution,
punished among the Jews; though since they have much therefore, it was necessary to throw the dread of capital
degenerated, having been poisoned with the books of the punishment into the other scale, in order to keep in
Talmud, which says, “ He who breaks his promissory are the witnesses for the crown ; on whom alone the
oath, or any vows he enters into by the year, if he has prisoner's fate depended ; so naturally does one cruel
a mind that they should be ineffectual and invalid, let law beget another. But corporal and pecuniary pu-
bim rise the last day of the year, and say, Whatever nishments, exile, and perpetual infamy, are more suited
promises, oaths, and vows I may think fit to make in the to the genius of the English law; where the fact is
year following, let them be null, void, and of no effect." openly discussed between witnesses on both sides, and.
Tract. iii. part 3. of the Talmud, in the treatise Nedha the evidence for the crown may be contradicted and
rim, ch. 4. And the modern Jews use the same artifice, disproved hy those of the prisoner. Where indeed the
thinking they may then lawfully deceive the Christians. death of an innocent person has actually been the con-
See Hieron. ex Dictis Talmud, c. 3. and Magister Jo- sequence of such wilful perjury, it falls within the guilt
annes de Concor. Legum, tit. iv. c. 7.

of deliberate murder, and deserves au equal punishment;
In our law, no notice is taken of any perjury but which our ancient law in fact inflicted. But the mere
such as is committed in some court of justice having attempt to destroy life by other means not being capital,
power to administer an oath; or before some magistrate there is no reason that an attempt by perjury should ;
or proper officer invested with a similar authority, in much less that this crime should, in all judicial cases,
some proceedings relative to a civil suit or a criminal be punished with death. For to multiply capital pu-
prosecution : for it esteems all other oaths unnecessary nishments lessens their effect, when applied to crimes
at least, and therefore will not punish the breach of of the deepest dye; and, detestable as perjury is, it
them. For which reason it is much to be questioned, is not by any means to be compared with some other
how far any magistrate is justifiable in taking a volun- offences, for which only death can be inflicted"; and
tary affidavit in any extrajudicial matter, as is now too therefore it seems already (except perhaps in the in-
frequent upon every petty occasion ; since it is more stance of deliberate murder by perjury) very properly
than possible that, by such idle oaths, a man may fre- pupished by our present law; which has adopted the
quently, in foro conscientia, incur the guilt, and at the opinion of Cicero, derived from the law of the twelve
same time evade the temporal penalties of perjury. The tables, Perjurii :divina, exitium; humana, dede-
perjury must also be corrupt (that is, committed ma:) See Oath.
animo), wilful, positive, and absolute; not upon surprise, PERIWIG. See PERRUKE.
or the like: it also must be in some point material to PERIZONIUS, JAMES, a learned and laborious
the question in dispute; for if it only be in some trifling writer, was born at Dam in 1651. He became profes-
collateral circumstance, to which no regard is paid, it is sor of history and eloquence at the university of Frane.
no more penal than in the voluntary extrajudicial oaths ker, when, hy his merit and learning, he made that
before mentioned. Subornation of perjury is the of- university flourish. However, in 1693, he went to
fence of procuring another to take such a false oath as Leyden, where he was made professor of history, elo-
constitntes perjury in the principal. The punishment of quence, and the Greek tongue ; in which employment
perjury and subornation, at common law, has been va-

he continued till his death, which happened in 1715.
rious. It was anciently death ; afterwards banishment, He wrote many Dissertations, and other learned and cu-
or cutting out the tongue ; then forfeiture of goods; rious works, particularly Origines Babylonicæ et Egyp-
and now it is fine and imprisonment, and never more to tiaca, 2 vols. 8vo, &c. But the part of his labours
be capable of bearing testimony. But the statute 5 which is the most generally known, and perbaps the
Eliz. c. 9. (if the offender be prosecuted thereon) in most useful, is the notes which he wrote upor Sanctii
flicts the penalty of perpetual infamy, and a fine of 401. Minerva. That work, as published by Perizonius,
on the suborner'; and in default of payment, imprison- certainly suggested the idea of Harris's Hermes ; and
ment for six months, and to stand with both ears nailed we hesitate not to say, that our countryman has made
to the pillory. Perjury itself is there by punished with hardly any improvement on the system of his master.
six months imprisonment, perpetual intany, and a fine PERIŽZITES, the ancient inhabitants of Palestine,
of 20l. or to have both ears nailed to the pillory. But mingled with the Canaanites. There is also great pro-
the prosecution is usually carried on for the offence at bability that they themselves were Canaanites; but ha-
common law; especially' as, to the penalties before in ving no fixed habitations, sometimes dispersed in one
flicted, the statute 2 Geo. II. c. 25. superadds a power country and sometimes in another, they were for that
for the court to order the offender to be sent to the reason called Perizsites, which signifies scattered or di-
house of correction for a term not exceeding seven spersed. Pheraxoth stands for hamlets or villages. The
years, or to be transported for the same period; and Perizzites did not inhabit any certain portion of the
makes it felony, without benefit of clergy, to return or land of Canaan; there were some of them on both sides



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