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"Article 2d. Each State retains its sovereignty, freedom and inde“pendence; and every power, jurisdiction and right, which is not by “this confederation expressly delegated to the United States in congress assembled.

Article 3d. The said States hereby severally enter into a firm league f. endship. “

of friendship with each other, for their common defence, the secu“rity of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare ; binding 'themselves to assist each other, against all force offered to, or at

tacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of religion,

“sovereignty, trade, or any other pretence whatever. Privileges, Article 4th. The better to secure and perpetuate mutual friendship izofsree " and intercourse among the people of the different States in this

union, the free inhabitants of each of these States, paupers, vaga“bonds and fugitives, from justice excepted shall be entitled to all privi

leges and immunities of free citizens in the several States and the ' people of each State, shall have free ingress and regress, to and from any other State and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade and commerce, subject to the same duties, impositions and restric“tions, as the inhabitants thereof respectively, provided that such “restrictions shall not extend so far as to prevent the removal of

property imported into any State, to any other State, of which the «

owner is an inhabitant; provided — also that no imposition, duties

or restriction, shall be laid by any State on the property of the "United States, or either of them. If any person guilty of, or charged “with treason, felony, or other high misdemeanor in any State, shall

flee from justice, and be found in any of the United States, he shall upon demand of the governor, or executive power of the State “from which he fled, be delivered up and removed to the State, having “jurisdiction of his offence.

" Full faith and credit shall be given in each of these States, to the dit to be “records, acts and judicial proceedings of the courts and magistrates ols, etc. “of every other State.

Article 5th. For the more convenient management of the general te congress “interests of the United States, delegates shall be annually appointed,

“in such manner as the legislature of each State shall direct, to meet 'in congress, on the first Monday in November, in every year, with a power reserved to each State, to recal its delegates, or any of them, at any time within the year; and to send others in their stead, for the remainder of the year.

“No State shall be represented in congress by less than two, nor by more than seven members; and no person shall be capable of being

a delegate for more than three years, in any term of six years ; nor “shall any person being a delegate, be capable of holding any office under the United States, for which he, or another for his benefit, receives any salary, fees or emolument of any kind.

Each. State shall maintain its own delegates in a meeting of the States, and while they act as members of the committee of the States.

In determining questions in the United States. in congress assem“bled, each State shall have one vote.

“Freedom of speech and debate in congress shall not be impeached 0" speech, «

or questioned in any court or place out of congress; and the

members of congress shall be protected in their persons from arrests "and imprisonments, during the time of their going to and from, and " attendance on congress; except for treason, felony, or breach of the


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time of peace.

Article 6th. No State, without the consent of the United States in Individual congress assembled, shall send any embassy to, or receive any em- to send or bassy from, or enter into any conference, agreement,

alliance or

embassy. treaty, with any king, prince or State; nor shall any person hold“ing any office of profit or trust, under the United States, or any of "them, accept of any present, emolument, office or title, of any kind

whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state; nor shall the " United States in congress assembled, or any of them, grant any title " of nobility.

“No two or more States shall enter into any treaty, confederation Not to “or alliance whatever between them, without the consent of the

United States in congress assembled, specifying accurately the purposes for which the same is to be entered into; and how long it shall continue.

"No State shall lay any imposts or duties, which may interfere with Not to lay any stipulations in treaties, entered into by the United States in congress assembled, with any king, prince or State, in pursuance

treaties already proposed by congress, to the courts of France and “Spain.

No vessels of war shall be kept up in time of peace by any State ; Vessels of except siich number only, as shall be deemed necessary by the United

States in congress assembled, for the defence of such State, or its forces in “trade. Nor shall any body of forces be kept up by any State in * time of peace, except such number only, as, in the judgment of the “United States in congress assembled, shall be deemed requisite to gar“rison the forts, necessary for the defence of such State. But every Militia. “State shall always keep up a well regulated and disciplined militia, “sufficiently armed and accoutred, and shall provide, and constantly “have ready for use, in public stores, a due number of field pieces, “and tents, and a proper quantity of arms, ammunition and camp equipage.

No State shall engage in any war, without the consent of the United Individual States in congress assembled, unless such State be actually invaded " by enemies; or shall have received certain advice of a resolution in war " being formed by some nation of Indians, to invade such State, and vaded, etc.

the danger is so imminent, as not to admit of a delay, till the United States in congress assembled, can be consulted: nor shall any State grant commissions to any ships or vessels of war, nor letters of marque or reprisal, except it be after a declaration of war, by the “ United States in congress assembled, and then only against the kingdom or State, and the subjects thereof, against which war has been

so declared, and under such regulations as shall be established by “the United States in congress assembled, unless such State be in“ fested by pirates, in which case vessels of war may be fitted out “ for that occasion, and kept so long as the danger shall continue, or “ until the United States in congress assembled shall determine other6 wise.

Article 7th. When land forces are raised by any State for the com- Military “ mon defence, all officers of, or under the rank' of colonel shall be atlicer " appointed by the legislature of each State respectively, by whom ment of. " such forces shall be raised, or in such manner as such State shall ** direct, and all vacancies shall be filled up by the State which first - made the appointment.

Article 8th. All charges of war, and all other expences that shall Expenses “ be incurred for the common defence or general welfare, and allowed how to be “ by the United States in congress assembled, shall be defrayed out of defrayed.


States not to engage

Powers of the United « States.

Congress to be the last resort

a common treasury, which shall be supplied by the several States, in

proportion to the value of all land within each State, granted to or "surveyed for any person, as such land and the buildings and improve

ments thereon shall be estimated according to such mode as the United States in congress assembled shall from time to time direct and appoint. 'The taxes for paying that proportion shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legislatures of the several States within the time agreed upon by the United States in


assembled. Article 9th. The United States in congress assembled, shall have the sole and exclusive right and power of determining on peace and war, except in the cases mentioned in the sixth article — of sending

and receiving ambassadors — entering into treaties and alliances, " provided that no treaty of commerce shall be made whereby the "legislative power of the respective States shall be restrained from “imposing such imposts and duties on foreigners, as their own people "are subjected to, or from prohibiting the exportation or importation “of any species of goods or commodities whatsoever - of establishing "rules for deciding in all cases, what captures on land or water shall be legal, and in what manner prizes taken by land or naval forces in the "service of the United States shall be divided or appropriated — of

granting letters of marque and reprisal in times of peace — appointing courts for the trial of piracies and felonies committed on the high “seas, and establishing courts for receiving and determining finally appeals in all cases of captures; provided, that no member of congress shall be appointed a judge of any of the said courts.

“The United States in congress assembled shall also be the last resort

on appeal in all disputes and differences now subsisting or that may an appeal "hereafter arrive between two or more States concerning boundary, juris

diction or any other cause whatsoever; which authority shall always be

exercised in the manner following. Whenever the legislative or exec“utive authority or lawful agent of any State in controversy with another shall present a petition to congress stating the matter in question and praying for a hearing, notice thereof shall be given by order of congress to the legislative or executive authority of the other “State in controversy, and a day assigned for the appearance of the parties by their lawful agents, who shall then be directed to appoint by joint consent, commissioners or judges to constitute a court for hearing and determining the matter in question; but if they cannot agree congress shall name three persons out of each of the United

States and from the list of such persons each party shall alternately “strike out one, the petitioners beginning, until the number shall be

reduced to thirteen ; and from that number not less than seven, nor more than nine names as congress shall direct, shall in the presence of congress be drawn out by lot, and the persons whose names shall be so drawn or any five of them, shall be commissioners or judges, to hear and finally determine the controversy, so always as a major part of the judges who shall hear the cause shall agree in the determination : “And if either party shall neglect to attend at the day appointed with

out shewing reasons, which congress shall judge sufficient, or being present shall refuse to strike, the congress shall proceed to nominate

three persons out of each State, and the secretary of congress shall "strike in behalf of such party absent or refusing, and the judgment and

sentence of the court to be appointed in the manner before prescribed 'shall be final and conclusive; and if any of the parties shall refuse to

submit to the authority of such court, or to appear or defend their “claim, or cause, the court shall nevertheless proceed to pronounce

putes, etc., between States.

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