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Alien friends having declared their intention to become citizens,

hundred acres.

contirmed.

6 Sm. 175.

acres.

10 Feb. 1807 § 1. 4. It shall and may be lawful for any alien(d) or aliens, actually resident within 4 Sm. 362.

this commonwealth, and not being the subject or subjects of some sovereign, state or power, which is or shall be, at the time or times of such purchase or purchases, at war with the United States of America, to purchase lands, tenements and

hereditaments within this commonwealth, and to have and to hold the same in may purchase and fee simple, or for any lesser estate, as fully, to all intents and purposes, as any hold lands.

natural-born citizen or citizens may or can do. Provided always, That such alien or aliens shall, previously to such purchase or purchases, declare his or their intention to become a citizen or citizens of the United States, agreeably to any law of

the United States, at that time in force upon that subject : And provided also, That Not exceeding five no such alien or aliens shall be competent to purchase and hold more than five

hundred acres, until he or they shall have actually become a citizen or citizens of

the United States. Ibid. $ 2. 5. Where any alien or aliens, resident as aforesaid, may heretofore hare purSuch purchases

chased any land or other real estate within this commonwealth, after having declared his intention to become a citizen, in conformity with an act of congress at that time in force upon that subject, the same purchase shall be as valid to all intents and purposes, and shall be construed to vest the said land or real estate in the said alien or aliens, as fully and absolutely as though the said declaration had been made in conformity to the act of congress, entitled, “ An act supplementary to and to amend the act, entitled, “An act to establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and to repeal the act heretofore passed on that subject,' " passed the 15th day

of June 1798(e). 22 March 1814 & 2. 6. It shall be lawful for any alien who, on the 18th day of June 1812, resided,

and has since continued to reside in this state, and who is the subject of any sorCertain alien ene- ereign, state or nation, at war with the United States, after having filed, according mies authorized to to law, a declaration of his intention to become a citizen of the United States, to lands, not exceed receive, hold and convey any lands and tenements within this commonwealth, not ing two hundred exceeding in quantity two hundred acres, nor in value twenty thousand dollars, as

fully, to all intents and purposes, as a citizen of the United States can do. 24 March 1918 $ 1. 7. It shall and may be lawful for all and every foreigner and foreigners, alien or

aliens, not being the subject or subjects of some sovereign, state or power which Alien friends may is or shall be, at the time or times of such purchase or purchases, at war with the purchase and bold United States of America, to purchase lands, tenements and hereditaments within ing tive thousand this commonwealth, not exceeding five thousand acres, and to have and to hold

the same to them, their heirs and assigns for ever, as fully, to all intents and pur

poses, as any natural-born citizen may or can do. Ibid. $ 2.

8. All purchases of real estate made by emigrants resident within this commonPurchase of lands wealth, previous to declaring their intentions to become citizens of the United by aliens, since States, and who, since purchasing the same, have been naturalized in conformity naturalized, con- with the laws of the United States on that subject, shall be as valid to all intents

and purposes, and shall be construed to vest the title to the said real estate in the purchasers, as fully and absolutely as if they had been citizens at the time they

purchased the same. 81 March 1937 g 1. 9. All purchases of lands, tenements and hereditaments, within this common

wealth, not exceeding five thousand acres, heretofore made, by all and every forPurchases of lands eigner and foreigners, alien or aliens, not being the subject or subjects of some not exceeding five sovereign state or power, which is, or shall have been at the time or times of such aliens, contirmed. purchase or purchases, at war with the United States of America, and who are

residents within the United States, are hereby confirmed, and it shall be lawful for all and every such foreigner and foreigners, alien or aliens, to have and to hold the saine, to them, their heirs and assigns for ever, as fully, to all intents and pur

poses, as any natural-born citizen or citizens may or can do. 16 April 1844 & 1. 10. All purchases of lands, tenements and hereditaments, within this common

wealth, not exceeding two thousand acres, heretofore made by any alien or aliens, Titles of aliens to and in all cases where such alien or aliens shall have inherited the same by descent lands, not exceed or otherwise, the title of such alien or aliens, is hereby confirmed; and it shall be ing two thousand lawful for such alien or aliens to hold the same as fully and to all intents and puracres, confirmed.

poses, as any citizen of the United States might or could do: Provided, That nothing herein contained shall, in any wise, affect or impair the vested rights of

any individual or individuals. 1 May 1861 $1. il. Aliens may hereafter purchase and hold real estate in this state not exceed

ing in quantity five thousand acres, nor in net annual income twenty thousand

7 Sm. 133.

acres.

firmed.

P. L. 121.

P. L. 274.

P. L. 433.

(d) At common law, upon the death of an alien, the to Ireland in 1771, and at the declaration of indepenland which he may have purchased, escheats and vests dence was settled as an inhabitant within the British in the commonwealth, without any inqnest of office. dominions, where he remained until 1795, when he Rubeck v. Gardner, 7 W. 458. And he acquires no returned to America, was not a citizen of the United title in his wife's estate of inheritance, as tenant by States. Hollingsworth v. Duane, Wall. C. C.51. But the curtesy initiate. Reese v. Waters, 4 W. & $. 145. a native of Saxony, who resided in Louisiana, at the One born within the British dominions, before the time of its cession to the United States, by the treaty American revolution, and who was never in the United of 30 April 1803, was held to be a citizen without natuStates, was an alien, and incapable of taking land by ralization. Harrold's Case, 1 Clark 214. descent. Jackson v. Burns, 3 Binn. 75. So, one born (e) This act of congress is repealed. within the colony of New York in 1760, who removed

P. L. 433.

dollars ; and whensoever any alien or corporation in this state or elsewhere has

1 May 1861 $ 1. acquired any real estate, without the authority of law, or in excess of the limit of law, and shall have hereintofore conveyed the same unto any person or persons Aliens may hold authorized by law to hold the same, the title thereto shall be indefeasible by the lands of the annual

value of $20,000. commonwealth by any subsequent proceeding.

1 Sm. 461.

that purpose.

P. L. 121.

P. L. 274.

confirmed.

.

derived through aliens contirmed,

II. Of titles derived through aliens. 12. The heirs, devisees and assigns of persons born out of the allegiance of the 31 Aug. 1779 & 2. crown of Great Britain, and who have removed to this or any of the adjoining states for the purpose of settling, and who have died, not having been naturalized, Titles derived from shall hold their estates respectively, as if such person so having died, and not aliens confirined. having been naturalized, had been born in allegiance to the said crown of Great Britain, or had been naturalized by law, in due form made and enacted for

13. In all cases where aliens have purchased real estate within this common- 31 March 1937 & 2. wealth, and have sold the same, the said sales shall be valid, to all intents and purposes,

and shall be construed to vest the title to the said real estate, as fully Sales of lands by and effectually as if the said aliens had been citizens at the time of purchasing the aliens confirmed. same; and in all cases where any alien residing in this commonwealth, shall have purchased or held real estate therein, and shall have died without having been Titles derived by naturalized, the title thereof is hereby confirmed to his heirs, who, in case he had descent from alien been a citizen, would have inherited the same (or to his devisee or devisees), and arcestors conthere shall be no escheat by reason of such alienage : Provided, That nothing herein contained shall in any wise affect or impair the vested rights of any other individual or individuals.

14. In all cases where aliens have purchased real estate within this common- 16 April 1814 $ 2. wealth, and have sold the same to citizens of the United States, the said sales shall be valid, to all intents and purposes, and shall be construed to vest the title to the sales of lands by said real estate, in the citizens aforesaid, as fully and effectually as if the said aliens, to citizens, aliens had been citizens at the time of purchasing the same.

15. The title to any real estate in this commonwealth, derived from any person 8 April 1851 $ 7. who is or was in his or her lifetime a citizen of the United States, to his or her lineal descendants, although the same may have been conveyed or devised, or may Titles to lands have descended to such lineal descendants from an alien, is hereby confirmed, so far as that there shall be no escheat by reason of alienage in such case; but such lineal descendants may hold and transmit the title to such real estate to his, her or their heirs or assigns: Provided, That nothing herein contained shall in any

wise affect or impair the vested rights of any other individual or individuals.

16. Whensoever any alien, or any foreign corporation or corporations of another 9 Jan. 1861 $ 1. or of this state, shall have held title to real estate within this state, which he or they were not, by the laws of this commonwealth, authorized to hold, and shall Titles from aliens have heretofore conveyed such title to any citizen of the United States, before any and foreign corinquisition shall have been taken against the real estate so held, to escheat the piorations consame, such citizens shall hold, and may convey such title and real estate, indefeasibly as to any right of escheat in this commonwealth, by reason of such real estate having been held by an alien, or corporation not authorized to hold the same, or to the extent in which it had been held.

17. All conveyances of real estate in this commonwealth, made in trust for, or 28 March 1965 $ 1. made to or by, any alien or aliens, before the passage of the act, approved the first day of May, Anno Domini 1861, (9) entitled " A supplement to an act relating to conveyances to corporations, passed

the 26th day of April, Anno Domini 1855," shall be entitled to aliens prior to 1st the benefits of that act, as though made after the passage thereof, and they are firmed. hereby ratified and confirmed ; and the premises held in trust for said alien or aliens

, may be conveyed directly to them; and such alien or aliens may hold or convey such estate, as fully as any citizen of the United States : Provided, "That the amount so to be held and conveyed, shall not exceed the amount named in said act, viz : five thousand acres; and that this act shall not affect any pending litigation, or any case heretofore decided. 18. Where any conveyances of real estate in this commonwealth have been made Ibid. & 2.

or any foreign corporation or corporations of another or of his state, Titles from aliens to any citizen of the United States, since the passage of the act, approved the 9th and foreign corpoday of January, Anno Domini 1861,(1) entitled " An act to enable citizens to hold rations confirmed. title which had been held by aliens and corporations," such citizen shall be entitled to the benefits of said act, as though said conveyances were made before the passage thereof, and shall hold, and may convey, such real estate and the title thereof, indefeasibly as to any right of escheat in this commonwealth, by reason of such real estate having been held by an alien, or corporation not authorized by the laws of this commonwealth to hold the same.(i)

P. L. 2.

P. L. 631.

Limitation.

by any alien,

(g) Supra 11. (h) Supra 11.

(i) Substantially re-enacted by acts 8 May 1876,

P. L. 127 ; 22 May 1878, P. L. 85; and 8 April 1881,
P. L. 9. See the act 7 June 1891, P. L. 219, title

Escheats."

26 April 1869 $ 1.

P. L. 96.

19. That the provisions of the act, entitled “ An act to enable citizens to hold title which had been held by aliens and corporations," approved the 9th day of January, Anno Domini 1861,(k) be and hereby are extended to all sales and converances of real estate which had been made prior to the passage of this act.

Act of 1861 extended to prior conveyances.

ment.

III. Naturalization.(1) 10 May 1993 $ 1. 20. On and after the passage of this act the certificates of naturalization shall be P, L. 36.

printed on parchment: and it shall be unlawful for any officer or any member of Certificates shall be any committee or organization of any political party, or any candidate for office printed on parch- nominated by any political party or nomination papers, or for any person in behalf

of said committee, organization or candidate, to pay or furnish the money to pay, Payment of fees.

or in any way to become responsible for the payment of the fees and expenses directly or indirectly incurred by an alien in attending upon any court for the pur

pose of and in obtaining his naturalization papers. Ibid. $ 2. 21. Any person violating the provisions of the first section of this act shall, upon

conviction in a summary proceeding before any city magistrate, alderman or justice Penalty.

of the peace, who are hereby given jurisdiction to try said offenders in a summary way, for each offence, pay a fine of fifty dollars, which, when collected, shall be

paid into the county treasury of the county wherein the offence was committed. Ibid. $ 3. 22. If any person convicted in the manner prescribed in the second section of

this act and sentenced to pay a fine or fines shall refuse or fail to forth with pay refusal to pay fine. said fine or fines and costs to the city magistrate, alderman or justice of the peace

before whom he is convicted, or give satisfactory security to be approved by said magistrate, alderman or justice of the peace to pay the same within ten days, he shall be committed to county jail, there to be held one day for every five dollars of the fine or fines which he has been sentenced to pay: Provided, however, That said imprisonment shall not prevent the collection of said fine or fines and costs by legal process.

Commitment on

Proviso.

ALMSHOUSES.

1. Sites for almshouses to be selected. Approval. 17. Election of directors of the poor. Conveyance. To be approved by the grand jury, or · 18. Oath of office. submitted to a popular vote.

19. Director elected to fill vacancy. 2. How vote to be taken.

20. Payment of expenses. 3. Tickets. Returns.

21. Accounts to be kept. To be open to inspection. 4. Conduct of elections.

22. Stated meetings and duties of directors. 5. Expenses.

23. Salaries. 6. To be a body corporate. Corporate title. Cor- 24. Terms of existing officers not to be affected. porate powers. To bind out children as apprentices. 25. Appointment of superintendent. His duties. Seal.

26. Physician. 7. Yearly estimates to be furnished. Tax. Loans. 27. Dispensatory.

8. Removal of the poor, on completion of the 28. Poor districts. building.

29. Repeal. 9. Employment of the poor. Out-door relief. 30. Directors may rebuild houses destroyed by fire. 10. Power to make rules.

31. County commissioners to levy tax. 11. How vacancies to be filled.

32. Expenses. 12. Settlement of existing claims.

33. Plans and contracts to be approved by county 13. Office of overseer abolished.

commissioners. 14. Appropriation of fines and penalties.

34. Directors to give bond. 15. When several townships may erect a house. 35. On completion of building, viewers to be ap

16. Not to apply to certain districts. Several pointed. Repeal. Compensation. almshouses.

Sites for almshouses to be selected.

24 March 1977 $ 1. 1. The county commissioners of the several counties of this commonwealth may P. L. 40.

select such real estate as they may deem necessary for the accommodation of the poor of their respective counties, and shall submit such selection, together with the terms and conditions upon which such real estate can be purchased in fee simple,

to the court of quarter sessions in and for the proper county; and if the same Approval. shall be approved by said court, the county commissioners shall take a conveyance Conveyance. therefor, in the name and for the use of the corporation mentioned in the fourth

section of said act; and they shall certify the proceedings therein, under their

hands and seals, to the clerk of the court of quarter sessions of such county, and The be approved by the same shall be entered at length upon the records of such court : Provided, That submitted to a before the purchase of any such real estate shall be approved by said court, the popular vote;

same shall be submitted to and approved by two successive grand juries of the proper county, or the said court may submit the question of the erection of a poorhouse to a vote of the qualified voters of the county; and if a majority of the votes cast is in favor of a county poor-house, then, in either case, the court shall approve of the purchase of the real estate selected as aforesaid by the county commissioners.

(k) Supra 16.

(1) For the several acts of congress on the subject of naturalization, see Appendix.

P. L. 40.

New elections.

P. L. 150.

2. The election provided for in the first and sixth sections of this act, shall be 24 March 1877 $ 2. held by the proper election officers, in the several townships, wards and boroughs of the several counties of this commonwealth, at the place for holding the general How vote to be election, at such times as may be fixed by the court of quarter sessions of the taken. proper county.

3. It shall be the duty of the judges and inspectors of the elections to receive Ibid. & 3. tickets, either written or printed, from the legal voters of each election district,

Tickets. labelled, on the outside, “poor-house,” and on the inside, “for poor-house," or " against poor-house," and deposit said tickets in the proper ballot box, as required by law in case of general elections; and the tickets so received shall be counted and a certified return of the same made, and sent or delivered to the clerk of the court of quarter sessions of the proper county, as now provided for by law for making returns for township and borough elections; and it shall be the duty of the clerk of such court to aggregate the votes, in one column, cast “for poorhouse," and, in another column, the votes cast “ against poor-house," which aggregate, together with the returns of such election, shall be laid before the judges of the court of the proper county, at the next regular term thereof succeeding such election; and it shall be the duty of the judges to examine said returns, and the Returns. aggregate of the votes cast for and against poor-house, and publicly declare the result; which result shall be certified by said judges, and filed with the records of said court. 4. In receiving and counting, and in making returns of the votes cast, the

Ibid. § 4. inspectors and judges and clerks of said election shall be governed by the laws of this commonwealth regulating general elections; and all the penalties of said conduct of elecelection laws are hereby extended to and applied to the voters, inspectors, judges and clerks, voted at, and in attendance upon, its elections, held under the prorisions of this act, and the act to which this is a supplement. 5. The expenses of such election shall be paid by the treasurer of the

proper

Ibid. & 5." county: Provided, No new election shall be ordered for three years after the hold

Expenses. ing of the last election.

6. The said directors shall for ever hereafter, in name and in fact, be a body S May 1576 $ 4. politic and corporate in law, to all intents and purposes whatsoever, relative to the poor of said county, and shall have perpetual succession, and may sue and be sued, To be a body plead and be impleaded, by the name, style and title of “ The Directors of a Ilome corporate. for the Destitute of the county of -- ;” and by that name shall and may Corporate title. receive, take and hold any lands, tenements and hereditaments, not exceeding the yearly value of eight thousand dollars, and any goods and chattels, of the gift, Corporate powers. alienation or bequest of any person or persons whatsoever, for the benefit of the poor aforesaid; to take and hold any lands and tenements within their county, in fee simple or otherwise, under the supervision of court as aforesaid, as may be donated to them by deed or otherwise, and dispose of the same, as deemed conducive to the comfort of the inmates; to provide all things necessary for the lodg: ing, maintenance and employment of said persons; and the said directors shall have power to employ, and at pleasure remove, a steward or stewards, a matron or matrons, physician or physicians, surgeon or surgeons, and all other attendants that

may be necessary for the said destitute persons respectively; and to bind out to bind out apprentices, so that such apprenticeship may expire, if males, at or before the age

apprentices. of twenty-one, if females, at or before the age of eighteen years: Provided, That no child be bound out for a longer time than until he arrives at the age of eighteen years, unless he be bound out to a trade other than a farmer: Provided also, That no child shall be apprenticed without the limits of the state. And the said directors are hereby empowered to use one common seal in all business relating to said Seal. corporation, and the same, at their pleasure, to alter and renew.

7. The said directors, as soon as may be, after their election and organization as Ibid. $ 5. aforesaid, and annually thereafter, shall make an estimate of the yearly cost of maintaining said establishment, and furnish said estimate to the county commis- to be furnished.

Yearly estimates sioners, who shall add the same to their yearly estimate, preparatory to levying their tax for the coming year; and they shall, from time to time, make such sug- Tax. gestions to the county commissioners, as they may deem necessary, as to keep the improvements

or alterations that may be required to pace with the necessities of the occasion, and the commissioners aforesaid shall make such changes and improvements as they may deem necessary. And for the purposes of this act the commissioners aforesaid are hereby authorized to procure a loan, for which they may pay Loans. interest

, not exceeding six per centum, if they deem it best to do so; said loan not exceed three-fourths of the amount necessary for the purchase of said property, and the erection of the necessary buildings; said loan to be gradually reduced, and to be entirely cancelled within five years.

8. As soon as the said buildings shall have been erected or purchased, and all Ibid. $ 7. necessary accommodations provided therein, notice shall be given to the overseers Removal of the of the poor in the various districts of said county, requiring them forthwith to poor, on complebring the poor of their respective districts to said " Home for the Destitute;" tion of the buildwhich order the overseers are required to comply with, or otherwise forfeit the cost of all future maintenance, except where by sickness or any other sufficient cause,

children as

rules.

same.

How vacancies to be filled.

Settlement of

8 May 1876 87. any poor person cannot be removed, in which case the overseers shall represent P. L. 150.

the same to the nearest justice of the peace, who, being satisfied of the truth thereof, shall certify the same to the said directors, and at the same time issue an order, under his hand and seal, to the said overseers, directing them to maintain such poor person until he or she may be in a situation to be removed, and then to remove the said person and deliver him or her to the steward or keeper of said home together with said order; and the charge and expense shall be paid by the

said directors. Ibid. $ 8. 9. The said directors shall, from time to time, receive, provide for, and employ, Employment of

according to the true intent and meaning of this act, all such indigent persons as the poor.

shall be entitled to relief, or shall have gained a legal settlement in the said county, and shall be sent there by an order or warrant for that purpose under the hands and seals of two justices of the peace of said county, directed to any constable of the same county, or to the overseers of the proper district, or of any district in any other county in this commonwealth. And the said directors are hereby

authorized, when they shall deem it proper and convenient to do so, to administer Out-door relief.

relief to any person in need of assistance, or to permit any person or persons to be maintained elsewhere : Provided, That their expense in any case does not exceed

that for which they could be maintained in the said home. Ibid. & 9. 10. The said directors, or a majority of them, shall be a quorum for the transac

tion of business, and shall have full power to make and ordain such ordinances, Power to make

rules and regulations as they shall think proper, convenient and necessary for the government, control and support of said home, and of the revenues thereunto belonging, and of all such persons as shall come under their cognizance: Provided, That the same be not repugnant to this or any other of the laws of this state or of the United States : And provided further, That the same shall not have any force or effect, until they shall have been submitted to the court of quarter sessions

for the time being of said county, and shall have received the approval of the Ibid. & 12. 11. In case (of) any vacancy, by death, resignation or otherwise, of any of the

said directors, the court of quarter sessions of the respective county shall fill such

vacancy until the next general election. Ibid. $ 13.

12. All claims and demands existing at the time of this act being carried into effect, shall have full force and effect as fully as if this act had not been passed;

and when the same may have been fully adjusted and settled, all moneys remainexisting claims.

ing in the hands of the overseers, as well as the uncollected taxes levied for the support of the poor in the several districts in said county, shall be paid over to the supervisors of the highways of said county, to be by them added to the road fund

and applied as road tax is by law applied in said county. Ibid. § 14. 13. As soon as the poor of said county shall have been removed to the home of

said county, and the outstanding taxes collected and paid over, the office of over

seers of the poor thereafter shall be abolished. Ibid. $ 15.

14. All fines, forfeitures or bequests for the use of the poor, shall be payable to

the county treasurer for the use of said home; and the directors are hereby authorAppropriation of fines and penalties,

ized to demand and receive the same, and in the name of said corporation may bring suit for the recovery of all money belonging to said institution, to plead and be impleaded in all matters of law and equity, and to prosecute all such suits to final judgment; and the money so recovered shall be paid into the county treasury, and shall be applied in liquidation of the debts of the institution and the support

of its iminates. Ibid. $ 17. 15. Whenever the county commissioners of any county see proper, from any

cause whatsoever, not to comply with the requirements of this act, any four or townships may

more townships of any county, through a commissioner appointed by the poor overseers of each township, can proceed to procure real estate as provided by the first section of this act: Provided, That, in all cases, it shall be necessary for the majority of the commission to concur in all acts, before the court shall take cognizance of the same: And provided further, That district poor-houses shall be governed by all the provisions of this act, the same as county poor-houses, except as far as relates to the appointment of commissioners, by the poor overseers form

ing the aforesaid district. 24 March 1877 § 4. 16. The provisions of this act shall not apply to any county or district that has

already within it a county or district poor-house or houses, under any special law, Not to apply to

unless the same shall be accepted by a majority of the voters of such county or district, at an election for that purpose, which may be ordered by the court of quarter sessions of the proper county, upon the petition of fifty tax-payers: Provided, That the directors of the poor may erect and maintain two houses for the destitute, in any county containing a population of over sixty thousand inhabitants

and six hundred square miles. 18 May 1975 1. 17. Whenever any county shall have provided for the erection of a home for the

destitute, under the act to which this is a further supplement, then the qualified Election of direct- electors of such county shall elect, at the next general election, under the general

election laws of the commonwealth, five reputable citizens of said county, to be directors of the home of the destitute, who shall have charge of such institution

Omce of overseer abolished.

When several

erect a house.

P. L. 42.

certain districts.

Several almshouses.

P. L. 63.

ors of the poor,

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