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Votes on concur
Art. 3. Sect. 4. 49. Every bill shall be read at length, on three different days, in each house ; all
amendments made thereto shall be printed for the use of the members, before the Three readings.
final vote is taken on the bill; and no bill shall become a law, unless, on its final Amendments. Yeas and nays.
passage, the vote be taken by yeas and nays, the names of the persons voting for and against the same be entered on the journal, and a majority of the members
elected to each house be recorded thereon as voting in its favor.($) Art. 3. Sect. 5. 50. No amendment to bills by one house shall be concurred in by the other,
except by the vote of a majority of the members elected thereto, taken by ring in amend- nays, and the names of those voting for and against recorded upon
the journal thereof; and reports of committees of conference shall be adopted in either house Reports of com
only by the vote of a majority of the members elected thereto, taken by yeas and mittees of copfer
nays, and the names of those voting recorded upon the journals. Art. 3. Sect. 6. 51. No law shall be revived, amended, or the provisions thereof extended or
conferred, by reference, to its title only, but so much thereof as is revived, amended, Revival and amendment of
extended or conferred shall be re-enacted and published at length.(t)
52. The general assembly shall not pass any local or special law : Art. 3. Sect. 7. Authorizing the creation, extension or impairing of liens; Special and local
Regulating the affairs of counties, cities, townships, wards, boroughs or school legislation liınited. districts;(u) Allegheny City v. Moorhead, 80 Ibid. 118. Dewhurst Magee, 85 P. S. 401. See People v. Supervisors of V. Allegheny, 95 Ibid. 437. If, however, the title of an Chenango, 8 N. Y. 317. act tend to mislead as to the power granted, it is un- (1) See Wells v. Buffalo, 14 Hun 438. A statute constitutional; such title stands on a different foot intended to extend the provisions of another statute ing from one general in its terms. Union Passenger to another class of subjects, but not setting forth the Railway Company's Appeal, 32 Sm. 91. The title of provisions thus extended, is unconstitutional. Woodan act is now deemed a part of it. Pennsylvania ward v. City, 4 Kulp 125. An act intended to extend Railroad Co. v. Riblet, 66 P. S. 164. Eby's Appeal, 70 the provisions of other acts to persons pot covered by Ibid. 311. Cochran v. Library Co., 6 Phila. 492. The said acts by reference to their titles only, is unconstititle of an act should be sufficiently clear and com- tutional. Iron Works v. Oil Co., 122 P. S. 627. An prehensive to fairly give notice of its subject. Ben- amendment which does not re-enact the original act nett v. Maloney, 4 Kulp 537. The following acts at length is in violation of this section. Barrett's have been held not to be in violation of this section: Appeal, 116 P. S. 486. A reference to another act as act 11 June 1879 (P. L. 150), and its supplement of an example by way of illustration is not such a re17 May 1883 (P. L. 36), in In re Borough, 117 P. S. enactment as is required to be re-enacted at length. 538; act 9 May 1871, relating to streets in the sev- Krause v. Railroad Co., 20 W. N. C. 111. The provi. eral boroughs of Montgomery county, in Streets in sion of the practice act of 25 May 1887, for a stateRoyersford, 2 Montg. 153; act 5 May 1876, as to re- ment as provided by the act of 21 March 1806, is not building county bridges, in Myers v. Commonwealth, in conflict with this section. Krause v. Railroad Co., 110 P. S. 217; the wholesale liquor act of 24 May 20 W. N. C. 111. See Pottstown Borough Ectension, 1887, in Doberneck's Application, 35 P. L. J. 476; the 1 Montg. 189, 161. Lansdale Borough Ertension, revenue act 30 June 1885, in Manufacturing Co.'s Ibid. 192. County v. Overseers, 135 P. S. 86. Borough Appeal, 1 Mona. 353; act 2 June 1870, authorizing v. Railway Co., 131 P. S. 1. Commonwealth v. Bender, turnpike, plank-road and canal companies to issue 7C. C.620. Reid v. Smoulter, 128 P. S. 324. bonds and abandon portions of their roads, in Fred- (u) The municipal corporation act of 24 May 1887, ericks v. Canal Co., 109 P. S. 50; acts 22 April 1879 and the act 11 April 1876, were held to be obnoxand 2 June 1881, making it the duty of the county ious to this section. Ayar's Appeal, 122 P. S. 266. auditors to audit the accounts of directors of the poor, Shoemaker v. City, Ibid. 285. Berghaus v. City, Ibid. treasurers and stewards, in Nason v. Directors, 24 289. Grant Street, 121 P. S. 396. If an act regulating W. N. C. 60; act 6 May 1887, against obscene liter- affairs of counties, cities, townships, wards, boroughs ature, in Commonwealth v. Havens, 6 C. C. 545; the or school districts either produces or may produce high license act 13 May 1887, in Commonwealth v. local results, it is void under this section. School Sellers, 130 P. S. 32. The following acts have been District's Appeal, 113 P. S. 176. See Morrison v. held to be unconstitutional as violative of this sec- Bachert, 112 P. S. 322. City v. Silkman, 113 P. S. 191. tion of the constitution : act 12 May 1867, prohibiting McCarthy
v. Commonwealth, 110 P. S. 243. Commonthe sale of liquor within two miles of the normal wealth v. Farley, 46 L. I. 108. Beaver County Indexes, school at Mansfield, Tioga county, in Hatfield v. 6 C. C. 525 ; Townsend v. Wilson, 7 C. C. 101. Miller Commonwealth, 120 P. S. 395; act 14 May 1874, or so v. Cunningham, 8 Ibid. 500. Chester County Court much thereof as discloses an intent to impose taxa- House, 7 C. C. 212. Commonwealth v. Commissioners, tion, in Borough v. Sholes, 118 P. S. 165; act 8 March Ibid. 173. Commonwealth v. Swab, 8 Ibid. 111. Com1872, relating to the Ridge Avenue Passenger Railway monwealth v. Reynolds, 27 W. N. C. 139. All the Co., in Railway Co. v. City, 23 W. N. C. 324 ; act 9 boroughs and townships in the state are the proper April 1870, against fraudulently trafficking in regis- subjects of independent and general legislation withtered mineral water bottles, in Commonwealth v. Far- out making such an act a local statute. Evans v. ley, 6 C. C. 433; act 18 March 1868, as to laying out Philipi, 117 P. S. 226. An act purporting to be a genand opening roads in Chester county boroughs, in eral system for the whole state is not to be regarded Road in Phenixville, 1 Mona. 353; act 3 June 1885, as a local act because it contains a provision that it for the suppression of lottery gifts by storekeepers, shall not be taken to repeal local or special acts. in Commonwealth v. Moorhead, 7 C. C. 513; act 10 Keim v. Devitt, 3 C. C. 250. The word “affairs" in June 1881, relating to game and fish, in Common- this section, means such affairs as affect the people of wealth v. Bender, 7 C. C. 620. See Rogers v. Improve- the county. Frost v. Cherry, 122 P. S. 417. The ment Co., 109 P. S. 109. Commonwealth v. France, following acts have been held not to be local legisla135 P. S. 389. Swaney v. Oil Co., 7 C. C. 351, and note tion in violation of this section: act 25 June 1885, to State v. Circuit Court, 15 Atlan. 297. Where the regulating the collection of taxes in boroughs and title of an act does not fully express its subject, only townships, in Evans v. Philipi, 117 P. S. 226; act those provisions are void which are not covered by 30 June 1885, section 20 (the revenue act), in Manthe title. McGee's Appeal, 114 P. S. 570. If the title ufacturing Co.'s Appeal, 1 Mona. 353; act 9 June of an original act fully expresses its subject, and a 1874, repealing the act relating to road juries in supplement thereto has a title sufficiently expressing Philadelphia county, in Arrott Street, 18 W. N. C. 121; any subject within the purview, and contains provi- act 30 June 1885, for the regulation of plumbers in sions germane to the subject, such supplementary act cities of the first class, Commonwealth v. Lambecht, is not unconstitutional. In re Borough, 117 P. S. 538. 3 C. C. 323; the high license act of 13 May 1887, in
(8) An alleged disregard of the forms of legislation Commonwealth v. McCandless, 21 W. N. C. 162; 'act required by the constitution on the passage of a law, 4 May 1889, for the election of constables in wards is not the subject of judicial inquiry. Kilgore v. of cities of the second and third classes, in Reading and privileges.
Changing the names of persons or places;
Art. 8. Sect. 7. Changing the venue in civil or criminal cases;
Authorizing the laying out, opening, altering or maintaining roads, highways, streets or alleys;
Relating to ferries or bridges, or incorporating ferry or bridge companies, except for the erection of bridges crossing streams which form boundaries between this and any other state;
Vacating roads, town-plats, streets or alleys;
For the opening and conducting of elections, or fixing or changing the place of voting;
Creating offices, or prescribing the powers and duties of otficers, in counties, cities, boroughs, townships, election or school districts;
Changing the law of descent or succession ;
Regulating the practice or jurisdiction of, or changing the rules of evidence in, any judicial proceeding or inquiry before courts, aldermen, justices of the peace, sheriffs, commissioners, arbitrators, auditors, masters in chancery or other tribunals; or providing or changing methods for the collection of debts, or the enforcing of judgments, or prescribing the effect of judicial sales of real estate;
Regulating the fees, or extending the powers and duties of aldermen, justices of the peace, magistrates or constables ;
Regulating the management of public schools, the building or repairing of school-houses, and the raising of money for such purposes ;
Fixing the rate of interest;
Affecting the estates of minors or persons under disability, except after due notice to all parties in interest, to be recited in the special enactment;
Remitting fines, penalties and forfeitures, or refunding moneys legally paid into the treasury;
Exempting property from taxation;
Granting to any corporation, association or individual, any special or exclusive privilege or immunity, or to any corporation, association or individual, the right to lay down a railroad track;
53. Nor shall the general assembly indirectly enact such special or local law, by the partial repeal of a general law; but laws repealing local or special acts may be
Partial repeal of passed;
general law. 54. Nor shall any law be passed granting powers or privileges, in any case where the granting of such powers and privileges shall have been provided for by gerieral law, nor where the courts have jurisdiction to grant the same, or give the relief asked for.(v)
Limitation to granting powers
Constables, 8 C. C. 101 ; act 8 May 1889, fixing the recovery of judgments against the city of Philadelnumber of road and bridge viewers, East Avenue, 7 phia, in Betz v. City, 4 C. C. 481; act 6 May 1887, Lanc. 164; act 5 April 1867, authorizing the borough sections 3 to 17. providing for special pracuice in of Wilkesbarre to assess for paving according to road cases in Philadelphia, in Ruan Street, 132 P. S. the frontage rule, 6 Kulp 163; act 29 May 1889, pro- 257 ; act 23 March 1877, authorizing sheriffs and providing for the incorporation of a new borough out thonotaries to sue for their fees, in Strine v. Foltz, of a seceding part of an existing borough, Shuron 113 P. S. 349; act 19 March 1879, providing for the Hill Borough, 4 Del. 252; act 13 April 1887, amen- incorporation of street railways in cities of the second datory of the act establishing separate orphans' courts, and third classes, in Weinnian v. Railway Co., 118 in Reid v. Smoulter, 128 P. S. 324; act 18 March P.S. 192; act 23 May 1878, providing for the regulation 1875, providing that a married woman may transfer and incorporation of certain passenger railway comalone, in Loftus v. Bank, 133 P. S. 97; act 28 April panies, in Turnpike v. Railway Co., 5 C. C. 467; act 1887, relating to the acquisition of real estate by the 23 June 1885, regulating fences, in Frost v. Cherry, poor guardians in cities of the second class, in Siraub 122 P. S. 417; acts 11 June 1879, and 17 May 1883, v. City, 38 P.: L. J. 89; act 6 May 1887, sections 1 providing for the annexation of adjacent territory to and 2, providing that in opening and widening plotted boroughs, in Pottstown Borough Ectension, 4 Montg. streets in Philadelphia, the viewers shall also assess 29; and the act 14 June 1887, providing a peculiar damages and benefits, in Ruan Street, 132 P. S. 257; method of procedure in road cases in the city of Pittsact 14 June 1887, as to wharves in Pittsburgh, in burgh. Wyoming Street, 137 P. S. 494. See Directors Ree's Appeal, 12 Atlan. 427; act 14 Feb. 1889, sec- v. Commonwealth, 37 L. I. 94, and notes to State v. tion 4, as to township assessors, in Commonwealth v. Committee, 14 Atlan. 588, and State v. Circuit Court, Coleman, 9 C. C. 90. The following acts have been 15 Atlan. 297. Ruilroad Co.'s Appeal, 33 Pitts. L. J. declared unconstitutional as in violation of this sec- 191. Commonwealth v. Denworth, 145 P. S. 172. tion: act 27 June 1883, continuing the lien of a scire (v) This section is wholly prospective in its prohijacias upon municipal claims in cities of the first bition, and does not repeal existing laws. Indiana class for five years, in City v. Church, 115 P. S. 291 ; County v. Agricultural Society, 85 P. S. 357. Alleact 13 June 1883, authorizing a discharge without gheny County v. Gibson, 90 Ibid. 397. It does not taking the benefit of the insolvent law, in Carey's prevent the classification of municipal corporations Petition, 43 L. I. 384; act 1 June 1885, relating to the with respect to taxation. Wheeler v. Philadelphia,
Art. 3. Sect. 8.
Art. 3. Sect. 9.
Art. 3. Sect. 10.
Officers of the
Art. 3, Sect. 11.
Art. 3. Sect. 12.
55. No local or special bill shall be passed, unless notice of the intention to Notice of local and apply therefor shall have been published in the locality where the matter or the special bills. thing to be affected may be situated, which notice shall be at least thirty days
prior to the introduction into the general assembly of such bill, and in the manner to be provided by law; the evidence of such notice having been published, shall be exhibited in the general assembly, before such act shall be passed.
56. The presiding officer of each house shall, in the presence of the house over
which he presides, sign all bills and joint resolutions passed by the general assemSigning of bills.
bly, after their titles have been publicly read, immediately before signing; and the fact of signing shall be entered on the journal.
57. The general assembly shall prescribe by law the number, duties and com
pensation of the officers and employees of each house: and no payment shall be general assembly. made from the state treasury, or be in any way authorized, to any person, except
to an acting officer or employee elected or appointed in pursuance of law.
58. No bill shall be passed giving any extra compensation to any public officer,
servant, employee, agent or contractor, after services shall have been rendered or tion prohibited. contract made, nor providing for the payment of any claim against the common
wealth, without previous authority of law.
59. All stationery, printing, paper and fuel used in the legislative and other
departments of government, shall be furnished, and the printing, binding and for supplies.
distributing of the laws, journals, department reports, and all other printing and binding, and the repairing and furnishing the halls and rooms used for the meetings of the general assembly and its committees, shall be performed under contract, to be given to the lowest responsible bidder below such maximum price, and under such regulations, as shall be prescribed by law; no member or officer of any department of the government shall be, in any way, interested in such contracts; and all such contracts shall be subject to the approval of the governor, auditor-general and state treasurer.
60. No law shall extend the term of any public officer, or increase or diminish his salary or emoluments, after his election or appointment.(w)
61. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the house of representatives, prohibited.
but the senate may propose amendments as in other bills. Art. 3. Sect. 14,
62. The general appropriation bill shall embrace nothing but appropriations for the ordinary expenses of the executive, legislative and judicial departments of the
commonwealth, interest on the public debt and for public schools; all other approAppropriation
priations shall be made by separate bills, each embracing but one subject.
63. No money shall be paid out of the treasury, except upon appropriations made by law, and on warrant drawn by the proper officer in pursuance thereof.
64. No appropriation shall be made to any charitable or educational institution, not under the absolute control of the commonwealth, Sther than normal schools,
established by law, for the professional training of teachers for the public schools Appropriations to
of the state, except by a vote of two-thirds of all the members elected to each house.
65. No appropriations, except for pensions or gratuities for military services, shall be made for charitable, educational or benevolent purposes, to any person or community, nor to any denominational or sectarian institution, corporation or association.
66. The general assembly may make appropriations of money to institutions wherein the widows of soldiers are supported or assisted, or the orphans of soldiers
are maintained or educated; but such appropriations shall be applied exclusively phans.
to the support of such widows and orphans.
ition or association, any power to make, supervise or interfere with any Special commissions prohibited. municipal improvement, money, property or effects, whether held in trust or otherArt. 3. Sect. 21. wise, or to levy taxes, or perform any municipal function whatever:(x)
68. No act of the general assembly shall limit the amount to be recovered for sonal injuries.
injuries resulting in death, or for injuries to persons or property ;(y) and, in case
Art. 3. Sect. 18.
Extension of official terms, &c.,
Art. 3. Sect. 15.
Art. 8. Sect. 16.
Art. 8. Sect. 18.
Art. 8. Sect. 19.
For soldiers' widows and or
Art. 8. Sect. 20.
Damages for per
77 P. S. 338. Kilgore v. Magee, 85 Ibid. 4. Philadel- v. City, 99 P. S. 170. Gift v. Allentown, 37 L. I. 332. phia v. Pepper, 16 V. N. C. 334. As to what is a Carpenter v. City, 4 Del. Co. 63. Policemen in cities local or special act, within the prohibition, see Mont- of the third class are entitled to an increase of salary gomery v. Commonwealth, 91 P. S. 125. Common- made while in ottice. Russell v. City, 9 C. C. 129. wealth v. Patton, 88 Ibid. 258. Davis v. Clark, 106 The act of 25 April 1889, that the county shall furIbid. 377. Topeka v. Gillett, 32 Am. L. Reg. 778. Mor. nish the office furniture, books and stationery for the rison v. Bachert, 112 P. S. 322. People v. Supervisors county officers, was held to be in violation of this secof Chautauqua, 43 N. Y. 10. Kerrigan v. Force, 68 tion. Wren v. County, 6 Kulp 37. Young v. County, Ibid. 381. New York Elevated Railroad Co., 70 Ibid. 7 C. C. 428. The legislature is incompetent to repeal 327.
the salary of a constitutional officer without substi(w) Apple v. Crawford County, 105 P. S. 300. An tuting another provision in its place. Reid v. Smoulter, office may be abolished. Donohugh v. Roberts, 15 128 P. S. 324. Judges may receive extra compensation Phila. 141. The salary or emoluments of an assessor for special services in other than their own judicial cannot be increased after his election; and this, district. Judges' Compensation, 4 C. C. 596. though he is paid by the day. Fox v. County, 4 C.C. (1) Mellon v. Pittsburgh, 21 Pitts. L. J. 185. 393. See Judges' Compensation, Ibid. 596. A city (y) This abrogated such limitations contained in ordinance increasing the salary of a municipal officer existing laws. Lewis v. Holluhan, 14 W. N. C. 505; is not within the constitutional prohibition. · Baldwin s. C. 103 P. S. 425. Grupe Street, Ibid. 121. Conway v.
Art. 3. Sect. 24.
Art. 3, Sect. 29.
of death from such injuries, the right of action shall survive, and the general Art. 3. Sect. 21. assembly shall prescribe for whose benefit such actions shall be prosecuted. No act shall prescribe any limitations of time within which suits inay be brought against corporations for injuries to persons or property, or for other causes, different from those fixed by general laws regulating actions against natural persons; and such acts now existing are avoided.(2)
69. No act of the general assembly shall authorize the investment of trust funds Art. 3. Sect. 22. by executors, administrators, guardians or other trustees, in the bonds or stock of any private corporation; and such acts now existing are avoided, saving investments trust funds. heretofore made.
70. The power to change the venue in civil and criminal cases shall be vested in Art. 8. Sect. 23. the courts, to be exercised in such manner as shall be provided by law.(a)
Change of venue. 71. No obligation or liability of any railroad or other corporation, held or owned by the commonwealth, shall ever be exchanged, transferred, remitted, postponed, or in any way diminished, by the general assembly; nor shall such liability or Public obligations obligation be released, except by payment thereof into the state treasury.
not to be released, 72. When the general assembly shall be convened in special session, there shall Art. 8. Sect. 25. be no legislation upon subjects other than those designated in the proclamation of
Legislation at the governor calling such session.
special sessions. 73. Every order, resolution or vote to which the concurrence of both houses Art. 3. Sect. 26. may be necessary, except on the question of adjournment, shall be presented to the governor, and before it shall take effect, be approved by him, or being disapproved, and resolutions. shall be repassed by two-thirds of both houses, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in case of a bill.
ht. No state office shall be continued or created for the inspection or measuring Art. 3. Sect. 27. of any merchandise, manufacture or commodity; but any county or municipality
Inspectors of may appoint such officers, when authorized by law.(6)
75. No law changing the location of the capital of the state shall be valid, until Art. 3. Sect. 28. the same shall have been submitted to the qualified electors of the commonwealth,
State capital. at a general election, and ratified and approved by them.
76. A member of the general assembly who shall solicit, demand or receive, or consent to receive, directly or indirectly, for himself or for another, from any com
Peceiving bribes pany, corporation, or person, any money, office, appointment, employment, testi- punished. monial reward, thing of value or enjoyment, or of personal advantage, or promise thereof, for his vote or official influence, or for withholding the same, or with an understanding, expressed or implied, that his vote or official action shall be, in any way, influenced thereby; or who shall solicit or demand any such money or other advantage, matter or thing aforesaid, for another, as the consideration of his vote or official influence, or for withholding the same, or shall give or withhold his vote or influence, in consideration of the payment or promise of such money, advantage, matter or thing to another; shall be held guilty of bribery, within the meaning of this constitution, and shall incur the disabilities provided thereby for said offence, and such additional punishment as is or shall be provided by law.(c)
77. Any person who shall, directly or indirectly, offer, give or promise, any Art. 3. Sect. 30. money or thing of value, testimonial, privilege or personal advantage, to any executive or judicial officer, or member of the general assembly, to influence him in the giving bribes. performance of any of his public or official duties, shall be guilty of bribery, and be punished in such manner as shall be provided by law.
78. The offence of corrupt solicitation of members of the general assembly, or of public officers of the state, or of any municipal division thereof, and any occu
Corrupt solicitapation or practice or solicitation of such members or officers, to influence their tion. Official action, shall be defined by law, and shall be punished by fine and imprisonment.(d)
79. Any person may be compelled to testify, in any lawful investigation or judicial proceeding, against any person who may be charged with having committed the offence of bribery or corrupt solicitation, or practices of solicitation, and shall pelled to testify. not be permitted to withhold his testimony, upon the ground that it may criminate himself, or subject him to public infamy; but such testimony shall not afterwards be used against him, in any judicial proceeding, except for perjury in giving such testimony; and any person convicted of either of the offences aforesaid shall, as part of the punishment therefor, be disqualified from holding any office or position Disqualification on of honor, trust or profit in this commonwealth.
80. A member who has a personal or private interest in any measure or bill pro- Art. 3. Sect. 33. posed or pending before the general assembly, shall disclose the fact to the house of which he is a member, and shall not vote thereon.
Art. 3. Sect. 31.
Art. 3. Sect. 32.
Members interested not to vote.
Philadelphia, W. & B. Railroad Co., 17 W. N. C. 429. (b) Elton v. Geissert, 10 Phila. 330. See Tinkham
(c) See Williams v. Commonwealth, 91 P. S. 493. (z) Wasson v. Pennsylvania Co., 25 Pitts. L. J. Howard v. Jacoby, 11 Luz. L. Reg. 25. 184.
(d) Commonwealth v. Petrof', 2 Pears. 534. (a) See Watson v. Chester and Delaware River Railroad Co., 83 P. S. 254.
OF THE EXECUTIVE.
Art. 4. Sect. 1.
Art. 4. Sect. 2.
Art. 4. Sect. 3.
Term of office.
Art. 4. Sect. 4. Lieutenant
81. The executive department of this commonwealth shall consist of a governor, Executive depart
lieutenant-governor, secretary of the commonwealth, attorney-general, auditor-general, state treasurer, secretary of internal affairs, and a superintendent of public instruction.
82. The supreme executive power shall be vested in the governor, who shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed; he shall be chosen on the day of the general election, by the qualified electors of the commonwealth, at the places where
they shall vote for representatives. The returns of every election for governor Returns.
shall be sealed up and transmitted to the seat of government, directed to the president of the senate, who shall open and publish them, in the presence of the members of both houses of the general assembly. The person having the highest number of votes shall be governor, but if two or more be equal and highest in
votes, one of them shall be chosen governor, by the joint vote of the members of Contested election. both houses. Contested elections shall be determined by a committee, to be
selected from both houses of the general assembly, and formed and regulated in such manner as shall be directed by law.
83. The governor shall hold his office during four years from the third Tuesday of January next ensuing his election, and shall not be eligible to the office for the next succeeding term.
84. A lieutenant-governor shall be chosen at the same time, in the same manner,
for the same term, and subject to the same provisions as the governor; he shall be to be president of president of the senate, but shall have no voie, unless they be equally divided.
85. No person shall be eligible to the office of governor or lieutenant-governor,
except a citizen of the United States, who shall have attained the age of thirty Qualifications. years, and have been seven years next preceding his election an inhabitant of the
state, unless he shall have been absent on the public business of the United States, or of this state.
86. No member of congress, or person holding any office under the United
States, or this state, shall exercise the office of governor or lieutenant-governor. Disqualifications.
87. The governor shall be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the
commonwealth, and of the militia, except when they shall be called into the actual Military power. service of the United States.
88. He shall nominate, and, by and with the advice and consent of two-thirds of
all the members of the senate, appoint a secretary of the commonwealth and an Appointing power,
attorney-general during pleasure, a superintendent of public instruction, for four years, and such other officers of the commonwealth as he is or may be authorized, by the constitution or law, to appoint; he shall have power to fill all vacancies that may happen in offices to which he may appoint, during the recess of the senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session; he shall have power to fill any vacancy that may happen, during the recess of the senate, in the office of auditor-general, state treasurer, secretary of internal affairs, or superintendent of public instruction, in a judicial office, or in any other elective office which he is or may be authorized to fill; if the vacancy shall happen during the session of the senate, the governor shall nominate to the senate, before their final adjournment, a proper person to fill said vacancy; but in any such case of vacancy in an elective office, a person shall be chosen to said office, at the next general election, unless the vacancy shall happen within three calendar months immediately preceding such election, in which case, the election for said office shall be held at the second succeeding general election. (e) In acting on executive nominations, the senate shall sit with open doors, and, in confirming or rejecting the nominations of the governor, the vote shall be taken by yeas and nays, and shall be entered on the journal.
89. He shall have power to remit fines and forfeitures, (9) to grant reprieves,
commutations of sentence and pardons, (h) except in cases of impeachment; but no Pardoning power.
pardon shall be granted, nor sentence commuted, except upon the recommendation
Art. 4. Sect. 6.
Art. 4. Sect. 7.
Art. 4. Sect. S.
Art. 4. Sect. 9.
(e) This does not apply to offices filled at the Feb- the costs, to the payment of which a prisoner may ruary election. Conimonwealth v. Callen, 101 P. S. have been sentenced. Ex parte McDonald, 2 Wh. 410. 375.
Schuylkill County v. Reitsnyder, 46 P. S. 446. But (g) The fines and penalties which he may remit, see Commonwealth v. Ahl, 43 Ibid. 53. A pardon must are such only, as are now, or were originally, payable be proved by the production of the warrant itself, or to the state. Shoop v. Commonwealth, 3 P. S. 126. its loss must be accounted for. Spalding v. Saxton, 6 He may remit a forfeited recognizance, after judg- W. 338. And see Commonwealth v. Ohio and Pennment for the use of the county. Commonwealth v. sylvania Railroad Co., 1 Grant 329. A pardon obDenniston, 9 W. 142.
tained by fraud may be revoked, before actual delivery. (h) He may pardon, as well before trial, as after. Commonwealth v. Hallorcay, 44 P. S. 210. Ex parte Hatzfield v. Gulden, 7 W. 155. York County v. Dal De Puy, 3 Ben. 307. And see Commonwealth v. Ahl, housin, 45 P. S. 372. Commonwealth v. Hitchman, 43 P. S. 57-9. Commonwealth v. Kelly, 9 Phila. 586. 46 Ibid. 357. So, he may grant a conditional pardon. Without words of restitution, a pardon does not Flavell's Case, 8 W. & S. 197. A pardon, although restore a forfeited estate. Aldrich v. Jessup,3 Grant after sentence, is a release of all fines or imprisonment 158. Formal irregularities in a pardon will not annul for the offence. Cope v. Commonwealth, 28 P. S. 297. its effect. Hester v. Commonwealth, 85 P. S. 139. Commonwealth v. Shisler, 2 Pbila. 256. But not of