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In this report on the Crow Creek Reservation, Mr. Henderson gives the following information ; Crow Creek is the home of 955 Lower Yanktonai Sioux, of whom over 70 per cent are full bloods. The land area originally comprised 313,304 acres, of which 100,000 acres have been sold and 25,989 have been released from Government restrictions by the issuance of patents in fee to 168 Indians. As practically all of this land was quickly sold by the Indian owners it would appear that the effort to make these Sioux self-supporting landowners has been a failure.

The school situation is fairly good with 282, nearly all of the eligible children, attending school. There are six public schools on the reservation and the Government pays tuition at the rate of 45 cents a day for each Indian pupil. About 45 children attend the Catholic mission school at Stephan. Relatively il large number of Crow Creek children are in nonreservation boarding schools.

The health situation is not satisfactory. Many of the Indians are afflicted with tuberculosis and a high per cent of venereal disease was reported. The agency physician is kept busy going about the reservation. He has a very good small-sized hospital, built at private expense but maintained by the Government, which is adequate for the needs of the agency.

The most important need for the agency plant is a good water system. At present all the drinking water must be dipped from the always muddy river and allowed to settle in cans and barrels, a decidedly undesirable and antiquated arrangement. The artesian water now piped to the buildings is so poor that but little of it is used for domestic purposes. Superintendent Ziebach has recommended the construction of a settling basin near the river from which cleared water can be pumped to a tank above the agency. Good heating furnaces should be installed in several of the cottages of employees. As regards the condition of the Indians Mr. Henderson reported as follows:

' Superintendent Ziebach and his assistants have a very difficult problem to contend with here in creating a real stimulus to accomplish something along agricultural lines. Too many of these people are indifferent to farming or any other steady work. It is doubtful if there are really 2,400 acres of land actually cultivated by the Indians, probably less than 8 acres to the family. This is not a good showing. Around some houses one will often find 2 or 3 acres plowed up and this land in differently worked. Of course there are a very few Indians doing fairly well, but their number is too small to have any appreciable effect on the small acreage of cultivated land per family.

“ The superintendent hopes to build up some interest by the organization of · four agricultural districts and imbue the farmers of each district with a competitive spirit by the offering of prizes and a chance for the farmers to meet and compare results. Although these agricultural clubs have been organized for a short time Mr. Ziebach has hopes of deriving some real benefits from them.

Besides his constant efforts directed toward more farming, Mr. Ziebach is carrying on a vigorous campaign to prevent his Indians from attending the numerous fairs and celebrations of the vicinity. The Indians will often lose a week at a time during the most important part of the farming season while attending some fair, often at a considerable distance from the reservation. He has visited many of the Indian homes during the time of these fairs and has found many of them locked up. He has left notices posted on their doors showthem he has been to visit them and is keeping track of their activities to see whether they are carrying out the desire of the Indian Office to put in a maximum amount of their time in cultivating their crops."



The Lower Brule Indian Reservation, in charge of Superintendent Gensler, with a population of 540 Lower Brule Sioux Indians, lies on the west bank of the Missouri River, directly opposite the Crow Creek Reservation. Originally the area was around 300,000 acres, but over a third of the acreage has been released from Federal supervision through sales and the issuance of patents in fee. As the higher per cent of good land has been disposed of, it is estimated that 55 per cent of the land wealth of these Indians is gone. One hundred and fifty Indians have been given patents in fee and to-day only six of them hold their land. As most of this land is heavily mortgaged it practically means it has been sold at low figures. Following are excerpts from Mr. Henderson's report to Chairman Vaux:

The Lower Brule Indians are not industrious, from the white man's point of view, but they are doing a little more than their neighbors at Crow Creek.


Orer 2.000 acres are actually plowed by the Indians, about the same as at Crow Creek, while the population is considerably less. Housing conditions are slightly better than on the east side of the river; there appear to be fewer of the log houses with their poor roofs and little windows and more small dwellings of modern frame construction. Nevertheless, these people have still a long way to progress: they still have to acquire habits of industry and thrift, and a desire to live a life better than that of semipoverty, a life of cleanliness and regularity which will mean an improvement in their health and social conditions.

- Here. as at Crow Creek, are large areas that could very easily be farmedestensive tracts that only await the plow of the Indian to produce 40 to 50 bushels of corn to the acre. All that is needed by the Indian to gain a comfortable living is some energy—a desire to do some regular work. Here and there is an Indian who is making some progress as a farmer, but when one traverses a large fertile section of the reservation and sees so much good farm land untouched by the plot one is struck with the thought that the Indian is really getting rery little out of his property. Probably no more than 12 acres are actually cultivated to the family.

- These Sioux, hards a veneration from the warpath and only a short space of years from the tenee, can not be expected to rank with Iowa farmers. Their progress has heen slow, but something at least has been accomplished. T!:ese people neel larger gardens, should have pigs and more cows. There are not orer i mil. EUs in the reserve: these require too much attention as regular habits of in lustry to fit in rery well with the haphazard farm me:hools of the Indian. Jlore stock and poultry should be gathered about Each Ilian ke in dire more reason for focusing attention there and diminishing the desire to wander about the country on extended visits. Neat farm coitages are seen here and there replacing the old insanitary log houses, but all of these were built from individual Indian funds accumulated from land sales. The day has not set come for these people when home constron is financei froin earnings of the farm.

* Practically all of the children fit to go to school are attending school, around 115 in rurber. There are nine public schools on the reserve, Indian children attending six of tem. Two of the schools are located near the rese satin lire at a distance from the Indian settlements and at one there has been roable in regard to the aitendance of the Indian children with the wires. Tuition's paid at the rate i 32 and 35 cents a day for each pupil. Sineste reserta o boarding schon was closed, the Rapid City and Pierre Goterrent Sena's arii tle Catholic boarding school of Immaculate Conprin at Senter, at the 1975 Creek Reservation, take care of nearly all the landing perils.

-- Hear-t mini-sterone lah's about the same as on other Sioux reserta site red... Tere is a lish percentage of tuberculosis, some trae, ma ad ven-reisez ses. Te Mirtract doctor visits the reservation

ne & veek terhis earriers a: Reliance. 16 miles from the agency. Tie resentati Pas

Tie Crot Creek hospital might be used ai tines ist veren

mipristins between the Crow Creek and LTE E Baris:

rm Liver Brule refuse to go over to the Cris Crea 49.

- Loter Brule patients are taken as far art is the realis ir Nahra 12 for treatment. "4.. eens:

pieder tere to replace the old kerosene laris. Terras

in this fieri location. The pump for the ware: Seminari. Seristenent advises the installation of an elecrie 2

ks. åt å fora! cost of $3.000. " The acero te is eer's 400 and adequate for all the needs of tie place. The Tamil barn are in first-class condition. From a physical mirties the whole acercs plant is excellent with the exceptio otiskais

There seems no good reason why this should Dotter-rize? Te Tessem fere is gond."


The Captorer: San Agerer in western Oklahoma, with Superintendent Eli J. Prisen 25 eirstedted hr Commissioner Flora Warren Seymour in Apri. 193. I-s Is Thinulation of 72S is composed of 215 Arapahoe, of whom 15urs; and 512 Cherenne, of whom 133 are full bloods. Only 359 oi se TAS Ivars are English-speaking, but all are citizens of the United States. Siit vas reported. had roted. These Indians are

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far from being wealthy, for their entire property, all individually owned, and funds in bank amount to only $1,856,000, of which $1,489,000 represents the estimated value of their lands. Following are some excerpts from Commissioner Seymour's report :

“I found Cantonment School and Agency making a valiant effort to recuperate from the unhappy conditions of two years ago, whose ill effects are still evident in many ways. The rehabilitation of this unit of the service will need substantial and hearty cooperation from the Indian Office. After viewing the reservation, inspecting the school and agency, and visiting many of the Indians in their homes, I feel that a particularly earnest effort should be made to improve conditions in this jurisdiction. The needs are so many that it seems wisest to mention only those that are absolutely essential. I therefore offer the following recommendations: (1) New uniforms for both boys and girls in the school; (2) band and playground equipment; (3) an adequate heating: plant for the school; (4) a small but amply equipped hospital with sufficient employees for the use of the school and the reservation ; (5) a day-school inspector; (6) a field matron.

“It was very apparent to me that the work at Cantonment is badly hampered by lack of space and equipment. A serious result of this is the constant changing of employees. The isolation of the agency and the overcrowding of quarters make this school an unattractive assignment. However able and interested in their work the employees may be they can not be expected to remain enthusiastic unless their efforts receive substantial encouragement in Washington in the way of authority for making necessary repairs and improvements and the purchase of needed equipment and material. For instance, the girls uniform dresses have served their present and former wearers nearly three years.

The boys appear to be practically without uniforms and present a ragged and unkempt appearance. It is obvious that the morale of the girls is much higher than that of the boys, and this is due to the constant changing of employees having the boys in charge.

“I suggested to Principal Hanchey and Disciplinarian Needham that a hand be organized, for I have found that wherever there is a school band pupils are more amenable to discipline and a better school spirit is engendered. They expressed their approval of the suggestion and so did Superintendent Bost. A band, some playground equipment, and decent clothing should go far toward strengthening the morale of these children. I would further recommend that when new teachers are sent to this school they should be chosen from among: those having musical qualifications. This is not a mere triviality ; music is an important aid to discipline and its influence on Indian children is a marked one.. The use of the piano for school assemblies, entertainments, and the like will make a great difference in the spirit of the school, and the teachers should be able and willing to give this service.

“ Of the 100 children in this school, 25 are Poncas and Otoes. There are, however, many Cheyenne children in this jurisdiction who are not attending any school, and there is every likelihood that next year the Cheyenne will bring their children to school in greater numbers. The effect of this would probably crowd out the children of the other tribes. I was not at all satisfied with the reports of attendance of the Indian children at public schools. There was no officer charged with the duty of enforcing regular attendance of such children such as there is at the Shawnee and Kiowa Agencies. A dayschool inspector should be detailed here; this is a positive necessity.

“ The main dormitory of this school is poorly constructed and, with its many stoves, is really dangerous. A modern heating system for the building is an immediate necessity, and one should be installed as quickly as possible. Stoves. do not always constitute a menace, but in a frame building with narrow halls and steep stairs are a serious danger, especially to little children, and the children of this school are below the average in size and age of those in the other schools I have visited.

“ Health conditions are not good here. This school has no hospital facilities. There is a small room set aside in case of illness which is little more than a closet in size. It has no furnishings other than two cots, a stove, and a small sink with only cold water. Hospital facilities are absolutely essential here. I can not emphasize too strongly my recommendation for a small but fully equipped hospital, with the necessary employees, to supply the needs of both school and reservation. A physician estimated that 305 Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians of this agency have active and latent tuberculosis and 175 are. afflicted with trachoma. Surely those figures are justification enough for my recommendation for a hospital.

“The better Indians have confidence in the physician, Doctor Hart, who has lived among them for 27 years, but even he has often to wait outside a house until the Indian medicine man has finished his ministrations. Prejudice must be overcome slowly by tact and firmness. The health conditions on this reservation call for effective medical and sanitary attention. A field matron is needed here. In fact, if the Indian Office hopes to meet the health and sanitary needs of this place it can look for no good results until a competent field matron is detailed to Cantonment.

"The Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians have been living together, each tribe keeping its individuality, for many generations. The Arapahoe have gone a much greater distance toward civilization, are better farmers and housekeepers, and speak English more freely than the Cheyenne. On the other hand, nearly everyone gives credit to the Cheyenne for living up to a higher moral standard, particularly in the matter of marital relations. Many of the Indians have good houses and barns. Some are farming, have cows and chickens, and live in a cleanly way. Many live in tents, with a real stove inside. This habitation is of a somewhat higher degree of permanence than the tepee and its open fire. Either one, however, is easily moved, and this change in home location is not conducive to regular school attendance or the proper care of live stock.

“I fear that these Ind ns are not progressing satisfactorily toward selfsupport. The leasing system has made the majority choose the easier way. Instead of working their farms themselves they simply wait the periodical dole from the superintendent. Of the 48,491 acres of agricultural land the Indians themselves cultivate only 4,100 acres; of the 28,344 acres of grazing land the Indians themselves used only 1,869 acres. Their live-stock census showed 1,861 horses, 114 cattle, and 12 sheep. These figures do not indicate that the Indians are making strong efforts to reach the condition of self-support.

“ The trust patents of the Cheyenne and Arapaho were renewed in 1917 for a 10-year period. Approximately two-thirds of the original allotments have been sold and the proceeds (lisbursed. The Indian habit of visiting around enables those who have run through all their property to continue to live without working by taking advantage of the hospitality of those who still own a few acres and a few dollars or a piece of beef. If reduced to conditions facing absolute starvation the able-bodied Indians will probably work, but this condition will not arrive until all are hungry.

"There is talk of another extension of the trust period. I can not see that much good, if any, will result from a further renewal of trust patents. In 1927, which will be 35 years after the date of the trust patents, a considerable proportion of the original allottees will be gone. Those who will have their lands held all this time will be as prepared to take care of themselves as they erer will be. Able-bodied Indians between the ages of 35 and 50, English speaking and school trained, ought to be able to earn a living even after they have spent their inheritance, but I fear they never will do so until the responsibility to take care of themselves, to look after their own affairs, is thrust upon them.

" In conclusion I desire to stress the importance of my suggestion that the Indian Office give this jurisdiction special attention, for the conditions here have reached a stage where something more than ordinary supervision is required to help these Indians come back."


The vast area in western Oklahoma, set aside as a reservation for the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians, is divided into three superintendencies, each with a boarding school. In April, 1923, Commissioner Flora Warren Seymour visited the one known as the “Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency,” with its headquarters located at Concho. The rated capacity of the school is 180, but the pupils numbered 194. In her report on the school and agency Commissioner Seymour said, in part:

“In order to increase the capacity of the school to 200, as recommended, another teacher and another schoolroom must be provided. They are, indeed, needed even with the present enrollment. There are three teachers, all young women of energy and ability, doing excellent work. The primary-grade children, however, should have all-day academic training, as they are too small to benefit by industrial training. The spirit and morale are excellent. The children are alert and responsive. The industrial departments are well main

tained. The neatness and order shown in every department deserve special mention. Discipline is admirable.

“ It gives me particular pleasure to make this favorable comment because of the fact that Superintendent and Mrs. Bonnin and Principal and Mrs. Shields are all Indians; and this school has the largest proportion of Indian employees of any school I have visited. To find the good management of schools of 20 years ago reflected in the schools of to-day is a most hopeful sign. Indian children are attending public shools in the various districts and at the town of Watonga. They take an equal part with the white children in all school activities and are especially welcomed in school athletics. Their attendance at present, however, is not what it should be, owing to the fact that there is no officer detailed to check up the enrollment.

“The hospital is well built and well managed. The work is handled by a physician and two nurses. There is need of greater provision for isolation cases, however. Health conditions are not at all good. There has been the usual epidemic of influenza, leaving behind it a persistent coughing that is noticeable throughout the 24 hours. These tribes seem to have a greater tendency toward tuberculosis than others. Trachoma, too, is alarmingly prevalent; the physician estimates that 88 per cent of the Indians, old and young, are affected by it. Their appearance both in school and on the reservation bears out this statement. Although strongly built, these Indians seem to have little resistance to disease.

“ There is a farmer-subagent usually stationed at the town of Watonga, 40 miles from the agency, but at the time of my visit this position was vacant. The name of the position would indicate an interest in and supervision over the agricultural work of the Indians, but the duties are largely clerical, dealing with leases and payments, so that the activity is not more than an extension of the agency office, instead of a personal contact with the real difficulties of the Indians.

" This tendency toward magnifying report making and clerical work at the expense of personal efforts is so common throughout the Indian Service that I hesitate to speak of it as particularly an evil here. It is a real stumblingblock, however, and one that deserves serious consideration. While regulations and reports and a certain amount of ‘red tape' are always necessary, the very grave danger of considering them the vital feature of the work is always present. There always will be some in the Washington office to whom the reservation that presents the most accurate and careful reports is the reservation where the best work is being done. But to those who have had a glimpse of what work among the Indians really means, it is an inescapable conclusion that paper work, necessary as it is, can not and does not represent the real situation.

“My recommendations for this jurisdiction are as follows: (1) An extra room and a fourth teacher for the schools. (2) The establishment of a sanitarium school for the children of the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes, both for the sake of those already suffering from tuberculosis and other communicable diseases and for the sake of the children who are not affected and who should be protected from too close contact with advanced cases of ill

It is possible that the making of this school into a sanitarium school would solve the problem. (3) A field matron who would give especial attention to health matters. (4) A day-school inspector who would supervise the enrollment and attendance of Indian children in the public school of the section ; within his duties and those of other employees should lie the supervision over students who come back to their homes from Indian schools.

“ The aim of the work here, as elsewhere, should be the development of a sense of personal responsibility in the Indian. Greater attention to reservation problems and to the interrelation of school and reservation work are the means by which advance may be made."



In his report on the Colville Indian Reservation, in the northern part of Washington, Commissioner Scott, who visited this Indian Service unit in August, 1922, said, in part:

"The Indians of the reserve number about 2,500, more than half being full bloods. The principal bands are the Okanogan, Nespelem, Columbia River (Moses band), Nez l'erce (Joseph's band), San Poil, and Colville.

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