« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »
school connected with the sanatorium; the patients attending are of all ages, from 8 to 28. Obviously another teacher is needed so that the school can be divided and the younger children separated from the grown men and women.
“The superintendent is overburdened by the double care of the sanatorium and the reservation, but he is an experienced officer and handles a difficult task with fidelity and efficiency. It requires, however, incessant application, and Doctor Breid is indefatigable in both his medical and administrative duties.”
CHILOCCO NONRESERVATION SCHOOL, OKLAHOMA.
On her way to the Indian country of western Oklahoma in April, 1923, Commissioner Flora Warren Seymour spent a few days at the Chilocco Indian School, in north-central Oklahoma. This fine institution had been inspected by Commissioner Malcolm McDowell the previous November. Both members of the board in the'r reports dwelt upon the favorable impression they received of the general excellence of the school, of the efficient management of Superintendent Clyde M. Blair, of the enthusiastic cooperation he received from his staff, and the particularly good condition of the plant. They found the children happy, responsive to the efforts of their teachers, well behaved, and animated by fine school sp'rit. Commissioner McDowell in his report emphasized the immediate necessity of increasing Chilocco's “rated capacity” from 550 to 700 at least to promptly, economically, and effectively supply the insistent demand for more facilities for the higher education of Oklahoma's Indian children. At the instance of Mr. Burke, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Congress granted the increase, so that Ch locco now has a rated capacity of 700.
Both board members earnestly recommended the construction of a new building to replace the present utterly inadequate structure used as a makeshift hospital and which is disgracing the fine school plant. In his observations on the school hospital Commissioner McDowell said: “The building used for a school hospital is in every way entirely unsuited. It originally was the home of the school farmer. Later a small dormitory was added for the farmer's student assistants. Still later it was commandeered for a hospital. As I went from one small room to another, climbed the narrow stairs, up which no patient on a litter could be carried, and noted the structure's decrepitude and general lack of everything which a hospital building should have, I was shocked to find such a disreputable plant.
“ It was exceptionally clean and sweet smelling, because Dr. Edward F. Monger and the nurse, Miss Agnes Deery, keep it so, but the aged structure betrays its antiquity in its countless cracks, crevices, and fractures, which no amount of soap and antiseptics can make immune from germ lodgment. I have seen most of the hospitals in the Indian Service, but can think of none which is housed in such a dilapidated, unsuitable, and inexcusable building. A new one should be erected at once. Aside from the fact that every hospital plant should be up to date, Chilocco's importance as a school unit demands a thoroughly modern hospital. That is why I have recommended the building of a new plant, and I offer the present structure as justification for the recommendation."
In her report on the domestic-science training of Chilocco's girl students, Commissioner Seymour observed : “A feature of the work that can be made most helpful to them is a training in hospital practice of the simplest sort. A pupil-nurse detail at the hospital would do much to impress ideas of sanitation and simple nursing. There will be no lack of opportunities to practice this, for one finds scarcely a home without its sick. If the Indian girls could be made to realize the absolute necessity for cleanliness and the inevitable relation between dirt and disease a long step would be taken toward making them an asset to our citizenry instead of a hindrance. I recommend that there be established a definite and practical plan to teach as many of the older girls as possible the care of the sick, the feeding of infants and small children, and the necessity of sanitary surroundings as a health measure.”
Both board members in their reports gave consideration to the desire of Superintendent Blair and his associates that the school course be extended to include the eleventh and twelfth grades. Commissioner Seymour commented as follows: "A school for Indian children has to meet a higher standard than that of its effect while the children are still within its walls. The whole purpose of Indian education is to fit these children to make a distinct advance over the preceding generation. The Indian boy who finishes at a nonreservation
boarding school and goes into a white community to make his living has one distinct advantage over a white boy of only moderate circumstances, for he has learned a trade and has had long years of schooling financially beyond the reach of the average white lad. But he has the disadvantage of having to stand in the world without the backing of friends and family, apart from his community, and without that spirit of belief in industry and self-reliance which is the growth of centuries in the spirit of the white race.
“If the boy returns to the reservation he has laid upon him the dead hand of custom and conservatism which is strong among all primitive people. He has to struggle against native indolence, stifled initiative, and the undermining influence of remittances from lands or tribal funds or gratuities enough to relieve the real necessity for work and to encourage drifting. In spite of all this, the purpose of the Indian school and the Indian Service is to make him independent and industrious. It is a large undertaking.
“With the Indian girl the question is even more serious. In the outer world of industry her opportunities are very few and her temptations many. In the reservation life she has the distinctly inferior position, and her efforts to maintain the standards of san tation and industry that she has learned at school are made against heavy odds. Few people will ever inquire how much arithmetic or geography an Indian man or woman can display, but every day is testing the habits and ideals formed at school, and there only. If the pupil has become thoroughly grounded in habits of cleanliness and industry, and has developed the strength of will and character to carry out these principles in his life, his school has been a success.
“In my judgment, therefore, a further extension of the school work at Chilocco can be justified only as it is given its greatest emphasis along health and industrial lines. Two more years in their trades will send the boys out better equipped to take positions in the neighboring towns as carpenters, mechanics, printers; or will send them back home with a more thorough knowledge of farming, poultry raising, and dairying. The work of the girls in domestic science and art is admirable. It is already sufficient to prepare the pupils for any position they may be able to obtain and hold. It is too much, I fear, both in quantity and quality, for application to their reservation homes. A simpler scheme of teaching would do more to prepare these girls for the home conditions that are around them.”
In the statistical part of his report Commissioner McDowell gives the following information: The Chilocco school reserve contains 8,580 acres, of which the school farms 3,000 and 5,040 are rented to 26 farm lessees on a crop-rental basis, providing an annual income around $36,000. The school is called an agricultural school, for agriculture in all its branches, excepting irrigation, is its dominant characteristic. The student body numbered 583, of which 251 were girls and 332 were boys, and all but 23 pupils came from Oklahoma. The students represented 33 tribes, and 315, or 54 per cent of the student body, were children of the Five Civilized Tribes. Over 65 per cent were full bloods and 30 per cent were half and three-quarter bloods.
The school's live stock includes one of the finest herds of thoroughbred Herefords in the State and there also is a fine herd of Holsteins and 2,500 white Leghorn chickens besides a profitable drove of Red Duroc Jersey pigs. The excellent farm lands include a good orchard and vineyard and a vegetable garden, which supplies nearly all the vegetables that are needed. Last year the students, under the supervision of their instructors, raised products valued at more than $38,000. The farming equipment is modern and well cared for. The school's printing plant is the largest in the Indian Service and for many years has borne an enviable reputation because of its fine color work and general excellence in its output. A large steam plant, a well-equipped electric unit, many pumps, an ice machine, several machine shops, and other mechanical plants furnish abundant means for the practical teaching of the automotive trades, blacksmithing, carpentry, general mechanics, and printing.
A quarry on the reserve, having a high quality of limestone, has furnished the material out of which many of the school's buildings were constructed, some of them by the students.
GENOA INDIAN SCHOOL, NEBRASKA.
The Genoa Indian School, Genoa, Nebr., was visited by Commissioner Samuel A. Eliot in November, 1922. Following are excerpts from his report:
This is one of the best of the nonreservation schools in the Indian Seryice. It is well situated in central Nebraska, has a school plant of some 40 buildings, and for a number of years has carried an enrollment of pupils above
its rated capacity of 400. The superintendent is constantly obliged to turn away eager applicants for admission. I have made inspection of all buildings and find them in good repair in spite of the fact that the repair fund allowed in regular appropriation bills has been cut down to the barest necessities. I found the hospital in exceptionally good condition, with an admirable nurse in charge and a skillful doctor under contract. The immediate needs of the school plant are as follows:
"There should be provided at the earliest possible moment a gymnasium. The winter climate of Nebraska is severe, and the children need facilities for indoor exercise.
• There should be provided a reading room for the older pupils. " A new boiler is needed in the power plant.
The school draws its pupils chiefly from the Nebraska and South Dakota reservations, but some children come from Kansas, Oklahoma, Wyoming, and even as far away as Montana. The farm is small in size but productive and well handled. The school has long been famous for its pure-bred dairy cows, its Percheron horses, and its fine Duroc hogs.
“I am emphatically of the opinion that appropriations for the maintenance of this excellent school should be increased. Because the school has long been successfully managed by its experienced superintendent, Mr. Sam B. Davis, there has been a tendency to reduce support. Efficiency has been penalized when it ought to have been encouraged. Successful administration ought to be backed up rather than punished by diminished appropriations. The per capita cost is kept exceptionally low, but in spite of that fact in the last appropriation bill the salary of the superintendent was put into the per capita cost instead of being separately provided for. The repair fund has also been cut down.
“I earnestly recommend that the maintenance appropriation for the next year be made not less than $84,000, with a repair fund of $10,000, and a special appropriation for the building of a new gymnasium. The school will long be needed and should be maintained in complete efficiency.”
RAPID CITY INDIAN SCHOOL, SOUTH DAKOTA.
In June, 1923, Commissioner George Vaux, jr., inspected the nonreservation school at Rapid City in the western part of South Dakota. This fine institution, which is under the supervision of Supt. S. A. M. Young, was opened in 1897; it had an average attendance of 271 in 1922. The plant includes some 40 buildings, and its staff consists of 35 employees. The school lands cover 1,390 acres, of which 350 are under cultivation; the balance is used for grazing and to secure and protect the water supply. Commissioner Vaux found the school plant in good condition, and, in his report comments favorably on the general efficiency and good management of Superintendent Young and his staff.
The poorest part of the equipment is the hospital, concerning which Commissioner Vaux reported as follows: “It is small, ill arranged, and should be improved at once. Probably the most economical and logical things to do would be to turn the present little building into another employee's cottage and erect and equip an entirely new hospital in a rather more secluded location. It this way two needs would be provided for with a minimum of expenditure.”
Following are excerpts from Commissioner Vaux's report:
“At the time I visited Rapid City commencement was just over and most of the pupils had already returned to their homes, though there was quite a number whose departure had been delayed for various reasons. Preparations for their leaving were in active progress, and considerable parties were being sent off. The children have to buy their clothing from their own funds, an item of perhaps $5,000 or $6,000 a year. The school pays their railroad fares, but meals and hotel bills in transit they have to provide themselves. About one-half of the total number have money.
“I doubt if our educational system for Indians will ever prove really effective in accomplishing its best results until the recipients bear an appreciable portion of the costs. This can be brought about only gradually. Experience shows us in all walks of life that people poorly appreciate and value that which costs them nothing. These contributions at Rapid City for clothing and traveling expenses may seem as a hardship in some cases, and like making distinctions between different pupils. They seem to me, however, to be steps in the right direction in that the Indians are contributing so much at
northwestern portions are in the bad lands and suitable only for grazing. In fact, most of the area is not capable of being successfully cultivated. No railroad enters the reservation; there are no white towns and almost no white farms. Here and there is located a Government day-school building, or an Indian Service farmer's station, usually with a small Roman Catholic and an Episcopal or Presbyterian church not far off. But apart from a very occasional log house, one travels fo miles in many sections without any indications of human residences. The mystery that there is considerable population is explained by the fact that the Indian houses are hidden away along the numerous streams that have cut rather deep, narrow valleys, but where there are fertile bottoms, clothed with cottonwoods and elms and box elders.
“ The agency is situated on the southern edge of the reservation, about onefourth of the way east from the western limit. Here are the headquarters of the superintendent, and, about half a mile away, the Government boarding school. In addition there are 7 farmers' d'stricts, each with 'its local office, and which attain almost to the dignity of subagencies, and some 24 Government day schools. There are 14 post offices within the reserve. The important railroad point is Rushville, in Nebraska, 25 miles distant from the agency, and from this station supplies are freighted in by teams and motors.
Rations are still issued at Pine Ridge. There are some 1,106 now receiving them. This is a distinct decrease from the number a few years back, an encouraging sign. The cost of the supplies is about $70,000 per annum. The recipients are mostly aged and infirm or the guardians of young children who are dependent. In addition to the distribution at the agency, rations are issued from each of the farmer's stations. The monthly allowance is flour, 15 pounds; coffee and sugar, 1 pound each; beans, 3 pounds; bacon and rice, 2 pounds each ; beef, 10 pounds. I was present at the issue at the agency on June 16 and was impressed with the appropriateness of the methods adopted to insure an orderly and correct procedure. Something like 300 were served there and the whole process occupied probably less than two hours, and then the recipients were on their way home again.
Health. “ The health conditions on the Pine Ridge Reservation are not satisfactory. A recent survey included the medical examination of about 4,200 Indians. It is estimated that of the whole population about one-half are suffering from some form of tuberculosis and about 825 from trachomà. To meet the medical requirements of the whole reservation there is the hospital at the boarding school having 10 beds and but one doctor. There are quarters for four physicians on the reservation—at the agency, at Kyle, at Wanblee, and at Manderson. There are authorizations for three physicians at salaries of $1,200, $1,300, and $1,400, but, as stated, only one position is filled. The Indians complain seriously of this lack and of their inability to get medical assistance when they require it. This may not be altogether disingenuous on their part, but the fact complained of can not be gainsaid.
“ The influence of the medicine man’ is hard to counteract and undermine. It is one of the great forces looking back to savagery and recalling the red man to old-time ways. When will we wake up and meet this issue squarely, take up the gauntlet the medicine man throws down, and, with the healing arts of modern science, overcome the magic of his incantations? Not till we go about it in earnest and provide suitable hospitals, with enough doctors and nurses, paying these trained servitors a decent stipend for their exacting and untiring labors. There are splendid doctors in the Indian Service; to them all praise. But the present policy tends to attract some who can not make a living anywhere else and the Indians they serve suffer. One has but to consider the situation at Pine Ridge to be convinced of the necessity of something radical being done. Here is an area of about 4,000 square miles, with an Indian population of 7,362, and in addition a white population of Government employees and their families amounting to some hundreds, with only one doctor for them all and a hospital of 10 beds.
Education.—"The school facilities of the reservation are as follows: Pine Ridge boarding school, capacity, 210; the Holy Rosary Catholic Mission (contract boarding school), capacity, 375; Indian Service day schools, 24, with capacities ranging from 23 to 33 and total capacity 695; total capacity of all schools, 1,145. In 1922 the number of children of school age was reported to be 2,126 as against 1,770 ten years ago. The number of eligible children in 1922 was 1,997, of whom 462 were reported as not in any school. Of the 1,535 children enrolled in school 152 were at nonreservation schools, 315 in the reservation boarding school, and 562 in the day schools, a total of