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Following are his observations, in part, on the conditions and needs of the several pueblos :
Isleta.-" There is a bitter factious spirit in this pueblo, alleged to be owing to the assertion of what is claimed to be unwarranted authority by the judge appointed by the Indian Bureau. In consequence, it was represented that the authority of the governor is sometimes ignored and he is powerless to punish the refractory. Subsequently I had a private interview with the judge who complained that the present governor was illegally chosen and represents a small minority. Superintendent Marble, who was present at the election, assures me that the cacique pronounced it regular. An investigation is being carried on with the hope of settling the difficulties which threaten serious trouble from bad blood.
“Mr. Robinson informs me that drainage works proposed for the pueblos along the Rio Grande will commence at Isleta. The land of the Isletas has become pretty thoroughly water-logged and is getting worse year by year. The success of the drainage works will secure vastly increased acreage of excellent farm land. On the whole this pueblo seems reasonably prosperous, and if its internal quarrels are overcome there will be little to complain of.”
Santa Ana.—“I held a council with the people of Santa Ana in the vestry of the church at Ranchitos. The governor and council made no complaint, excepting that a piece of land said to belong to them and the Jemez and Zia pueblos more than 30 years ago was withheld from them. I could gather nothing definite on this point. If there be any merit in the claim it will doubtless have consideration hereafter, when it is hoped a Government commission will be appointed to settle all land titles.” Jemez."
-“ I met the governor and two councilors of the Jemez Indians. They made reference to the same claim made by the Santa Ana people to which I have referred. While here I was the guest of Father Barnabas Meyer, of the Franciscan order, who has erected a commodious church. The Franciscan sisters teach the school. These Indians make an excellent impression on the visitor. Father Barnabas says they are in need of more land. They have for many years constructed their own irrigation system. The Government has furnished them with a number of culverts of the wooden box type and several metal flumes. Their system is in such excellent condition that Mr. Robinson reports but little work is needed from the Government.”
Laguna.—“I was received by the governor of Laguna and the largest council, in point of numbers, of any of the pueblos. Pablo Johnson, the governor, referred to the Paguate case, which is now pending in the United States court, but did not throw any new light upon it. He asked for an additional doctor, especially an eye specialist, to grapple with trachoma, which is prevalent. Subsequently I received a letter from him in which he says: 'You have not seen a bit of grass or water except these mesas around here
You haven't seen anything you could call green. I mean in the way of food for animals
* We have not had any rain. You were lucky yesterday you did not face a windstorm, as that is all we have day after day
You have also seen the wheat fields. Do you think they are anything to amount to much? No, my friend, they are only about 5 inches high and that is all. They are the same all over the village where I live, called Paguate. It is north of Laguna. Our poor live stock are in need of things to eat
You see that the Laguna Pueblo has such a small amount of land, and even of the small amount we own the Mexicans are trying to steal
It does not seem at all that us Laguna Pueblos should become citizens
We have not enough water for irrigation. Then why should they try to make us citizens when we have enough to worry about already, besides putting another burden upon us.'
* What the governor says in regard to conditions at Laguna is obviously true. There have been at least two dry seasons, and the stock losses have been very great. They do need more irrigated land. If the Paguate case is decided in their favor it will help them greatly. Mr. Robinson told me they have some more poor land, susceptible of cultivation if it could be irrigated. They have not been neglected by his department. A great deal of irrigation work has been done by the Government among the widely scattered villages.
· From time immemorial there has been trouble between the Laguna and Acoma Pueblos because of water. The latter community, being farther up the stream, claims first rights and, it is alleged, wastes much of the water that would benefit Laguna. It was suggested that proceedings should be taken in the United States courts to define the relative rights of the two pueblos in the
water of the Rio San Jose, the outcome of which, in the opinion of one familiar with the situation, would probably be to give the Lagunas enough water to enable them to cultivate their semiarid land. They are a fine people, sending large numbers of their children to the Government school at Albuquerque while, by indomitable industry, they wring from their few acres a scanty living
“I visited the United States Government Sanitarium at Laguna. Mrs. Wilcox and Mrs. Grant are the matrons in charge. This is the only tuberculosis sanitarium for all the Pueblos. It does not seem adequate. There are about 30 inmates, all tuberculosis cases. It is contemplated to take another building so that the acute cases may be separated from those in an elementary stage. The two matrons are doing splendid work but seem to me to be overburdened, though they made no complaint.”
Acoma.—"After a visit to Acoma, where we found no men and apparently very few women and girls, we went to Acoinita, where we met the governor and a large council in the schoolhouse. Acomita makes a favorable impression on the visitor. There seems to be plenty of water, and the fields are extensive and highly cultivated. I received one individual complaint based on the fact that some Mexicans had trespassed by pasturing their cattle on Indian lands. The governor maintained also that the old survey of this pueblo made by the United States was inaccurate, as it was not in accordance with the ancient boundaries existing before the Spanish invasion.
“At the school, which is taught by Mr. and Mrs. Donaldson, I was impressed by the necessity of repairs and enlargement. There is but one room in a rented building where both teachers have to carry on their work simultaneously. The teachers' house is quite out of repair. Mr. and Mrs. Donaldson made a favorable impression on me.
“As regards water supply, a request was made for some wells and windmills for pumping, which I submitted to Mr. Robinson. This matter he has in mind, though it is by no means certain that water can be found in that valley. The farms of this pueblo are situated along the Rio San Jose above those of the Lagunas. The Government built four diversion dams, six flumes from 46 feet to 145 feet, and have lined with concrete 1,150 feet of the main north side canal. It is proposed to line more ditches as the Indian Service has the money to spend. The money spent for this pueblo has always come from the miscellaneous New Mexico Pueblos fund. It is hoped to get a special fund to be applied for ditch improvement on Acoma Pueblo. There are two pueblos taking irrigation water from the Rio San Jose. By lining the ditches of the Acomas it not only will conserve the flow for them, but make possible an increased flow in the river for their neighbors, the Lagunas.” Zia.—” We sighted the pueblo of Zia at a distance on our way to Jemez.
I did not visit it. This pueblo is perhaps the poorest in land of any of the pueblos. That is to say, they have been, until the last years. The small amount of irri. gable land they cultivated was of poor quality and their ditch system was crude. It was all crude. It was all on the north side of the river. In 1920 the Government completed a metal flume, 1,510 feet long to convey water to a fine body of land on the south side of the river. This south-side ditch opens up for irrigation more land than the Indians have men to farm with. With anywhere near proper use of this land the Zias can materially improve their condition, and should no longer have the undesirable distinction of being the poorest pueblo."
Tesuque.—“The Tesuque Pueblo suffers from lack of water. The Spanish Americans higher up the stream take much of the water from the Pojuaque River. Mr. Robinson has designed an underground dam to bring water to the surface far enough above the villages to cover most of the irrigable land on the east side of the stream. Material has been ordered and construction will begin shortly after July 1. It is believed that this construction will furnish a good flow of water which can not be taken away from the Indians. The governor and council asked that leave might be given to them to cut poles from the national forest gratuitously. They are now paying 25 cents for each pole. The Government school building is obviously inadequate. A new site has been chosen and a larger building is contemplated.”
San Ildefonso.—"The San Ildefonso Pueblo has been robbed of practically all irrigation water from the Pojuaque River. It is considered hardly feasible to get irrigation water from the Rio Grande. An underground supply system, a flow in one small ditch, and a domestic water supply system have been built. A pumping plant has been contemplated. To the eye of the casual visitor this pueblo indicates that for one reason or another the Indians have lost a large part of their holdings, habitations of white men occupying sites in the pueblo
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taking water out of the Rio Grande, has been made and sent to the Indian Office. This project would make available, in the opinion of Mr. Robinson, a large tract of the very finest land for these Indians. No action has yet been taken on this project, I think, largely, because of complications with private owners of land along the canal right of way.
“Although the bridge across the Rio Grande is still used, it is flimsy, and, as in the case of Cochiti, a new structure is contemplated as soon as an appropriation can be made. This will enable the San Juan Indians to have certain communication with their lands on the opposite side of the river and maintain traffic, which is threatened by the possible destruction of the present bridge."
Zuni.—“The interesting pueblo of Zuni seems prosperous because of the water supply derived from Black Rock Dam. There are about 7,000 acres under cultivation, where, before the erection of the dam, about one-tenth yielded a scanty support. I did not see the governor, but the indications of prosperity are abundant. A danger threatens from silt in the dam. Either it must be dredged or by some other means the filling up must be avoided. I understand the problem is under consideration. It should not be delayed."
Alburquerque and Santa Fe Schools.-“ At the cordial invitation of Mr. Reuben Perry, the superintendent of the United States Indian school at Albuquerque, I made an inspection of the institution, witnessed their competitive drills, and made an address to their graduating class. The school is overcrowded, but new buildings are in process of erection. Courses of manual and academic training are given to more than 500. boys and girls. The impression made on the visitor is most satisfactory. Some of the graduates are ambitious to remain and take a post-graduate course at the Albuquerque High School. For the most part the graduates, numbering 29 this year, are Laguna Indians. Besides these there are seven Navajo, three Isletas, three Acomas, one New York Seneca. When they return to their communities they will, of course, resume the ordinary life of the Pueblo, and some may show little difference from their uneducated brethren, but each should be an influence for good in overcoming ancient superstitions and pagan practices.
“ The vacation season was beginning when I reached Santà Fe; therefore I was not able to see the institution during its activities. I paid it a visit, however, and enjoyed the hospitality of Superintendent and Mrs. DeHuff. I witnessed an exhibition play of the graduating class and was much impressed by the proficiency of the young men and women and the grace and beauty of their dances. I had several conferences with Mr. DeHuff ; his school is well ordered and effective.”
THE NAVAJO INDIANS.
While at Zuni Commissioner Smith visited the land of the nonreservation Navajo Indians near Ramah who are under the supervision of the Zuni Agency. Later he visited the Navajos living on the reservations. In his report he said in part:
“About 300 Navajos, some of whom have 160-acre allotments, are living a precarious existence on the Government lands off the reservation in the vicinity of Ramah and Inscription Rock. If the Government continues the present policy of leaving this land open to homesteaders, the fate of these Indians is gloomy. There is but little water and little pasturage, probably not more than enough to afford a range for the Indian's flocks and herds.
“ It is the home .of their ancestors. They have little or nothing in common with their brethren on the reservation and do not wish to be transferred. Their destiny should be the subject of prompt and careful consideration by the department and by Congress. I understand that negotiations have been pending for a long time with the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Co. for an exchange of land grants for Government land which would enlarge the ranges available for these people. If this were consummated, it might relieve the situation.
The Navajos on their several reservations are fine Indians who have increased in the past 50 years fivefold or thereabouts. I visited Fort Defiance, Lukachukai, and Chin Lee. Fort Defiance is well equipped but needs additional facilities in the hospital. There is no reason why this fine plant should not be made practically perfect. Its climatic advantages are very great. Near by is a trachoma hospital, under the auspices of the Episcopal Church, with the Fort Defiance physician in charge. Unfortunately this gentleman, Doctor
Richards, was away on a vacation, so I did not have an opportunity to talk with him. There is much trachoma among the Navajos, one estimate putting it as high as 33 per cent of the people. There is also much tuberculosis, the same authority estimating victims of this disease at 15 per cent. At Lukachukai is a day school with one teacher and an attendance of 17 pupils. This station requires that the teacher's house be put in repair. It is now in such condition that the teacher and his wife have difficulty in keeping dry in the rainy season. The schoolhouse seems to be in good condition.
"At Chin Lee I found an extensive plant sadly in need of shade. A little care for trees and grass would transform this place and make it vastly more attractive than it is at present. It is situated at a distance of 45 miles from Fort Defiance and 30 from Lukachukai. There is great need of a hospital at this point. A very fine building, now used as a trading post, erected at a cost of $16,000, may be purchased for $8,000. I strongly recommend that the department be asked to make this purchase and, in general, make Chin Lee the center of a vigorous and effective Indian work.
“I am further of opinion that the Navajo children should be educated at the schools on the reservations, and where they are insufficient in capacity that they be added to and enlarged. There seems no good reason why the boys and girls should be sent to distant schools. The vast majority of them must, of necessity as well as from choice, return to the country of their parents. Wherever possible their education should be given them in the environment of their homes.
“ The foregoing observations in relation to schools, hospitals, and medical service may seem unnecessary. Perhaps the department is doing all it can with limited appropriations, but the casual observer must be impressed by the necessity for prompt and drastic action to meet the necessities referred to if the credit of the Government and welfare of the Indian ward are to be preserved.”
CANTON ASYLUM FOR INSANE INDIANS, SOUTH DAKOTA.
Chairman George Vaux, jr., while in South Dakota, paid a visit to the Government's asylum for insane Indians located on the outskirts of Canton, S. Dak. With a capacity of 92 it draws its patients from the whole Indian population and is always full to capacity. The degree of prevalence of insanity among Indians is not known, for there are no reliable statistics upon which to base even an opinion, but many are cared for at Government expense in State and county institutions. In his report on the Canton Asylum, Chairman Vaux says, in part:
“ The population at Canton contains those suffering from all phases of mental disease-insanity, idiocy, imbecility, feeble-mindedness, epilepsy. Doubtless there are many hundreds for whom nothing at all is being done and who are scattered around through Indian homes. There are some indications that the percentage of mental diseases is not so high among Indians as it is among whites, but the figures are not sufficiently reliable to warrant generalizations that would be of real value. Enough is known, however, fully to justify the existence of the Canton Asylum, the putting of it in first-class condition in every way, and the adding to its rather meager equipment.
“In the main the physical condition of the buildings and equipment is pretty good, though considerable money might be spent to advantage in some general repairs. The superintendent is to be commended and congratulated on not having overcrowded his rather limited resources, and the per capita costs show that all extravagance is being guarded against. But must be borne in mind that this institution is a hospital and should be equipped and maintained as such. The day is past when the public will tolerate that the insane, white or red, shall be treated in any other way than as victims of the most serious of maladies. There are two buildings each with a capacity of about 45 which are used as dormitories. The number of patients is about equally divided between men and women.
“ There is a great difference in the condition of the patients. Some of them are idiots unable to speak or to do anything whatever for themselves and requiring the most exacting sort of care. It was touching to observe the devotion to them of some of the other patients whose afflictions were in other directions. But few are violent, except occasionally, so that much freedom is allowed them. Much of the household work of the institution is done by the inmates, all those who are able taking care of their own rooms or beds under the supervision of matrons or orderlies. Much of the farm work and care