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tion; the relation of town and country population, as showing the effects of occupation and of agriculture on the number of the people, and vice versa; the relation of the progress of towns to the locality and growth of certain industries; and the effects of occupation on the rate of mortality:—these and many other questions are discussed with consummate ability in the General Report.
Under the last heading, relating to "Health," there is a valuable Report of the Medical Officer on Public Health, and a letter on the causes of death in England for a period of ten years.
The second volume of the new Series will not only complete the summaries of Papers, Reports, and Returns, but also give the Bills and Statutes of the Session as usual.
It is gratifying to add that during the last Session of Parliament, the usefulness and accuracy of the Annals were attested by several Members of the House of Commons; and although the near approach of the dissolution of Parliament prevented any decision being arrived at as to the expediency of supplementing the Blue Books by this work, in order to lessen the number of those ponderous volumes, it is believed and hoped that the saving of expenditure and time which would be effected by the substitution of the Annals for many of the Blue Books, is likely to be taken into consideration by the New Parliament.
It was admitted on all hands, that the work supplied an acknowledged want, and that, if it did not render unnecessary the publication of the Papers in full, at least it was well calculated to bring the useful information contained in them more within the reach of the public at large. large. I trust that, having extended the quantity of matter, and otherwise matured the plan of publication, the Annals may succeed in securing that amount of public favour which is essential to a publication of national importance.
TEMPLE, September, 1865.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Finance, Commerce, and Agriculture.
Report of Commissioners on the Patent Laws
Report of the Committee of the House of Lords on Mr. Edmunds's Resignation
Papers relating to the Working of the Stock Certificate Act
Return of Malt charged with Duty
Quantity of Tea, Coffee, Sugar, Wine, and Tobacco consumed, 1758—1860
Returns relative to the Condition of the People in England and Wales in 1831 and 1864
Despatch of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of France on the late Mr. Cobden
Papers on North America-Correspondence respecting Blockade and Recognition
Papers relating to the Imprisonment of British Subjects in Abyssinia
Declaration of Britain and Spain on Firing on Merchant Vessels in the Straits of Gibraltar 481
Accession of Britain to the Treaty relating to the Wounded in Armies
Railways, Shipping, and Postal Communication.
Report on Railway and Canal Bills, and Bills relating to Harbour and Docks
Letter on the Causes of Death in England and Wales, during the Ten Years 1851-61
A DIGEST OF BLUE BOOKS.
28° & 29° VICTORIE, SESS. 1865.
were greatly exaggerated, the crowning instance named of a Brazilian having received 1,000 lashes by order of the military commandant of Paysandu having never occurred. Other charges were equally groundless.
1stly, to prevent further infractions of the Brazilian territory by troops of the Oriental Government in pursuit of bands of General Flores' forces; 2ndly, to prevent assistance being given to the cause of the revolution in this country by persons of the province of Rio Grande; and, 3rdly, in order to have an army near the frontier, ready to act in case circumstances should arise making such a step desirable to be taken. Senhor Loureiro added that he had been instructed by his Government to communicate this resolution to the Government of Uruguay, and that he had already done so.
On the 20th June Earl Russell received from Mr. Lettsom a despatch, announcing the arrival at Monte Video of his Excellency Senhor José Antonio Saraiva, charged with an extraordinary mission to that Republic from the empire of Brazil, which he declared to be "to obtain, by means of a foreseeing policy, and one carried out by perseverance, that the rights and legitimate interests of his fellow-citizens in the interior of the Republic should be secured." On the 5th August Earl Russell received from Mr. Thornton a despatch, dated Monte Video, June 26th, enclosing a copy of a note received from Senhor Berges, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Paraguay, intimating that the Monte Videan Government had solicited the mediation of the Paraguayan Government for the amicable settlement of the international questions between that Republic and Brazil. On the 19th August Earl Russell received another despatch from Mr. Thornton, dated Buenos Ayres, July 12th, announcing the arrival there of Senhor Saraiva, with letter of credence from the Emperor of Brazil to the President of the Argentine Republic. Senhor Saraiva was received at a conference
It appeared, however, that the grievances with the President, at which Mr. Thornton VOL. XV. 1
Correspondence respecting Hostilities in the
On the 3rd June, 1864, Earl Russell received
was present, as were also the members of the cabinet.
At this conference it was discussed what measures it might be expedient to take with regard to the present state of intestine commotion in the Republic of the Uruguay, and in consequence of the ill success of the recent efforts to restore peace to that country. Senhor Saraiva urged that the Argentine Republic and the Brazils should carry out a joint intervention for a limited time in the Republic of the Uruguay, should oblige the combatants to lay down their arms, should impartially preside over the election of new authorities in the country, and should give their support to the Government which might result therefrom, as long as the latter might require it. In this view Senhor Saraiva was supported by Senor Elizalde. But the President dissented. His Excellency urged that the refusal of the Monte Videan Government to make peace with General Flores did not give a third power a complete right to interfere, although the interests of the latter might be seriously prejudiced by the state of revolution which existed in the neighbouring Republic. He thought, too, that a direct intervention would bring with it a deal of odium, would tend to establish the predominance of one party at Monte Video, and would, to a certain extent, render the intervening power responsible for any errors or excesses which might subsequently be committed by the Government of the dominant party. His Excellency let it be further understood that an intervention would give rise to expenses which his Government would hardly be justified in incurring, and the Republic would be ill able to bear. He acknowledged, however, that Brazil had a right to obtain redress for the injuries done to her subjects, and to ensure their future protection by any means she thought proper, provided she did not infringe the stipulated independence of the Republic of Uruguay; and his Excellency thought that the end sought to be attained by a joint intervention could be more safely brought about by indirect means. Senhor Saraiva replied that he could not advise his Government to undertake alone an intervention in the affairs of the Republic of the Uruguay; that Brazil had already brought upon herself a vast amount of odium by her forced interference in the
affairs of the River Plate States; and that if such an intervention were to take place, the Argentine Republic, as a neighbour deeply interested in the matter, ought to share the responsibility. The utmost he could recommend his Government to do would be to occupy the Northern States of the Republic of the Uruguay, in which a number of Brazilian subjects are established, or station a Brazilian force on the northern frontier, whence an expedition might be sent for the purpose of punishing any Uruguayan authorities who might be guilty of outrages upon Brazilian subjects. The feeling of all who were present was that, should the civil war continue for many months longer in the Republic of the Uruguay, some more active measures would be rendered indispensable on the part of her neighbours. For the present, Mr. Thornton gathered that the Argentine Republic would continue the coercive measures she has been employing at the island of Martin Garcia, and that, without a direct intervention, Brazil would take measures, by reprisal or otherwise, to obtain satisfaction for the wrongs suffered by her subjects, and to ensure their future safety.
On the 19th September Earl Russell received from Mr. Lettsom a despatch, dated Monte Video, August 10th, informing him that, on the 4th instant, Senhor Saraiva, the Brazilian envoy on a special mission, returned from Buenos Ayres, and that on the day of his arrival his Excellency addressed to Senor Juan José de Herrera a very long note, setting forth the grievances of which his Government have to complain in the Republic of Uruguay. Senhor Saraiva named a period of six days as the time for an answer to be given to his note, and added that, if the reply were unsatisfactory, ulterior measures would be resorted to by the Brazilian Government to obtain redress. The following day, however, Senor Juan José de Herrera returned to Senhor Saraiva his Excellency's note of the 4th instant stating, among other things, that Senhor Saraiva's note was conceived in such terms that it could not be preserved in the archives of the Oriental Republic. He also suggested that Brazil should apply to some foreign Government to determine by arbitration whether the present was an opportune moment for Brazil to apply to the Republic for satisfaction for grievances, the great ma