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· PRE FACE.
The only merit claimed for this Work, is due to the industry required for the compilation of the materials of which it is principally composed, and the care bestowed upon its preparation for, and progress through the Press.
The motive which induced its publication, was a desire to preserve in a compact and more permanent form, than that in which they already existed, the various documents, which had from time to time appeared in the public Journals, connected with the establishment of this noble institution and the several interesting ceremonies which have marked its progress.
Such a memorial of their Christian exertions on behalf of Religious education, and of the untiring and successful · championship of our Venerable Diocesan, it was hoped, would prove acceptable to the promoters of the enterprise in the Province, and the Church at large.
In connecting the narrative of these interesting circumstances, it was impossible to avoid all comment on the causes which instigated the movement for the establishment of a Church University, or the obstacles which have been
encountered in carrying out the design. For the opinions expressed in these commentaries the compiler alone is responsible. He is under many obligations to the Lord Bishop for permission to use the various documents here published, as well as for the most important information and assistance in the preparation of the book. To the Honourable Chief Justice Robinson and the Venerable Archdeacon Bethune, his acknowledgments are due for permission to use their respective manuscripts, and for several valuable suggestions. To the Reverend Provost Whittaker he would also express his thanks for a similar favour; and to the Reverend R. J. Macgeorge, for material aid in the completion of the undertaking.
Not the least attractive part of the publication remains to be noticed. The Biographical Memoir of the Lord Bishop, which is incorporated with this history, has been prepared from the most authentic sources; and is offered as a tribute of respect to those who know how to appreciate his sterling character, his benevolence and pastoral care, and who cherish the remembrance of long years of personal friend. ship and communion with him.
The earliest records of Collegiate Institutions afford convincing evidence, that they sprung from an earnest desire entertained by learned and enterprising men, to disseminate among others the knowledge they had acquired after careful and fruitful study; and to awaken and promote an appetite and love for those literary pursuits which they had found so captivating and beneficial. In carrying out so noble and philanthrophic a désign, they associated themselves for the purpose of delivering public instruction, to all who were desirous of embracing the opportunity and advantage thus offered to them. The schools then formed, became the models on which the establishments of future ages were founded by public authority, under the style of Universities.
The relative antiquity of the several schools of this early period has been the cause of much learned and keen controversy. Whether Paris or Bologna should take precedence, or whether Oxford and Cambridge should not share in the renown of being the first pioneers. of learning with their Continental contemporaries, although a question of peculiar interest to the antiquarian Scholar, is not altogether relevant to our present purpose. The principal and important points which we seek to establish are, that from their commencement, these institutions have been recog
nized and upheld by regal favour and public authority; that religious instruction was a primary feature, and formed the fundamental basis of the system of education; and that they were closely connected with ecclesiastical establishments, and under the supervision and control of episcopal functionaries.
Much traditionary, narrative is mixed up with the history of these primitive seminaries, in which their existence is attributed to the munificence of kings, and the protection of royal authority. Although the result of voluntary efforts as already stated, there yet appears to be every reason for supposing, that they speedily attracted and engaged the attention of the reigning monarchs. To Charlemagne is ascribed the honour of founding the University of Paris. The character of this sovereign as recorded in the pages of history, justifies the belief that he was sincere in his efforts to “ diffuse among his subjects generally some portion of education, and particularly among the clergy and those designed for the sacred profession. For this purpose he enacted that schools should be established in all episcopal and collegiate churches, and that these should be open to all students.”(a) The public recognition of the University of Paris by other sovereigns is clearly established. In 1169, Henry II. of England offered to refer his dispute with Becket to this school ;(6) and we find that the influence exercised by it speedily aroused the jealousy of the Roman
a. Professor Malden, on the Origin of Universities. [We acknowledge our. obligations to this little work, for many of the statements here given. It is replete with information of the most curious and valuable description, and in the absence of many of the authorities referred to, we have freely availed ourselves of the fruits of his industry and researches.]
b. Hallam, Middle Ages, chap. ix. part 2.
Pontiffs. Decrees were issued by Alexander and Innocent, declaring the qualifications of teachers, regulating the fees, and confirming the validity of titles and degrees. The teachers and learners were not tardy in perceiving the advantages of the unity thus conferred upon them by the highest power in Christendom; and in the most ancient deed of the University which has been preserved, of the date A. D. 1221, they adopt the style, “We, the University of the Masters and Scholars of Paris.” (c) During the pontificate of Nicholas IV., the privileges of this University were extended in a remarkable manner by a decree which conferred upon the doctors who were there approved, the valuable distinction of being accounted doctors everywhere, and the power of teaching, lecturing, and directing public schools.”(d) The right of any sovereign to erect a University in his own dominions was never questioned, but it was the pope alone who could make the degrees valid beyond the limits of the university in which they were conferred, and give them an authority through Christendom. This doctrine appears to have been expressly stated in the bull of Nicholas V., by which the University of Glasgow was established. (e) Louis VII. and his son Philip Augustus conferred upon the members of this University several peculiar privileges and legal exemptions. (f) These privileges were confirmed and extended by subsequent monarchs, Philip the Fair, Philip de Valois, John, Charles V. and Charles VI., having each and all bestowed upon it some marks of royal favour; in the instance of the latter king,
c. Malden quoting Crevier. d. Malden as above.
e. From the report of the Commission of Enquiry into the Universities of Scotland.
f. Du Boullay, History of the University of Paris.