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UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS Ne 66
LIBRARY,

ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA

AND

REGISTER OF IMPORTANT EVENTS

OF THE YEAR

1880.

EMBRACING POLITICAL, CIVIL, MILITARY, AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS; PUBLIC DOCU-
MENTS; BIOGRAPIIY, STATISTICS, COMMERCE, FINANCE, LITERATURE,

SCIENCE, AGRICULTURE, AND MECILANICAL INDUSTRY.

NEW SERIES, VOL. V.

WHOLE SERIES, VOL. XX.

THIS BOOK MUST NOT BE TAKEN FROM

THE REAÐING ROOM

NEW YORK:

:
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,

,
1, 3 AND 5 BOND STREET.

1883.

REFERENCE

COPYRIGIIT BY D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,

1881.

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BOUND Jan 5 1939

THE ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA has always met with an appreciative reception among the American public. Its still extending use and demand approve the fitness of its plan. Few annual publications in the world have as successfully stood the ordeal of time. First started in 1861, the volume for 1880 is the twentieth of the series. The largest and most comprehensive general year-book printed in any country, no pains or research are spared to make it complete and trustworthy.

The “Annual Cyclopædia” aims to give a record of political events, of legisblative action, of the judicial interpretation of the laws, and of the condition and

workings of the public administration of the General Government and of each of the State governments, with an impartial review of political questions as they arise, and of the aims and sentiments of party organizations. It thus places before the citizen all the information which is necessary for the understanding of the public affairs of the nation, and the intelligent exercise of the rights and duties of citizenship.

Coördinated with the political knowledge given in the “Annual Cyclopædia” is as large a body of authentic and systematized information as can be collected relating to the development of the agricultural, industrial, and commercial interests of the country; and every important subject of public comment and concern is treated in its appropriate connection. The religious statistics and denominational records are presented as an important part of the social history of a Christian people. The political and social history of each nation in the world is given with equal comprehensiveness as, though less detail than, that of our own country. The “Annual Cyclopædia” is also a record of science, literature, and art.

In 1880 the quadrennial election occupied the attention of the American people more than all other considerations. In the articles on the UNITED STATES and the several States the developments and questions of the campaign are fully presented. In Europe the Irish land question is the most important subject of the year. The conditions of the problem are clearly explained in a special article on IRELAND, by the late Professor A. J. Schem. The developments of the Nihilistic conspiracies are recounted in Russia. In Afghanistan and South Africa troubles excited by the British imperial policy are still fermenting. The developments are recounted under their proper headings.

In MONTENEGRO, GREECE, TURKEY, BULGARIA, Russia, and the AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN MONARCHIY, the

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