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the English and their allies, and capable of reached a point about twenty-five miles from keeping the country quiet; and that the Eng- Ghuznee without having met with any opposilish would retire as soon as peace was restored tion, when his further advance was opposed near and the Ameer was enthroned. It was inti- the village of Nani by a force of 15,000 Afghans mated, however, that Candahar would be advantageously posted among the hills flanking placed under a separate government; and in the road. While General Stewart was preparpursuance of this policy the Sirdar, Shere Ali ing to attack them, a body of 3,000 of them, Khan, a cousin of the late Arneer, was appoint- armed only with swords, rushed vigorously ed to the control of that district, with the title down upon the British forces. They were of Wali. This chief was a firm friend of the late repulsed after a contest of an hour's duration, Ameer, and had served under him as an am- leaving half their number on the field, when bassador to the Russian General Kaufmann, the whole enemy's force fled, abandoning the as Regent of Cabool, and as Governor of Can- strong positions they had held. They could dahar.

not be pursued for lack of cavalry, but GenThe tribes renewed their harassing activity eral Stewart immediately entered Nani, and on with the opening of spring. Captain Showers, the next day occupied Ghuznee without oppoof the Punjaub infantry, was killed, while trav- sition. On the 23d his forces had another eneling between Chappa and Quetta; Lieuten- gagement with a body of about 6,000 men a ant Thurlow, of the light infantry, was shot few miles from Ghuznee, in which the enemy near Jagdalak. In return, the British swept were routed with a loss of 400 men. General the hills near Gundamuk and Jagdalak, thus Jenkins was attacked at Charasiah on the 25th, clearing the ground between Jelalabad and Ca- and kept on the defensive till reënforcements bool. Fort Battye was attacked on the night came up, when the enemy were routed. A of the 26th of March, with heavy loss to the force sent into the Maidan district destroyed British, although the assailants were repulsed. the towns of the hostile chiefs without oppoA fine of 10,000 rupees was imposed upon the sition. The villages were spared under orders tribes implicated in this attack, half of which from General Roberts that they should not be was paid immediately. General Stewart set burned. ont from Khelat-i-Ghilzai for the advance upon Attention had for some time been directed Ghuznee April 8th. On the 19th he had toward the movements of Abdurrahman, the

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claimant for the throne, whose pretensions were in the House of Commons, June 7th, that the believed to be supported by the Russians; he instructions which had been sent out to the had called upon the chiefs to rally around him, new Viceroy of India, Lord Ripon, in referand was supposed to be marching into the ence to this subject, had two objects in viewcountry with an increasing number of follow- to bring the actual military operations to a

A communication was brought from him close as soon as possible, and to leave, on withto the British on the 19th of April, professing drawing from the country, an event which it his readiness to submit to the English. He was hoped would take place in the fall, somehoped, he said, that he would not be suspected thing like a prospect of a settled government. on accouut of his long residence in Russian Orders were sent to General Stewart early territory, and he denied that he had received in June to withdraw his forces with the least any aid in men or money from the Russians. possible delay compatible with the health of the The people of Afghanistan and Turkistan glad- troops, and he was instructed that it was dely welcomed him, and he was confident of the sired that Cabool should be evacuated not later suffrages of the country. He also sent mes- than the 31st of October. Orders were also sages to his countrymen in Cabool, warning given for the return to India of the surplus staff, them that opposition to the English would only and the stores and ammunition which might not injure their interests and his own, suppressed be required. A brigade was dispatched from the rebellion in Badakshan, censured his cousin Candahar at the beginning of July to proceed Islack for writing letters designed to inflame the to Girishk and support the Wali, Shere Ali, people against the British, and dismissed his against Ayoob Khan of Herat, who was rearmy, saying he had no hostile intentions. ported to have arrived at Farah with his He was understood at this time to be undis- whole force. A mutiny broke out among the puted master of the territory north of the Wali's troops, and the disaffected regiments Hindoo Koosh. A mission, consisting of two seized the artillery, and drove the Wali with native gentlemen on the staff of Mr. Lepel his faithful soldiers across the river. A reënGriffin, the British civil agent, was sent to forcement of British troops came up, recaphim from Cabool and was received by him tured the artillery, and dispersed the mutiwith distinction. The Sirdar bore himself, it neers, a part of whom went to Herat, while was said, frankly and courteously toward the the rest fled to their homes. The Wali withenvoys, and discussed business in a sensible drew nearer to Girishk. and practical way. An offer was made him Abdurrahman, after a considerable delay in to recognize him as Ameer of Cabool, to crossing the Ilindov Koosh, came into the ocwhich he deferred a reply till he could con- cupied territories in July, and was recognized sult with his chiefs; but he addressed a let- by the representatives of the British Governter to the chiefs, expressing his thanks to God ment as Ameer at a durbar held at Cabool on that an opening was made to friendship, be the 22d. On this occasion, Mr. Lepel Griffin, tween himself and the British, and a hope on behalf of the British Government, repeated that a satisfactory arrangement would be ef the assurances that had previously been giver fected. Abdurrahman replied to the British that the armies would shortly withdraw from propositions about the first of July, in a note northern Afghanistan within those frontiers the tenor of which was such as for the time to which were described in the treaty that had raise doubts of his sincerity. IIe took no no been made with the ex-Ameer, Yakoob Khan, tice of the fact that Candahar had been formed and said: “We trust and believe that your into a separate province under a separate gov remembrance of the English will not be unernor, which had been insisted upon by the kindly. We have fought you in the fieli British in all their communications, but, both whenever you opposed us, but your religio! in his note and in a circular which he issued has not been interfered with, the honor of your to the country, cited the terms which had been women has been respected, and every one has offered by the government without mentioning been secure in the possession of his property. this important reservation, and claimed that he Whatever has been necessary for the support was entitled to rule the same territory that his of the army has been liberally paid for. Not grandfather, Dost Mohammed, had governed. a single complaint has been made by any Af The negotiations were nevertheless continued ghan of any soldier, English or native, belongwith him by the Marquis of Ripon, the new ing to her Majesty's army.” In connection Viceroy of India, with ultimately a satisfactory with this event Lord Ilartington made a stateresult.

ment in the British Ilouse of Commons to the General Stewart assumed the supreme com effect that it was not yet prudent 10 speak with mand of the British forces in Afghanistan at too great confidence as to the nature of the arthe beginning of May, while Sir F. Roberts re- rangements that had been made, for Afghan tained his divisional command.

politics were so uncertain that it was not posThe change in the political character of the sible to feel that the troubles in the country British Government resulting from the election were yet at an end; that the question of Canof a Liberal Parliament involved as a necessary

dahar and of the new frontier remained in consequence a modification of the policy to statu quo, and were to be independently and ward Afghanistan. Lord Hartington explained separately considered; and that the negotia

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tions with Abdurrahman had been continued even more during their flight, for they took a after some persons had advised that they be road on which they could get no water, and had broken off, through the firmness and prudence no food. The loss of the enemy was also very of Lord Ripon.

heavy, and was described by the natives as The main body of the troops of Ayoob Khan “almost fabulous.” Ayoob Khan was afterhaving crossed the Helmund, reached Hydera- ward driven back to a point between Candabad on the 23d of July. On the 27th of the har and Chamar; Candahar was put into a same month, this force, estimated to be 12,000 condition of defense; General Phayre advanced strong, attacked a body of three regiments of with a body of troops upon Chamar; and Gennative infantry and 730 British troops at eral Roberts marched from Cabool August 8th Kushk-i-Nakhub, and routed it after an en with a force of 10,000 men for the relief of gagement lasting four hours. The British and Candahar. Ayoob Khan proceeded to intrench Indian troops fled in disorder, pursued and himself three miles from Candabar. The withharassed at every point by the enemy, having drawal of the British troops from Cabool was lost 1,100 men (about half their original num- completed the 11th of August, after a meeting ber), two guns, the colors of the Sixty-sixth of General Stewart and Mr. Lepel Griffin with Regiment and the Bombay Grenadiers, and Abdurrahman. Mooshk-i-Alam, the spiritual nearly all their ammunition. They suffered chief of tho Afghans, bound the turban---the

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Afghan equivalent for a coronation—upon the ammunition, showed that Ayoob's camp was new Ameer's head.

deserted. Thirty-two pieces of artillery were General Roberts arrived at Candabar on the taken, including the two guns which had been last day of Angust, having marched 318 miles captured July 27th at Kushk-i-Nakhub. The in twenty-three days, including two halts. Ilis British loss was 40 men killed and 228 wounded, force had suffered from the desertion of the while the loss of the enemy was estimated at Afghan and Ilazara drivers, in consequence of 1,200 men out of a total force of 12,800. Genwhich heavier labor was entailed upon his eral Ilaines, in a dispatch from the Governtroops. He attacked the position of Ayoob ment, of October 7th, acknowledging General Khan at nine o'clock on the morning of the Roberts's report of this action, complimented 1st of September, and gained a complete vic- him on his clear and able record “ of one of tory, after a battle of four hours ending in a tho most complete and successful military optotal ront of the Afghan forces. The nature of erations of modern times," commended the the ground prevented his officers from realiz- discipline and behavior of General Roberts's ing the extent of their victory, but, while Gen- troops, and expressed the desire to bring to the eral Ross, commanding the extreme left, was notice of the Government the quick military still expecting to have to attack a first position, appreciation of the situation shown by General the advance, after a short balt to replenish Roberts, the excellent dispositions made by

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him, the admirable manner in which his or- dependent upon the keeping open of any route, ders were carried out, and the gallantry of his and can not be interrupted by the appearance troops. General Phayre did not reach Canda of a hostile force between the stations. A hehar in time to take part in the battle. He liograph with a mirror having a diameter of entered the city on the 7th of September, and ten inches—the ordinary size—is capable of refound it presenting a desolate appearance. The flecting the sun's rays in the form of a bright streets were deserted, the shops were shut, and spot to a distance of fifty miles, where the sigbut few of the inhabitants were to be seen nal can be seen without the aid of a glass. To about. An extraordinary change, however, set up the instrument, the operator, having took place on the next day. The people re chosen his position on a hill, looks through a turned to their homes, the shops were opened, spot that has been cleared from his mirror by and supplies were brought in from the sur scraping away the quicksilver, to the station he rounding country where they had been hidden wishes to signal. He then sets up in front of during the siege. Generally the people found the mirror a rod bearing a movable stud like their property intact as they had left it, only a the fore-sight of a rifle, so that the stud sball few cases of depredations having been brought be on a line with the clear spot in the mirror to notice. It was now evident that Ayoob and the distant station. All that is afterward Khan had altogether failed to induce a general necessary is so to manage the reflections that rising in western Afghanistan. Ilis emissaries they shall fall upon the stud, when it is certain had traversed the whole country, entreating that they will reach the station aimed at. the people to rise and exterminate the infidels, Sir F. Roberts in February gave the following with only slight success. After the battle be- explanation of the executions which had taken fore Candaliar, Ayoob Khan retired to Ilerat place at Cabool under his orders in November with a body of horsemen, and was reported and December, 1879: “Before November 12th early in October to have reached that place, about seventy-three men were executed; one, after having left governors at Farah and Sabz the city kotuul (magistrate), and six other men

Apprehensions were still current that he convicted of dishonoring the bodies of the would be able to foment troubles at Candahar, officers of the embassy, seventeen for attackand the people around that city were still agi- ing escorts and having property of the embassy tated, and continued to neglect their crops and in their possession, and forty-nine for proved their trade in consequence of rumors that he murders of camp-followers and implication in intended to make another attack. The defeat attack on the Residency. Since November of Ayoob Khan caused great satisfaction to 12th nine were executed on conviction of atthe Ameer, and had a quicting effect at Cabool tacking the Residency. Up to December 15th and in the surrounding country. A body of fifteen more were sentenced to death for killing troops was sent to Maiwaud, the scene of the wounded soldiers as well as for implication in disaster to General Burrows of Kushk-i-Nak- attack on the Residency." hub, to bury the bodies which had been left on Mr. Lepel Griffin made an address at a dinner the field. It found evidence to confirm fully given to him at Simla, in which he spoke hopethe reports of the magnitude of the Afghan fully of the settlement that had been made at losses in the battle that had taken place there. Cabool, saying that “the Ameer was rapidly The evacuation of Cabool was accomplished creating a stable administration, and his posiquietly, and the troops marched back toward tion was much strengthened by Ayoob Khan's the Indian frontier without suffering molesta defeat. The Cabool policy inaugurated by the tion. Peimar Kotal was evacuated on the 12th Conservative Government had been energetiof September, when Shalozan became the most cally carried to a conclusion by the present advanced post of the British. It was decided Viceroy. lle attached no importance to the to recognize the Turis, a powerful tribe in the criticism that the Ameer was a protégé of RusKuram Valley, as independent of the Ameer, sia. Shere Ali was ruined through ignorance. and to evacuate the valley. A considerable Abdurrahman possessed complete knowledge, force was left at Candahar, and it was decided and those who knew Russia best would like to retain a strong division of troops there for her least. The criticism on the withdrawal the winter.

from Cabool was as foolish as it was unworthy Communication was bad during the cam of Englislımen. Sir Donald Stewart could not paign between the different divisions of the lave supported General Roberts, and it was army by means of the heliograph, the opera well known that General Roberts would meet tion of which was very satisfactory. Mes with no opposition before reaching Ghuznee. sages were transmitted by it nearly as quickly to have left an army at Cabool would have as by the electric telegraph, as was shown by made the Ameer unpopular with his subjects. the fact that a dispatch from General Stewart As to the talk about annexation, he could only announcing the result of an engagement on the thank God that the destinies of the country 22d of April, was received at the India Office, were not yet intrusted to crack-brained enthuLondon, on the next day. Since signals may siasts, who fancied it high and imperial policy be transmitted by heliograph, if necessary, over for the Government to drag its coat through the heads of the enemy, to stations which may Asia for a barbarian to trample upon." be few and far between, its operation is not The position of Abdurrahman at the close of

the year was not yet considered wholly secure, hint from the British authorities as to the exand his authority was little felt outside of the pediency of such a step. The Wali himself said district which was under his immediate control. that the disposition of the people toward him A correspondent of the London “Times," writ- had entirely changed since the fighting at Shiring from Candahar on the 24th of October, poor, and that he was so disgusted at their bosspoke of the extreme indifference which pre- tile attitude, notwithstanding all the efforts he vailed there as to what was passing at Cabool, had made to benefit them, that he felt compelled and as to what was the position of the new to abandon any further effort to gain their goodAmeer, and represented that Abdurrahman's will. In consequence of the long hesitation rule was still hardly more than nominal at of the British in declaring any definite policy, Ghuznee, that the tribes south of Ghuznee were the Pathan population, who would have acceptquite beyond his influence, and that at Canda- ed their role had they shown themselves dehar itself the feeling was hostile to him. Ayoob termined that it should be permanent, were Khan, who was again at IIerat, endeavoring to now declaring with great unanimity for Ayoob obtain means to make another advance against Khan. the British, and retrieve the losses he had suf AFRICA.* The area of Africa, according fered before Candahar, was a rival for the al to the new volume of the “Bevölkerung der legiance of the Afghans not to be despised, and Erde," published by Behm and Wagner (vol. conbinations were talked of between his forces vi, Gotha, 1880), was in 1880 estimated at and the partisans of Yakoob Khan, and the dis- 29,909,4 14 square kilometres † (= 11,548,519 affected tribes, which, if they could have been square miles), and the population at 205,679,carried out, would have made him really a 000. New planimetric calculations have been formidable competitor for the supremacy. The made by these editors of all the large countries efforts of Ayoob Khan were not, however, of Africa, and thus new and more accurate attended by results encouraging to his cause. statements of the areas can now be given. IIe sent messengers to Meshed to ask assistance The latest information that could be gathered from Persia without success, and excited dis- from official publications and the accounts of content at IIerat by his arbitrary conduct in travelers and missionaries in regard to popuexacting taxes which he had levied in advane lation, make but slight changes in the figures in order to secure means to push forward his published in 1878. The table on page 10 exmilitary preparations. IIis force at this time hibits the area and population of the princiconsisted of three complete regiments, all of pal divisions and subdivisions in 1880, accordwhich had served with him in his expedition ing to the new volume of the “ Bevölkerung against Candahar, sixteen field-guny witho'lt der Erde." horses, and two heavy pieces of artillery. This The most important among the recent terriforce even could not be depended upon, for in torial changes in Africa is the annexation of November the regiments which had been de- the kingdom of Medina to the republic of feated at Candahar refused to serve any longer, Liberia. The area of Medina is not exactly and returned to their homes. Notwithstanding known; its population is estimated by the the signs of weakness in his actual position, a Government of Liberia at about 700,000, and strong feeling was believed to exist in his favor the total population of the republic is thereanong the Pathan population, and apprehen- fore supposed to amount now to about 1,400,sions were entertained that, in case the British 000. (See LIBERIA.) should entirely withdraw from the country, a The Italian commercial firm, R. Rubattini, rising would take place in his favor, with great took, in 1880, actual possession of the territory danger to the authority of Abdurrahman. Some of Assab, which had been purchased in 1870 hopes existed that a way might be found to in- from some chiefs of the Danakil. It is thereduce him to acquiesce in the British policy, and foro now regarded as Itali:in territory. Inwith this objeet the father-in-law of Ayooicluding the small islands of Omm el Bachar Khan, who had accompanied General Roberts and Ras er-Raml, this territory contains fifteen on his march from Cabool, went to IIerat, de- square kilometres. signing to express the attachment of the people (For an account of the British, French, Spanto him, but at the same time intending to advise ish, and Portuguese possessions in Africa, see him to enter into negotiations with the British. Great Britain, Frayoe, Spain, and PortuAbilurrahman was also said to have made over GAL.) tures to Yakoob Khan in order to persuade him The government of the Cape Colony, after to acknowledge his authority, and to have even the conclusion of the Zoolou war, undertook to sent him a present of money.

disarin all the native tribos. The Basutos The Wali of Candahar received permission protested against the application of the disfrom the Viceroy, on the 29th of November, to armament to themselves, pleadling special rearetire to India with his family. The fact was sons for the exemption, without avail. An the subject of much speculation and of conflict- agitation followed, which lasted through seving interpretations as to its meaning. The cor- eral months, and ended in the Basutos beginrespondent of the London “Standard " in Candahar said that the Wali's intention of proceed

the religious statistics of Africa, see

“ Annual ('yclopædia“ for 1579, p. 15. iz to India was not in any degree due to a + 1 square kilometre = 0.356 English square miles.

* For a full account

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