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number of inmates having grown to 1,564 in ment, having been included in the agricultural July, 1879. The reason for locating the new grant to the State University, and by it sold to prison at Folsom was to enable the prison à Mr. Sperry, who has made of the grove a ers to be employed in the State granite-quar- resort for tourists. There are other groves ries in the vicinity. The cells at Folsom aver- known to exist on Government lands, notably ago 480 cubic feet in size. The cell-space in one north of Visalia, in which the trees are as the older portion of the St. Quentin building fine as those in the Mariposa grove. The is only 298 cubic feet. There are 324 cells in Legislature passed an act for the care and the branch prison, which is expected to re- preservation of the latter grove, and of the lieve St. Quentin of 500 of its inmates. The Yosemite Valley. contract for the labor of 350 convicts for five The southern counties of California desire to years in the quarries, at fifty cents a day each, secede and organize a separate State governcan not be completed under the Constitution, ment. The proposition was laid before the which prohibits letting out the labor of con- Legislature by a member from Los Angeles. victs to private individuals or companies by The slow development of their portion of the contract after January 1, 1382. Governor Per- State, and the feeling that they are inequitably kins suggested that one field in which their taxed for the benefit of the north and ignored labor could be employed without competing in the railroad improvements, furnish the with free labor might be in the manufacture grounds for this agitation. of burlap sacks for grain, of which 25,000,000 A sanguinary conflict over contested land aro annually required for the handling of the titles occurred upon a tract granted by Concrops of the State. The cultivation of the gross to the Southern Pacific Railroad in Tujute, of which material these sacks are made, lare and Fresno Counties. The title of the if the lands in any part of the State are adapt- railroad company to the land took effect upon ed for its growth, would prove a new remu. its filing a map of the route in 1867, being denerative employment for husbandmen, and the rived from an act of Congress passed the premanufacture of the sacks in the prisons might ceding year, but the patents were not applied lessen their cost to the farmers, whose supply for until 1877. A large number of settlers now comes principally from abroad. A bill had squatted upon the tract called the Mussel for encouraging the planting of jute was ac- Slough District between 1867 and 1877, and cordingly passed by the Legislature.

had established farmsteads and villages there. The Normal School at San José was de When the company proposed terms of sale to stroyed by fire February 10th, and an appro- the occupants, incensed at being subjected to priation was made for its reërection.

the hardship of having to pay the value of the The policy of the Land-Office at Trashing- improvements that they themselves had made, ton has been altered with respect to tracts of they formed a land league for the object of land, valuable for agricultural purposes, lith- resisting the claims of the railroad to exact erto designated as mineral lands, though con more than the price of wild lanıls. The distaining ininerals only in a few places. Ac- pute was carried into the l'nited States courts, cording to a circular from Washington, issued which decided the case against the settlers. June 201, settlers upon such lands are not re The league were none the less determined to required to bring proof that they contain no tain possession of their homes and to resist all minerals, as formerly; but these are open for attempts to dispossess them. In 1878 the compreëmption to settlers, and, if miners desire to pany conveyed certain parcels of the land to locate inineral claims upon lands thus settled, two purchasers, upon which the test suit was they are obliged to bring evidence that they brought, which was decided adversely to the setcontain minerals. This order applies especially tlers in December, 1879. In May, 1880, the comto the foot-hill belt in California. Tho rexa pany applied to the Court to put these purchastions to which settlers upon this tract have ers in possession. Writs were issued and given often been subjected under the law, which al- to l'nited States Marshal Poole to serve upon lows miners to prospect for minerals anywhere the settlers. Accompanied by the grader of within the belt, las prevented the develop- the railroad lands in this district, the Marshal ment of an immense extent of valuable agricul- and the two men who had purchased from tural land. The land has also been despoiled the railroad company and established their of its timber, and the abuse of occupying title at law proceeded to the district. They mineral lands on a fraudulent agricultural en- dispossessed one family in the absence of the try has been practiced, it is thought, as often man of the house, setting the household efor oftener in the past than is likely to occur fects in the road, and drove to another farm when the region is open to unrestricted settle- to take possession. lIere they were met by a ment.

band of armed and mounted men, who deCongress has passed an act setting apart for manded of the Marshal and the surveyor that park purposes certain lands in California on they should surrender, which they did. The which are growing “redwood " or "big trees." squad then rode forward to the carriage conThe largest group of these gigantic conifera taining the others, and made the same demand. yet known, the Calaveras South Grove, las They leaped to the ground and fired at the passed out of the possession of the Govern- leaguers, killing five of them, and being finally

shot themselves. The settlers continued in jury, was found guilty of the misdemcanor by quiet possession of the lands after this fatal the Judge, March 16th, and sentenced to six encounter, the Government refusing to employ months' imprisonment in the IIouse of Correctroops to eject them.

tion and to pay a fine of one thousand dolThe effect of the new Constitution upon lars, this being the extreme penalty of the law. business in San Francisco was in many ways sentence was confirmed when brought injurious. The business of the Mining-Stock up before the full bench on a writ of habeas Exchange was in great part transferred to corpus, the Court holding that it could not other cities, and the loan market, building review the decision of one of its members. trade, and other branches whose activity be- Kearney had been convicted under an orditokens the general prosperity of a community, nance of the Board of Supervisors making it a suffered under the effects of laws in which misdemeanor to "address to another or utter novel discriminations are made against capital. in the presence of another any words, language, The deterrent influence upon enterprise of the or expression having a tendency to create a innovations already accomplished and of an

breach of the peace." The case was carried ticipations of further legislation in the saine before the State Supreme Court, sitting in full direction, and the locking up and withdrawal bench, May 27th, on a writ of 'habeas corpus, of floating capital, began to affect the interests and the clecision of the Police Court was reof small tradesmen and other classes who had versed. The Court declared, in its opinion, regarded the agitation of the Workingmen's against the doctrine of any judge or jury by party with sympathy or indifference. The in- ordinance being allowed to say what they deem dignation against the Sand-lotters became quite language calculated to create a breach of the general, and when a Citizens' Protective Union public peace, and that such doctrine infringes was formed, the hope was frequently expressed constitutional right and the liberty of speech. that they would put an end to the agitation, It held that while the reasonableness of the orby unlawful measures, if lawful means were dinance is in doubt, its want of harmony with insufficient. The effect of the new laws upon general State laws is also a serious question. capital had thrown many laborers out of em It held that the Police Court of San Francisco ployment, whose presence in the city, together is an inferior court, and that all jurisdictional with the order of the health authorities con facts must appear in its records affirmatively. demning the Chinese quarter, and the question It was the intent of the ordinance, even if all of the validity of the act forbidding the em other objections to it be waived, that the words ployment of Chinese by corporations, pending which constitute the offense shall be uttered, before the Supreme Court, afforded the Sand- not only of another, but in his presence. In lot agitators material for their extravagant this case it is not averred that the words oratory. The vaguely menacing tone of the were uttered in the presence of the person Sand-lot and ward-club speccles was resented denounced. by the citizens of San Francisco and denounced The next manifestation in the movement by the press of the country, and the leaders was the impeachment of Rev. I. S. Kalloch, of the Workingmen were freely charged with Mayor of the city, who had been elected the having produced the depression in San Fran- preceding year on the Workingmen's ticket, by cisco by their incendiary bearing. There were the Board of Supervisors. The charges were rumors of impending riots, and the fact that all of a vague and general import, specifying such fears could arise was alleged as an excuse nothing which legally amounts to malfeasance. for breaking up the obnoxious agitation by The Superior Court was, therefore, obliged to violent means. The Council of Tivo lIundred dismiss the case without argument, on the saine of the Citizens' Union had no intention, how- day on which Kearney obtained his release. ever, of exceeding the provisions of the law. In the mean time the Citizens' Union had orTheir first measures were to strengthen the ganized a political party in opposition to the resources of the city for the suppression of Workingmen, and placed a ticket for city offiriots by providing the police with firearms, in cers in the field, which, in the charter election, creasing the stock of weapons in the armories, held in April, defeated the Workingmen's nomand improving the discipline of the militia. inees. There was a question raised as to the The Workingmen in turn procured arms and legality of the count, owing to the fact that practiced military drill; but it soon became the Citizens' ballots differed somewhat in the apparent that they were cletermined, like their thickness and color of the paper from the opponents, to keep strictly within the limits Workingmen's, which had been procured from of the law. After several weeks of watchful the State Secretary, when the Constitution reinactivity, Kearney, the leader of the Labor quires uniformity; but the election was not party, was arrested at the instigation of the contested. In the Presidential campaign a diCouncil on the charge of having broken certain vision occurred in the Workingmen's party, a of the city ordinances by using profane and part of them following Kearney, who identified threatening language in an inrective against a himself with the Greenback party, while a manufacturer named Spreckels, a member of larger number, including Mayor Kalloch, voted the Council of Two Hundred. He was tried with the Democrats. A sequel to the attempt by Police-Justice Rix, and, having waived a to assassinate Kalloch in the preceding year by

the editor De Young was the murder of the vent the further immigration of Chinese into the United
latter by Kalloch's son.

States, and to rid the country of those now here.
The Board of Health in February declared the Republican National Convention, whoever they

6. That we will cordially support the nominees of the quarter of San Francisco inhabited by Chi- may be'; but we know that the six electoral votes of nese, and called Chinatown, to be a public our State arc certain to be given for the Republican nuisance. The Health Officer of the city, Dr. ticket if James G. Blaine be nominated, wherefore we J. A. Meares, issued a proclamation, February tional Convention to vote as a unit,

first, last, and all 24th, declaring that at the expiration of thirty the time, for James G. Blaine, and to use all honorable days the officers of the law would be called means to secure his nomination for President of the upon “to empty this great reservoir of moral, United States. social, and physical pollution, which is con The Democratic Convention to nominate delstantly extending its area, and threatens to in- egates to the Cincinnati National Convention gulf, with its filthiness, the fairest portion of met at Oakland, May 19th. The following platour city.”

A difficulty was anticipated in en form was adopted : forcing the sanitary regulations on account of

The Democracy of California, by their representathe great number of the Chinese, there being tives in convention assembled, resolve: about twenty-five thousand in the city, as it 1. We reaffirm our fidelity to the principles enunciwas expected that many of them would have ated by the Democratic Convention of St. Louis in to be arrested and provided with jail accom

1876. modations. There was no necessity, however, llayes and William A. Wheeler were declared Presi

2. We denounce the fraud by which Rutherford B. of invoking the power of the law, as it turned dent and Vice-President of the United States, and the out, because the Chinamen immediately set fairly elected candidates, Samuel J. Tilden and Thomabout renovating and purifying their dwell as A. Ilendricks, counted out. ings; and the only houses which remained un 3. We declare that among the leading issues of this cleansed at the end of the thirty days were the campaign are the vindication of the right of the people

to self-government; the condemnation of the crime property of white men who neglected to carry against the ballot committed four years ago; resistout the law.

ance to imperialism; the maintenance of the reserved The new charter for the city of San Fran- rights of the States, and opposition to Chinese immicisco, elaborated under the auspices of the Com- gration,

4. That the drift of the Republican party toward mittee of Two Ilundred, and adopted by the empire, through the oppressive concentration of capivote of the Legislature, was rejected by the tal, is a fraud upon the voting masses, and an insult to people in the municipal election, held Septem- the men who carry the guns in defense of our liberties.

5. We aflirm our devotion to the Union, deprecate ber Sth. The vote against the McClure charter was overwhelming, nearly nineteen thousand all sectionalism, hold the Republican party responsible

for the agitation of vlead issues, and regard the presvotes out of the total vote of twenty-three ervation of local self-government as necessary to the thousand being cast for its rejection. A sec perpetuation of the republic. ond indictment was brouglit against Mayor tralization recently announced by the Republican ma

6. That we regard with alarm the doctrines of cenKalloch, on account of threatening language jority of the Supreme Court of the United States as used with regard to the action of the Judge, having been made in the interest of party, and inin impaneling a jury for the trial of his son on tended to blot out the last vestige of State rights, and the charge of murder.

change the Federal l'nion to an empire. The Republican State Convention met in subject of Mongolian immigration to this country, un

7. That we favor continual lawful agitation of the Sacramento, April 29th, to nominate delegates til the Federal Government is moved to modify our to the National Convention in Chicago, and treaties with the Chinese Empire so as to prohibit it, adopted the following resolutions, instructing and thus save tluse of our fellow-citizens who depend the delegates to vote for the nomination of upon labor for support from unjust and degrading James G. Blaine :

competition. We condemn and denounce the veto of

Rutherford B. Ilayes of the bill limiting Chinese imThe Republicans of California, in State Convention migration, and declare that there is no relief from assembled at Sacramento, April 29, 1980, as expressive the scourge except through a Democratic Adminisof their views, clo hereby resolve:

tration. 1. That they reaffirm their adherence to the Repub 8. That the labor of this country is its capital, and lican national platform of 1876 and the California Re- deserves the protection and guardianship of our Gorpublican State platform of 1879.

ernments, State and Federal. 2. That the policy of resumption, which has made 9. We impose no instructions upon our delegates to the greenback of war clays equal to gold in days of the ('onvention to meet at ('incinnati, save and except peace, should be maintained.

to vote for the retention of the so-called “two-thirds 3. That the amendments to the Federal Constitu- rule" in nominating candidates for President and ţion, and all laws passed in pursuance thereof, should Vice-Presi.lent. he sacredly and jealously maintained and enforcec, so that every citizen of the United States, regardless of The Workingmen's party of California, in color or condition, shall be protected in all his rights, their Convention at San Francisco, adopted a and a tiu!l, free, and fair election be held in all the States platform denouncing subsidies, national banks, of the Union,

4. That the free public schools should be guarded and monopolies, and favoring greenbacks, adand fostered by all the appliances within reach of the vocating femalo enfranchisement, compulsory State and national Governments, to the one that the education, il public fund to assist the poor to children of all may be educated to know, and thereby settle on Government lands, direct ballot for to enjoy and perform, their full duties and privileges President and Vice-President, and the election as Ainerican citizens.

5. That all peaceful measures should be used to pre- of postmasters. il split occurred between the

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Greenback and Democratic factions in the Con- session of immovable property of £2,000, or vention, and the latter organized separately. movable property worth £1,000. Members of

The returns of the United States census both Houses are elected by the same voters, make the total population of the State 864,686, who are qualified by possession of property, or showing an increase in ten years of 304,439 in receipt of salary or wages, ranging between the population, which the last census gave as £25 and £50 per annum. There were 45,825 560,217. The male population is 518,271, the registered electors in 1878. The Governor is, female 346,415. The number of inhabitants by virtue of his office, commander-in-chief of in the State of foreign birth is 292,680; of the forces within the colony. He has a salary American birth, 572,006. The white popula-' of £5,000 as Governor, besides £1,000 as “her tion numbers 767,266; the colored, 97,420. Majesty's High Commissioner," and an addiThe population of San Francisco is given as tional £300 as allowance for country resi233,956. Oakland contains 35,010 inhabitants dence.” The administration is carried on, under against 10,500 in 1870; Sacramento has grown the Governor, by a Ministry of five members, in population in the ten years from 16,283 to called the Colonial Secretary, the Attorneyabout 23,000; Los Angeles from 5,728 to 11,- General, the Treasurer-General, the Commis050; San José from 9,089 to 12,635.

sioner of Crown Lands and Public Works, and CAPE COLONY AND BRITISH SOUTII the Secretary of Native Affairs. AFRICA.* By an official declaration, dated The revenue of the colony is derived mainly January 8, 1879, th, Whale Bay was annexel from import duties, which produced, on the to the Cape Colony. In consequence of the average of the five years from 1874 to 1878, conflicts between the English and the natives not far from a million pounds sterling per anof Caffraria, the remnant of independent Caf- num. Comparatively little is derived from fraria, Pondoland, was in 1878 occupied by the rent or sales of public lands, although vast disEnglish. Chief Umquikela was declared to tricts are waiting to be cultivated. The greathave forfeited his land, and on August 31, est part of the expenditure is for interest on 1878, a military post was erected by the Eng- the public debt. The estimated revenue of the lish on the left bank of the St. John River or year 1879 was £2,309,000, and the expenditure Umzimvubu. Including these new annexations, £2,226,164. The colony had a public debt of the area and population of the British doinin- £10,500,000 on the 31st of July, 1879. The ions in South Africa are as follows (area debt dates from the year 1859, when it amountexpressed in kilometres; 1 kilometre =0-386 cd to .£80,000. The interest in 1879 amounted square mile):

to £483,363. The clelt is under proinise of

repayment by installments extending to the Square kilometres. Population.

year 1900. The imports were valued in 1877 Cape Colony..

720,944 at £5,158,348, the exports at £3,634,073. The Basuto land.

commercial intercourse of the colony is mainly Griqualand West.


45,277 Transkei districts (Caffraria).


with the United Kingdom, and the value of the Transvaal.


315,000 wool shipped annually from the colony to

336,517 Great Britain constitutes alone nearly nine Total........

1,966,000 tenths of the total exports. The railway lines

had, in June, 1879, an aggregate length of 580 Of the population of Cape Colony proper miles, and 420 miles were in the course of con236,783 belong to the white race, and 484,201 struction. The number of post-offices was to the colored. Of the former more than one 248; the revenue of the department amounted half (143,000) is connected with the Dutch to £57,870), and the expenditures to £151,220. Reformed Church; next in order are the The telegraphs in the colony, which were conAnglican Church (26,000), Roman Catholics structed entirely at the expense of the Govern(8,600), Methodists (7,900), Lutherans (6,200), ment, coinprised, in 1878, 3,380 miles of wire, Presbyterians (3,400), Independents (2,500), with 92 offices. The number of messages sent and Baptists (2,100).

was 183,120. The present Constitution of the Cape Colony The Right Ilonorable Sir HercTLES GEORGE rests the executive power in the Governor and Robert RobiNSON, G. C. M. G., who was apan Executivo Council, composed of certain of- pointed Governor of the Cape of Good Hope, fice-holders appointed by the Crown. The leg- December, 1880, was born in 1824, and eduislative power rests with a Legislative Council cated at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. of twenty-one members, ten of whom are IIe held for some years à commission in the elected for ten years, and eleven for five years, Eighty-seventh Foot, but retired from the service presiiled over er-officio by the Chief-Justice; in 1816, and was employed in various capacities and a House of Assembly of sixty-eight mem

in the civil service in Ireland until 1852. He bers, elected for five years, representing the was in 1854 appointed President of the Island country districts and towns of the colony. The of Montserrat in the West Indies, and in 1855 qualification for members of the Council is pos- Lieutenant-Governor of St. Christopher. II

succeeded Sir John Bowring as Gorernor of * For a statistical account of the races and religious denoninations of the Cape Colony, see "Aunual Cyclopaedia for Jong-Kong in 1859, when he received the 1879, article CAPE COLONY,

honor of knighthood, was promoted to the


21,79 1





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governorship of Ceylon in January, 1865, and towns of the colony, Pietermaritzburg and Durto the governorship of New South Wales ban, the European and native population were in March, 1872, which position he held until nearly equal in numbers. Comparatively few 1878. In August, 1874, he proceeded to the immigrants arrived in recent years, the former Feejee Islands for the purpose of settling mat- government aid to this effect having been dister between the British Government and the na- continued. The commerce of Natal is almost tive power. On October 15th he accepted the entirely with Great Britain. The staple article uncondition:al cession of the islands, annexed of export is sheep's wool. The amount of them to the British Empire, and hoisted the wool exported to Great Britain was valued at British flag. For some time he remained at £400,672 in 1874, at £514,310 in 1875, at the head of the provisional government which £379,079 in 1876, at £518,379 in 1877, at he established for the islands. For tho ser- £508,111 in 1878, and at £502,539 in 1879. rices rendered on this occasion he was in Next in importance to wool stand hides, the January, 1875, created a Grand Cross of the esports of which were of the ralue of £67,405 Order of Sts. Michael and George. From 1879 in 1879; and raw sugar, of the value of £13,to 1880 he was Governor of New Zealand. In 111, in the same year. Many of the exports of 1880 he was “Governor and Commander-in- the colony, particularly wool, come from the Chief of the Colony of Good Hope and her Mil- neighboring Dutch settlements, which also abjesty's High Commissioner for South Africa." sorb more than one third of the imports. Cot

The colony of Natal, formerly an integral ton was first grown in the colony in 1866. part of the Cape of Good lIope settlement. The exports of raw cotton to Great Britain was erected in 1856 into a separate colony were valued at £18,559 in 1870, and rose to more under the British Crown, represented first by than £29,000 in 1871, but have rapidly declined a Lieutenant-Governor, and since 1879 by a ever since until 1876, when they amounted to Governor. Under the charter of constitution only £197. From 1877 to 1879 no raw cotton granted in 1856 and modified in 1875 and was exported. The chief articles of British 1879, the Governor is assisted in the adminis- imports into Natal in 1879 were apparel and tration of the colony by an Executive and a haberdashery, valued at £341,317; and iron, legislative council. The Executive Council is wrought and unwrought, of the value of £94,composed of the Chief-Justice, the comman- 272. The Government in 1875 made a contract dant, the Colonial Secretary, the Treasurer, the for the construction of a railway system which Attorney-General, the Secretary for Native is to comprise 345 miles of a single line, to be Affairs, and two members nominated by the constructed at a cost of £1,200,000. Governor froin among the deputies elected to Major-General Sir George POMEROY COLLEY the Legislative Council. The latter is com was appointed Governor of Natal, February 19, posed of thirteen official members and fifteen 1880. Ile was born in 1835, entered the army members elected by the counties and borouglis. in 1850, and served in the shantee and other The budget of the colony shows a steadily increasing revenue and expenditure, as will be The Basutos, who in 1880 attracted great seen from the following table:

attention by their revolt against English rule, have, to a large extent, been civilized and Christianized by Protestant missionaries from

France. The missionaries were invited into £247,259


the country by King Moshesh, who steadfastly 261,933 aided all the efforts for spreading education

and civilization until his death, although he 491,853 never became a Christian himself. The ma

jority of the Basutos were in 1880 still pagans, About one fourth of the revenue is derived put the Christian minority, excelling by educafrom customs, and the rest from iniscellaneous tion, industry, and wealth, already has a consources of income, among them a “hut-tax ” trolling influence. The churches have had on natives, the impost being fixed at 1.18. per since 1872 a synodal organization_after the hut. In 1878 there were 85,71+ huts thus taxed. model of the Reformed Church of France. The largest items in the list of expenditures are The Colonial Parliament was opened, May those for police an: the administration of jus- 7th, by Sir Bartle Frere, who announced in tice. The public debt consists of six loans, all his opening speech that bills would be presentat six per cent., tlıree of them contracted for ed for convening a conference on the confedharbor-works, two for coolic immigration, and eration of the South African colonies, for sancthe last, raised in 1870, for the construction of tioning the annexation of Griqualand West, for a line of railway. The total delt of the colony extending the system of railways and improrwas £1,631,700 at the end of 1879. The col- ing harbors, and for dealing with the detention ony has a seaboard of 150 miles, but the ex of l'etywayo and Secocoeni. Tho proposal for tent of some of the districts is all but unknown. a conference of the colonies on confederation As to raco there were in 1877 22,650 persons was brought up in June. i stronger opposiof European descent and 12,823 coolies; all the tion was manifested against it than had been remainder were natives of Africa. In the two anticipated; and, after three days of discussion,


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1874. 1575. 1876. 1877. 1578. 1979.

260,271 263,551 272,-178 369,33 473,479


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