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Area in square
visions of Russia were estimated as follows in receipts were estimated according to the nor1880 (“ Gotha Almanac,” 1881):
mal average yield of the various sources of revenue, and were regarded as sufficient completely to cover the outlay, notwithstanding
the expenditure, which included the interest 1. European Russia..
4,909, 193.7 65,864,910 on the new loans, had increased by 38,000,000
127,316.5 6,528,017 Annexed districts in Bessarabia
rubles. Of the items of increased expendi
127,000 2. Grand duchy of Finland.. 378,536.2 1,990,817 ture, the payment of interest for the state
debts, after reckoning the reduction effected Government of Kars.
12,495, 109.5 3,440,362 by the redemption of the former loans, required 5. Central Asia..
3,380,557.1 4,505,876 15,000,000 more than in the previous year, Russian Empire... 21,759,973:7 88,085,356
while the war and naval budgets were in
creased by 11,000,000 rubles, and the estiThe following cities have, according to the mates of the Ministry of the Interior by 2,latest enumerations, more than 100,000 inhab- 000,000, the last addition being attributable to itants: Petersburg (in 1869), 667,963; Mos- the reënforcement of the police. On the other cow (1871), 601,969 ; Warsaw (in 1878), 336,- side, the increase of revenue was produced 703; Odessa (1873), 184,819; Kiev (1874), chiefly by receipts on account of excise, cus127,251; Riga, 103,000; Kishinev, 102,427; toms, forests, and repayments by railway com. Kharkov (1879), 101,175.
panies. It was computed that the additional For religious and other statistics of the empire, revenue from this source would amount to '
“Annual Cyclopædia” for 1877 and 1878. about 30,000,000 rubles, and a further increase The budget for 1880, as published in Janu- of 7,000,000 rubles was expected to accrue in ary, showed a probable balance between rev- small amounts from miscellaneous items. enue and expenditure, the totals in each case The foreign commerce of Russia in 1877 and being estimated at 666,000,000 rubles. The 1878 was as follows (value in rubles):
number of offices was 2,534 ; the number of room, although the Czar and Prince Alexander, dispatches, 5,761,731. The receipts of the of Bulgaria, wbo had been conversing in the telegraph-office in 1878, 28,113,702 francs) Czar's study, were about to enter it through showed in recent years a small annual sur one door, and the imperial Princesses were plus, which is, by imperial decree, always de- about going in through another door. The voted to the extension of the telegraphic sys- Empress was asleep in a remote part of the tem.
palace, and was not disturbed by the shock of There were indications that the principles of the explosion. An examination of the premthe Nihilists were spreading in the army; four ises showed that the mine was filled partly officers in one regiment were arrested during with dynamite and partly with gun-cotton, the first week in January on a charge of dis- and that the train was laid to a cellar in an seminating revolutionary publications, copies inner court, where a battery, by which it was of some of which were found at their lodgings. fired, was concealed among a store of fuel. Two officers who had assisted eight political Though the cellars were used by workmen, none prisoners to escape were arrested, and special of the regular workmen employed about the courts-martial were established in two districts palace appeared to be implicated in the offense. where Nihilism was discovered in the regi- The Czar was very much affected by the occurments. A depository of revolutionary publi- rence, so that, at one time, he almost, it is . cations, with galvanic batteries, was discovered said, lost his self-command. When Lord Dufin Moscow on the 6th, and led to the revela- ferin, the British ambassador, called to contion of a plot to blow up the Czar on his next gratulate him on his escape, he remarked that journey to that city. A petty officer and sea- he was indebted to Divine Providence, and man, having their sea-chests filled with revolu- that God, having mercifully delivered him tionary books and pamphlets, wire arrested at twice, recently, from very imminent peril, he Nicolaieft. Anxiety was increased by the dis was content to trust his life for the future to affection of a number of superior officers, some lis protecting hand. Congratulations on his of them high in command, and it appeared that escape were sent to the Czar_by the heads a considerable proportion of those who had of all the principal states. To a dispatch failed to obtain promotion and honors after from President Grévy, of France, his Majesty the late war had espoused the revolutionary replied: "I cordially thank you for the sen
A proclamation to Russian society was timents you express. The spirit of evil is published by students of the high-schools, com- unwearied, like Divine grace. I am glad to plaining of the oppressive measures which the reckon on the sympathies of right-thinking Government had taken against them, and of men.” On the Sunday after the attempt, the the system of education which was imposed Czar visited the Paulowski military school, upon them. It charged the Government with where he received an ovation from the stugiving the preference to the classical system as dents, whose cheering was taken up by the one which tended to keep the public in igno- crowds assembled on the quay. rance, dwarf their reasoning power, and in On the 24th of February a ukase was iscapacitate them for active life; demanded sued, in which the Czar, having declared his educational liberty and the right to enter the firm determination to put down the attempts universities; and declared that, although so to disturb order in Russia, appointed a Suciety would do nothing for its authors, they preme Executive Commission to sit in the capiwould fight the great Moloch, called the Rus- tal, of which General Count Loris-Melikoff sian Government, to the end, even though the was named as president, and the members of best of them might perish in the struggle. An- which were to be selected by him. The head other secret press was discovered at St. Peters- of the Commission, whose duty it was made to burg, with type set for the third number of the watch over the safety of the Russian Empire, new revolutionary paper, “Narodnaja Wolia,” was invested with the rights of commander-inwhich was said to contain, among other things, chief in St. Petersburg and the adjacent disa programme of the Executive Committee, pro- trict, and further, with the direct control orer posing to overthrow the Government and trans- all political trials held in the capital, the milifer the reins of power to an assembly of or- tary district of St. Petersburg, and throughout ganization. The press, and copies of another the empire. All the local authorities, governrevolutionary journal, called “Tschorng Pere- ors, governors-general, and town commanddol” (the Black Distribution of Land), was ers, were placed under the jurisdiction of the discovered a few days afterward.
chief of the Executive Commission, and all perOn the 17th of February, at seven o'clock in sons employed in the various departments were the evening, just as the imperial family were commanded to afford him their entire coöperaabout to dine, a inine was exploded in the tion. The head of the Commission was given basement of the Winter Palace, immediately authority to adopt any measure which might under the imperial guard-room, which was appear to him desirable for the protection of situated beneath the dining-room. The guard- order, and his orders were to be unconditionroom was blown up, ten soldiers were killed, ally obeyed. The office of the Provisional Govand forty-five wounded. Fortunately, none of ernor-General of St. Petersburg, held hitherto the imperial rty had yet entered the dining- by General ko, was abolished. The first