Gambar halaman


No. of slaves.


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Rio Grande do Sul.

43,409 229.2339 91,992 63,16+

974 30,9-3 13,937 26,351 12.529 10,123 21,216 21.216 30,397

Rio Grande do Norte.

475,633 106,292 10,5.0

1,02 50.3:3 121.7 133 0 21,098 16,909 31,592 34,592 49,091 16 510 11,396 277,5 1911.9.3 470,00 11.-151

Matto Grosso.

Minas Geraes...

7,051 1651) 116,119 250,919

0,963 23,96

children learning hereafter of our selfishness situated on the Rio Negro and above San Cárand our moral and physical degradation? In this los; while the Venezuelan commissioners were deplorable state of things, let us renew our et- at Javita, one day's journey beyond that point. forts to arouse the slumbering spirit of our colin According to the latest official returns, the trymen to reconstruct Bolivia, prepare for the number of slaves in Brazil was 1,368,25+; but national defense, and gain the victory overChili, as these figures were taken from registers reachcost what it may. To that end the National Con- ing only to the end of 1878, the number must vention should, we think, continue for at least at present be several thousand less, allowing for six months longer its labor of reconstructing deaths, and for public and private emancipation. our demoralized national administration. Let The distribution of the accumulated emancithe representatives be paid, for no labor is inore pation fund (about $2,201,940) was, however, worthy of remuneration than theirs. Exac- based on the same returns; and the following tions can lead to no practical or useful end. table shows the number of slaves in, and the The members of the Convention have hitherto share of said fund allotted to cach of the provmanifested an unusual degree of self-denial in inces at the close of the year above referred the service of their couutry. Many of them to : will continue to do so; but such can not be expected to constitute the rule. It is but fair that those who devote their time and energy Municipio Neutro.

$71,391 to the cause of Bolivia, and thereby neglect Rio de Janeiro . their own private concerns, should be remu. nerated. In the trying times through which we are now passing, it is not prudent to expect everything of the Executive. Chili, in

Sergipe.. making war against us, has had the counsel Santa Catharina. and guidance of her people's representatives, while we intrusted everything to the Govern- Espirito Santo.. ment. What has been the result? Daza's Alagĝas.


10,053 Government plunged us in ruin; and the present Government, spite of all its patriot- São Paulo. ism, will at no distant day lose its prestige, for of professional malcontents there is, untortu- Goyaz nately, no lack in Bolivia. The wise direction Parahyba..


25,773 42,70 of public affairs requires the energetic cooperation of the Parliainent with an honest Gov

1,365,251 $2,204,940 ernment like that of the illustrious General Campero. Our country's wounds need the It is stated that, in virtue of a recent revfirm' hand and determined treatment of a enue law, the emancipation fund will be National Convention, and a National Conven- doubled in the fiscal years 1881–82, and be tion alone. Lastly, Bolivia, like the phenix, probably about $1,000,000. must find within her own breast the secret of In the matter of immigration, Brazil has her regeneration. The Assembly, by the light been particularly unfortunate, not withstanding of their understanding, the Executive by pa- the many sacrifices she has made with a view to triotic action, and the people by unceasing attracting useful colonists to her shores. Recent labor in the cultivation of the fruits of the experiments with Russians have been attended earth, must raise up the nation from the with results so unfavorable as to discour:17e depths to which she bas fallen, and carry our the Government from further attempts of the arms to the retrieval of honor lost and soil kind. Indeed, it would appear that the abanusurped.” A confederation between Peru and donment of state immigration has been reBolivia, accepted by the people of the first solved upon, and that recourse will hereafter country in June, and to be decided upon by a be had to the more practical plan of reforming plebiscitum in the second, appears to have been the land laws so as to facilitate grants, sales favorably considered by the National Conven- on credit, and lenses, thus affording to small tion at La Paz, and the question even submit- holders easy terms and security from former ted to the President for Executive sanction in trammels. Votice is stated io have been October. (The leading incidents of the war transmitted to Europe that the "assisted påswill be narrated in the article PERU.)

sage" system would be discontinued, except BRAZIL (Imperio Do Brazil). (Statistics in the case of already existing contracts; and concerning area, territorial divisions, popula- on the 7th of May all Government lodging. tion, etc., will be found in the “Innual Cyclo- houses were to be closed. Frequent allusion pædia " for 1878.) The commissioners appoint- has been made in the British and in the Braed to determine the limits of the empire with the zilian press to the disadvantage of allowing neighboring republic of Venezuela were re- large tracts of land to be held on a nominal ported to have made satisfactory progress. At tenure, yet lying neglected and uncultivated; latest accounts the Brazilian section had a:l- and it is hoped that the remedial measures vanced as far as Maroa, a Venezuelan village just mentioned, together with others in con



Dr. J. P. Belfort Vicira.
Rio Grande do Norte..... Dr. R. L. Marcondes.

Santa Catharina..
São Paulo....

Dr. A. A. Oliveira.
Dr. L. A. de Brito.

do Sul..

Dr. F. Pereira da Silva,
Dr. T. F. dos Santos.

Dr. A. de Barros Cavalcante. templation, will not only remove old evils, but Pernambuco...

Piauby. afford a free scope to labor, encouraging useful industry, and offering to settlers the incentive Rio de Janeiro.. Dr. A. M. Marcondes de Andrade, of being enabled to benefit their future condition by terms of equality. The subject of São Pedro (Rio Grande) Chinese immigration has been mooted, with

Sergipe.. the assurance that experiments in that direction might prove eminently successful. As The Archbishop of Bahia, N—is Priexamples of the efficiency of Chinese labor, mate of all Brazil, and there are eleven bishops: California and Australia have been alluded to; those of Pará, São Luiz, Fortaleza, Olinda, Rio but in both of these the prevailing conditions de Janeiro, São Paulo, Porto Alegre, Marianna, were different from those characterizing Brazil, Diamantina, Goyaz, and Cuyabá. where the only desideratum is not competition The Brazilian Minister Plenipotentiary and for labor but hands to cultivate the soil. Envoy Extraordinary to the United States is

The Emperor is Dom Pedro II, born De- Councilor A. P. de Carvalho Borges, accredited cember 2, 1825; proclaimed April 7, 1831; October 9, 1871; and the Brazilian Consulregency until July 23, 1810; crowned July 18, General (for the Union) at New York is Sen1841; married September 4, 18-13, to Theresa hor Salvador de Mendonça. Christina Maria, daughter of the late King According to the law of February 27, 1875, Francis I of the Two Sicilies.

military service is obligatory for all Brazilian A change of Ministry occurred early in the citizens; but numerous exceptions are admityear, but did not result in a change of party, ted, and substitution is allowable. The period the Liberals continuing in power.

The new

of service is six years in the regular army, and Cabinet was made up as follows: Minister of three in the reserve. The regulation strength the Interior, Baron Homem de Mello ; ot' Jus- of the army in time of peace is fixed at 13,000 tice, Councilor M. P. S. Dantas, Senator; of men; though the actual strength in 1880 was Foreign Affairs, Councilor P. L. Pereira de 15,304, of whom 1,743 were officers. The Souza, Deputy; of Finance, Councilor J. A. strength in time of war was to be fixed at 32,000. Saraiva, Senator, and President of the Council The arms were distributed as follows: Infantry, of State; of War, Viscount de Pelotas, Senator; twenty-one battalions, eight garrison compaof the Navy, Councilor J. R. Lima Duarte, nies, and one dépôt company for drilling reDeputy ; of Public Works, Commerce, and Ag- cruits; cavalry, five regiments, one squadron, riculture, Councilor M. Buarque de Macedo, and five garrison companies; artillery, three Deputy.

mounted regiments, and five foot-battalions; The Council of State was composed of the sappers and miners, one battalion; gendarmes, fożlowing members in ordinary : the Princess 8,340 men, of whom 931 were at Rio de JaneiImperial Donna Isabel; Prince Gaston d'Or- ro. The National Guard had been disbanded, léans, Count d'Eu; the Senators— Viscount and was to be reorganized on completion of d'Abaeté, Viscount de Muritiba, Viscount de the new census. Bom Retiro, Viscount de Jaguary, Viscount de The navy, in 1880, consisted of nine ironNictheroy, Viscount de Araxá, J. P. Dias de Car- clad steamers, sis steam-corvettes, sixteen vacho, and J. J. Teixeira; Vice-Admiral J. R. steam-gunboats, and six steam-transports; and de Lamare; Dr. P.J. Soares de Souza; and of three sail of the line (one corvette and two six members extraordinary: Senators–J. L. ('. smaller craft); with an aggregate of 3,758 Paranaguá and M. P. S. Dantas; Councilors— men, and total armament of 166 guns. There Martin Francisco and B. A. de M. Taques; were, besides, five iron-clad ships, one gunboat, Viscount de Prados, and Dr. J. C. de Andrade. one school-ship, and one brig for midshipmen,

The President of the Senate, which com all without armament; and there was a gun. prises fifty-eight members elected for life, is boat in process of building. There were in Viscount de Jaguary; and the Vice-President, the navy 14 general staff-officers, 340 first-class Count de Baependy.

officers, a sanitary corps 73 strong, 17 almoThe President of the Chamber of Deputies, ners, 88 accountants, 57 guardians, and 185 enwith one hundred and twenty-two members gineers; an imperial marine corps 2,695 strong: elected for four years, is Viscount de Prados; a naval battalion, 286, and 1,229 apprentices; and the Vice-President, F. de Almeida.

total, 4,984 men. The Presidents of the several provinces were The financial position of the empire may in as follows:

general be considered to have improved, owing

mainly to increased productions, the coffeeAlagoas... Baron de Maracajú.

crop alone promising to fall little short of Dr. A. Aragão Bulcao.

300,000 tons (or 672,000,000 pounds)! The Dr. J. J. de Albuquerque Barros. Espirito Santo.

issue of gold bonds has proved a financial sucGoyaz.. Dr. A. S. Spinola.

cess—these obligations being largely held in Maranhão...

England and in Brazil, and regarded as a favorDr. M, J, G, Rebello Ilorta. ite investment.

In a non-official report published in July, Parahyba..

1880, the revenue for the fiscal year 1878–79

Dr. C. Pinto da Silva.


Dr. E.S. Martins.

Dr. L. (). Lino de Vasconcellos.
Dr. J. J. Peciroza.

Matto Grosso..
Minas Geraies..

Dr. J. C. da Gama e Abreu.
Dr. M. Pereira Vianna.
Dr. M. P. S. Dantas Filho,



was set down at $115,302,355, and the expen referred to)—such were the results produced diture at $90,178,304, with a consequent sur- by its application. plas balance of $25,124,051 for the year 18.9– The subjoined table exhibits the amount and 180.

branches of the national debt of Brazil on In the budget for 1881–82, the revenue and March 30, 1880: expenditure were respectively estimated as Foreign debt, at five per cont. interest, payable in shown in the subjoined tables :


$75,538, 666 Home Debt. Payable in paper money, at four,

five, and six per cent.. $169,753,550 General receipts (ordinary and extraordinary)... $55,029,000 Payable in gold, at six per cent.... 37,058,505 Emancipation fund.. 450,000



Debi prior to 1827..

Orphans' and other funds..

25,135,529 EXPENDITURE.

Treasury notes (at two, four, and six
Ministry of the Interior


of Foreign Afflirs

431,652 Paper money (Government notes *) 94,599,795
of Financo

126,365,339 of Justice..

of Agriculture

Total. .

$107,716,065 of War

6,506,573 of the Navy..


The following extract from a British finan

cial journal will be found to contain interestTotal.....


ing remarks on the Brazilian home debt, and Deficit

$664,378 Brazilian credit generally: Later returns, however, published in Sep

In September, 1879, Brazilian five per cents. of the tember, 1830; gave the estimated revenue at

1865 issue had a medium quotation of 93; in the third

week of September, 1880, the corresponding price of $57,129,000, and the expenditure at $57,073, these bonds was 96. Some allowance must be made 423, whereby, instead of a deficit, as above, for the fact that all securities have been gradually hardthere would be a surplus of $55,577.

ening in price of late in consequence of the cheapThe total amount of the customs receipts it must be admitted that Brazilian credit has improved

ness of money; but, even allowing for this, we think at Rio de Janeiro, for 1879, was $20,877,663, during the past twelve months. When foreign bonds against $20,339,380 for 1878, as follows: In- fell into general discredit, four or five years since, on port duties for 1879, $15,977,499, against $16,- the collape of Paraguay, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Ilon072,746 for 1878; export duties for 1879, duras, Turkey, Peru, ctc. (to say nothing of the par$1,900,164, against $4,266,634 for 1878. The found her credit seriously weakened, and she becamo receipts at the same custom-house bid fair to unable to negotiate furtlier loans in London. Under show a still further increase for 1880, having these circumstances, she adopted probably the best amounted in the first three quarters of that year and most sensible course which slie could pursucto $15,772,151, against $15,718,393 for the cor

she raised a considerable loan at liome. Although the

rate of interest attached to this internal loan did not responding period in 1879.

exceed 45 per cent. per annum, the operation proved A report was current in July, 1880, that the completely successful, and while it placed the Brazilian Brazilian customs tariff was again to be re- Treasury in funds, it had the further advantage of vised, and that the Minister of Finance had showing that Brazil possessed such ample resources at appointed a committee for that purpose. Such English assistance. The 41 per cent. internal loan

home that she really could afford to dispense with intelligence is far from gratifying, observes a concluded by Brazil in 1879 marked, indeed, a new Rio journal, as tariff revisions in Brazil have era in Brazilian finance, and reëstablished Brazilian become synonymous with “tariff elevations.” credit. The result has been an advance of three per As stated in a previous volume,* the merchants cent. in Brazilian five per cents. of 1865, and a still of Rio de Janeiro, on the occasion of the last greater hardening in the securities of railways guar

anteed by Brazil. There certainly appear to be order, revision, were invited to take part in the work. regularity, and good faith in the financial administraAfter bestowing inuch time and labor on the tion of Brazil. In the bonds of Brazil issued in Lonquestion, they found that their suggestions had don the Emperor of Brazil pledges his “imperial and

sacred word ""' that the conditions of the various Brabeen uniformly acted upon when favoring an

zilian loans shall be scrupulously adhered to; and increase of duty, and disregarded when urging thus far his Majesty's" imperial and sacred word” has the necessity of a reduction. The tariff went certainly been found to be thoroughly reliable. In into operation on January 1, 1890, and the her present Emperor Brazil is blessed with a wise and short period of six months was sufficient to

beneficent ruler, distinguished by tendencies at once demonstrate that it was based on wrong prin- to Dom Pedro Segundo.

conservative and liberal. Brazil is deeply indebted ciples: continual conflicts between the mercantile community and the custóm-house offi

The long-pending British claims against Bracials, diminished importation and sale of cer

zil have again come to the surface, and hopes tain kinds of commodities, enhanced cost of

are entertained of their settlement through the all means of living for the working-classes, new

mediation of Mr. Ford, now accredited as Britdifficulties in the collection of duties, multiplied ish Minister to Brazil, and those name was complaints of the people, and a general de associated with the famous fishery question becrease of receipts (spite of the promising state tween England and the United States. of things at the Rio custom-house, as above * Exclusive of the notes of the Bank of Brazil and of the

banks of Bahia, Pernambuco, and Maranhão, the aggregate * See “Annual Cyclopædia " for 1873.

amount of which in circulation in 1979 was about $13,500,000.



Raw cotton.

The foreign trade of the empire for the year Great Britain were of the values of $38,392,1878–79 was of the total value of $183,782,- 265 and $35,015,650 respectively. 150, of which $102,029,250 were for exports Of all the articles of production in Brazil, and $81,752,900 for imports.

and of all the Brazilian export staples, coffee The annexed table exhibits the names and is by far the most important, and the chief values of the chief staples of export for the shipping ports for the staple are Rio de Janeiro year just mentioned:

and Santos. From the following table it will

be seen that while the quantity exported from Coffee..

$56,710,950) Rio in the year ending June 30, 1880, was Sugar

5,180), 100

nearly 20 per cent. less than in the year imme4,9933, 130 diately preceding; it closely approximated the 8,5-9,530

average of the past six years. The Rio aver

4, 176,230 Maté (Paraguay tea).

1,357,500 age is at present about 173,000 tons,* while Gold (ingots and dust)

1,111,151) that for Santos has risen to 55,000 tons, the Diamonds...


exports from the latter port having been, howThe imports from Great Britain in 1878 ever, considerably above that arerage in the were of the value of $27,889,760, against $29,- past two years. The total average shipments 793,275 in 1877; and the exports from Brazil of coffee from Brazil for the past five or six to Great Britain in 1878 were of the value of years closely approximate 225,000 tons; but in $23,252,425, against $31,724,805 in 1877. A 1878–79 they reached 280,000 tons, and there marked decrease is here observable; and, in- is every prospect of a crop of 235,000 tons deed, the trade between these two countries from the Rio district in 1880–81, and as much has been steadily declining since 1874, in which as 60,000 tons from Santos, or a total approachyear the imports from, and the exports to, ing to 672,000,000 pounds! Coffee Shipments from Rio de Janciro for the Six Years from July 31, 1874, to June 30, 1880.

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It is reported that jute is to become an line of mail-steamers between Rio de Janeiro article of export from Brazil, and that a privi- and IIalitas, N. S., calling at Bahia, Pernanlege has been granted to the Messrs. Steel for buco, ('eará, Maranhão, Pará, and St. Thomas, the production of it on waste lands, particu- W. I., making the trip from Rio in twentylarly in the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro. Judg- nine days, and from Ilalifax in twenty-eight ing from what it has done for East Indian days, with privilege of calling at Montreal, exports, it is fair to presume it will prove a at the option of the contractor. The vessels valuable accretion to the Brazilian staples. are to be of at least eighteen hundred tons

The projected establishment at Rio of a per- burden (gross), with accommodations for forty manent exhibition for American manufactures first-class and one hundred steerage passenwas much talked of in the past year.

gers. The subsidy is 100,000 milreis curThe shipping movements at the various ports rency per annum, and the contract is for ten of the empire in 1878–79 were as follows: years. The service is to commence on October

1, 1881. In case of the repeal by Canada of the favors of the revenue law of 1879, the Brazilian Government may cancel the contract,

giving six months' notice. The contractor was

3,363 Coasting...

to furnish a guarantee of 10,000 milreis within 1,829,752

three months of the date of the contract.

The Amazon Steam Navigation Company is Ocean..


spoken of as an enterprise highly creditable to Coasting....


The Brazilian Government has contracted

At tho end of 1879 there were in the einwith Mr. William Darley Bentley for a monthly

pire 1,911 miles of railway, and 4,340 miles of

elegraph, with 123 ottices, the number of dis"Of 2,240 pounds each.

patches having been 232,022. Brazilian progress










is in a great measure due to the development ment of naturalized citizens and citizens of all of the railway system of the empire. A seven creeds. per cent. imperial guarantee is now given in BRIGHT, Join the Chancellor of the Duchy the case of all lines having a Government of Lancaster in the new Cabinet of Mr. Gladsanction. Most of the lines have been con- stone, was born November 16, 1811, at Greenstructed with British capital and by British bank, near Rochdale. His father, Jacob Bright, contractors, and the main offices of some are was a cotton-spinner and manufacturer of Rochsituated in London. Some concessions have, dale, and belonged to the Society of Friends. however, been obtained and the necessary John entered his father's business at the age capital raised by local contractors; and a new of fifteen, and devoted his leisure hours with line from the port of Paranaguá to Coritiba, great zeal to the study of the best works on the capital of the province of Paraná, and in- history, politics, and national economy. After augurated in April last by his Majesty Doin his return from a journey on the Continent of Pedro II, is due to the enterprise of a French Europe, he made his first appearance in 1831 company, who also provided the required as a political speaker in the agitation against capital. Many of the civil engineers engaged Church rates. He became widely known by on the native railways, and some of those on the prominent part he took in the Anti-Cornthe English-built lines, are Brazilians, engineer- Law League, which grew out of an association ing being a profession high in favor at present forined in 1838 to obtain the repeal of the cornin Brazil.

laws. IIe won so great distinction as a politiAn important event in Brazilian submarine cal speaker, that the League, which extended telegraphy was the concession, in October last, its operations over all England, appointed him, to the Western and Brazilian Telegraph Com- in 1839, one of its official agitators. In April

, pany, to extend their cable from Parả to Cay- 1843, he was the candidate of the League for enne, their intention being to establish_com the city of Durham, but was defeated. In July, munication at the latter point with the United 1841, he was, however, returned for the same States cable.

city, which he represented until 1817. In union Among the more important improvements with Cobden, Milner Gibson, Fox, and others, during the past year may be mentioned the lie was one of the foremost speakers of the construction of water-works for supplying the League until its victory was decided in 1816. city of Rio de Janeiro.

In 1817 he was returned for Manchester, and İlere follows the Emperor's speech on the was now regarded in every respect as one of occasion of closing the legislative session ordi- the leaders of the Manchester party. Ile parnary of 1880, and opening the session extraordi- ticularly cooperated with Mr. Cobden in the nary, on October 5th:

movement which the latter sought to create in

favor of financial reform. IIe demanded effiAUGUST AND MOST WORTHY REPRESENTATIVES OF TIIE NATION: The meeting of the General Assembly is al

cient relief measures for Ireland, an investigaways an event productivo of lively satisfaction. tion of the condition of India, and a reduction

It is pleasant to me to inform you that yool relations of the naval and military establishment of the of friendship continue between Brazil and the foreign kingdom. lle opposed, in 1850, Lord Russell's powers; but I am unable as yet to have the pleasure Ecclesiastical Title Bill and Lord Palmerston's of announcing to you the cessation of the war between the Republic of Chili and those of Peru and Bolivia. Continental policy. When, two years later, the Public order has suffered no alteration.

Derby-Disraeli Cabinet threatened a restor:tion Thanks to Divino Providenco, copious rains have of the protective system, he actively contribterininated the drought which devastated some of the uted to its overthrow. northern provinces.

Thus far, Mr. Bright's I thank you for tho solicitude with which, while reputation and influence had steadily grown, diminishing the burdens of the nation, you have but tho decided opposition which he made to adopted adequate measures for the production of an England's participation in the Eastern War equilibrium of the public expen liture and revenue.

alienated many of his former friends, and in The imperative need of giving a definite solution to electoral reform has induced the convocation of the the general election following Lord Palmerextraordinary session.

ston's appeal to the country, in 1857, both he August and most trustworthy representatives of the and Mr. Milner Gibson were rejected by a large nation :

I expect from your patriotism tho decretal of a law majority. When, a few montiis later, å vacansecuring freeclom of voting.

cy occurred at Birmingham, Mr. Bright was The ordinary legislativo session is closed, and the invited to become a candidate, and he was session extraordinary is open.

elected in August, 1857. He has continued to

represent Birmingham over since. Mr. Bright's The first clause of the long-discussed elec- name, during the last twenty years, has been toral bill was adopted by the Senate in the prominently identified with the extension of month above alluded to; it was regarded as the right of suffrage and tho reform of the the most important, as being pregnant with electoral laws of England. During the civil elements of inuch-needed reform, such as di- war in the l'nited States, he warmly symparect election, instead of the obsolescent system thized with the North. IIc visited Ireland' in of indirect election; but, unfortunately, it was 1866, and was entertained in Dublin at a pubsent to the Senate shorn of its brightest adorn- lic banquet; but, on the whole, his reception ments-provision for the adinission to Parlia was not as enthusiastic as his English friends

VOL. XX.—5 A

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