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cylinder; and the ice-buoy is much like a mooring-anchor weighed; and in each case the spar - buoy, of great length, slight thickness, buoy is carried out to sea, when the buoy-tenand of largest diameter near its middle. Each ders give chase, and, if successful in its capshape is classified by size, and diversified by ture, return it to position. The sea-going qualcolor and number. They were once made of ities of the large iron buoys are shown by wooden staves, like barrels, but their rapid de- their volunteer voyages. One is now anchored struction by tlie Tercdo navalis caused the sub- off the coast of Ireland, where it was picked stitution of boiler-iron. The cost of these buoys up, about six weeks after it had been wrenched varies with the price of iron and cost of labor. from its place in New York Harbor, and turned The board's last contract for buoys, with all over to the Irish lighthouse establishment, by their attachments, except mooring-chains, was which it was reported to the United States made at the following rates:
Lighthouse board, when it was presented to For first-class can-buoys, six feet across, and nine the Irish board, who simply added to its forfect six inches high..
$262 mer marks their own, and moored it near the For second-class can-buoys, four feet four inches across, and even feet ligh...
point where it came ashore, in commemoration For thirdl-class can-buoys, three feet two inches
of its peculiar voyage. across, and four feet ten inches high..
The importance of keeping New York llarbor and Bay well marked has moved the board to keep its iron buoys in position, potwithstanding their danger during the winter, but with a spar-buoy beside each iron buoy, as the ice that carries away the one passes over the other, and allows it to resume its position, and indicate to passing vessels where the iron buoy
should be, and also to show the buoy-tenders (For mooring Buoys.)
exactly where it is to be replaced. New York
Ilarbor was twice swept clean of iron buoys Congress prescribed by act of September 28, during the winter of 1880-'81, and, though 1850, that red buoys, with even numbers, be some of them have been recovered, the board placed on the right-hand side, and black buoys, has been put to large expense to replace those with odd numbers, on the left-hand side of which were lost. Still, it recognizes the fact channels approached from seaward; that buoys that the loss of one steamer might cause a deplaced on wrecks or other obstructions, having struction of property many times greater than à channel on each side, be painted with red the cost of the buoys, to say nothing of the loss and black horizontal stripes; that those buoys of life that the absence of buoys might occaplaced in mid-channel, and which indicate that sion. The ice-buoy invented by Mr. J. Parsons they must be passed close-to to avoid danger, Smith, clerk to the Lighthouse Inspector at be painted with white and black perpendicular Philadelphia, is made of boiler-iron, and is distripes; and finally, that perches, with balls, vided into compartinents, so that any one may cages, etc., when placed on buoys, will indicate be pierced without sinking the buoy. That of a turning-point, the color and number of the the first class costs $300, is fifty feet long, and buoy showing the side on which they are to be stands twenty-two feet out of water. That of passed.
the second class costs $250, is forty feet long, Buoys are exposed to many dangers, not the and stands seventeen feet out of water. As least of which is that of being run down and with wooden spar-buoys, the ice passes over ripped open by passing steamers. As the iron them without carrying them away ; but, unlike buoys are made with compartments, they are the wooden buoys, they break the propellerrarely sunk, but their line of flotation is often blades which strike them instead of being brolowered, and their usefulness accordingly dle- ken, and thus, defending themselves, last many creased. Spar-buoys frequently lose a portion times longer than spar-buoys, and, though costof their length), which is cut off by strokes of ing more at first, are more economical in the colliding propeller-blades. Despite state and end. national statutes forbidding it, vessels will some The board has a fleet of twenty-three steamtimes make fast to buoys, thus gradually drag- ers and three schooners, ranging from fifty to ging them off their bearings. A buoy has five hundred and fitty tons burden. It is the sometimes been set adrift, that a reward may business of some of these steamers to attend to be obtained for its recovery; but this is not a the buoyage of the coast, replacing the buoys profitable operation, as the reward paid is which have gone adrift, exchanging every buoy varied with the circumstances of each case. for a fresh one once a year, and placing new
The buoys' worst enemy, however, is ico, buoys. They are also used to supply the lightwhen moving in mass, and with a tide or cur houses with provisions, fuel, and minor suprent. A well-made, well-moored buoy, at the plies, and on them the inspectors visit the mouth of a narrow river, can create an ice- light-stations to make their regular quarterly gorge; but usually, when the ice moves in inspections and to pay the keepers. Certain force, the buoys met have their mooring-loops of the tenders are used for construction purtorn out, their mooring-chains brokon, or their poses, freighting building material to light
house sites, and conveying building and repair- 200 and 300, six between 300 and 400, one being parties from station to station. The Fern, tween 400 and 500, and one between 500 and the largest of all, is used as a supply steamer, 600. and yearly visits the l.ght-stations on the At The steam-tender Manzanita, which is replantic and Gulf coasts. Nineteen of these ves resented in the cut, was built in Baltimore in sels are employed on the Atlantic and Gulf 1878–79, and was sent through the Straits of coasts, three on the lakes, two on the western Magellan to the Pacific coast, where, by reason rivers, and two on the Pacific coast. Thirteen of her size and power, she is used for inspecof these vessels have been built for lighthouse tion, supply, and construction purposes. Her purposes since 1870, and are in tolerable condi. length is one hundred and fifty-two feet, beanu tion. Ten of the steamers and two of the twenty-six feet, and hold nearly twelve feet. schooners are poorly adapted for the service, She is a screw steamer, schooner-rigged, built quite old, and are only kept on duty until they of wood, and cost, when equipped, about $60,can be replaced by others. The board has 000. She has a derrick attached to her forejust built two iron side-wheel steamers, which mast, operated by a hoisting-engine, which takes cost about $10,000 each, when finished and its steam froin her boiler. She is manned by equipped, and which are one hundred and a captain, mate, two engineers, and twenty-one forty-six feet three inches long, twenty-three others. The Manzanitil may be considered as feet eight inches beam, nine feet six inches typical of the tenders of the future, rather than hold, and of about 300 tons burden. Of those of the past or present, as she is the best in the now in use, one is under 100 tons burden, service. seven are between 100 and 200, seven between The first light-keeper, of whose regular ap
pointment there is authentic information, was burning until Congress had opportunity to proGeorge Worthylake, husbundman, aged forty- vide for its continuance. Jefferson also took three years, who was made keeper of the light- personal interest in lighthouse affairs, în l in house on Little Brewster Island, Boston Harbor, its personnel
. There are hanging in the office in 1716, at fifty pounds per year, by the order of the Lighthouse Board, at Washington, several of the General Court of the Province of Massa- letters from Washington and Jefferson on lightchusetts Bay; and it seems that the keepers of house matters. Among them is a letter on the other seven lighthouses of colonial times which is the following endorsement: were appointed in like manner.
• The above is accompanied by two other When the General Government had assumed letters dated respectively May 30, and June 1, charge of the lighthouse establishinent, the ap- 1808, which strongly recommend Jared Hand's pointment of keepers was made by the Presi- appointment [as keeper of Montauk Point dent, and quite a number of the commissions Light) to succeed his father, which were duly bear the signature of George Washington, who submitted to the President for his approval or took great interest in lighthouse affairs. One rejection.” On the letter the following en. of the first official acts Washington, as Presi- dorsement appears : dent, performed, was to write to the keeper of
I have constantly refused to give in to this method Sandy Hook light, directing him to keep it of making offices hereditary. Whenever this ono bo
comes actually vacant, the claims of Jared Hand may connected with stations which are cultivated be considered with those of other competitors.
by the keepers' families.
Keepers are forbidden to engage in any busAs their number increased, the nominations iness which can interfere with their presence of keepers were made by collectors of customs at their stations, or with the proper and timely who were the local superintendents of lights; performance of their lighthouse duties; but it but the appointments were made by the Secre- is no unusual thing to find a keeper working at tary of the Treasury. That usage crystallized his station as a shoemaker, tailor, or in some into law, and still obtains; but the nomination similar capacity, and there are light-keepers of the collector is forwarded to the Lighthouse who fill neighboring pulpits, who hold comBoard, where it receives an endorsement which missions as justices of the peace, and there are procures for it favorable or adverse action. The still others who do duty as school teachers, appointment, however, is but temporary, and without neglecting their lighthouses. As the continues only until the candidate has been ex- dwellings of the light-keepers are often tastefulamined, after which, if be passes, a full ap- ly planned, well built, and located on picturesque pointment is given him; otherwise he is dropped sites, people in search of summer quarters have from the service.
so besought keepers for accommodation that The appointment of light-keepers is restricted the board has been compelled to prohibit them to persons between the ages of eighteen and from taking boarders under any circumstances. fifty, who can read, write, and keep accounts, The board has done much to make keepers are able to do the requisite manual labor, to pull comfortable. They are furnished with quarters and sail a boat, and have enough mechanical for themselves, and in certain cases for their ability to make the necessary minor repairs about families, and, when so far distant from market the premises and keep them painted, white- as to make its carriage equal or exceed its cost, washed, and in order.
with fuel and rations; suitable boats are furAlthough but one grade of keeper is recog- nished stations inaccessible by land; and at nized by law, usage has divided keepers into those stations on shore, distant from markets, several, with different pay as well as different barns are built for their cattle and horses. duties, and with promotion running through Something also has been done for the intellecthe various grades. At one lighthouse there tual needs of the keepers and their families by may be but one keeper ; at another, a prin- supplying them with libraries. These are arcipal keeper and an assistant; and there is a ranged in cases so constructed that they make station where there is a principal keeper with rather a neat appearance when set upright on four assistants, the fourth having the lowest a table, and they only need be closed and locked grade and the lowest pay, and the others hav- to be ready for transportation. They contain ing been appointed at that grade, and promoted on an average about fifty volumes each, of a as merit was shown and vacancies occurred; or proper admixture of history, science, poetry, they may have been transferred and promoted and romance, together with a Bible and a from another station. Although persons are prayer-book. One of these libraries is left at appointed to the service and assigned to a given a station for some three months, when it is exstation, they are frequently transferred from changed, and the first is passed on to another one station to another, as the interests of the station. This is usually done when the inspectservice may demand, and, while it is usual to or makes his quarterly inspection ; so each of consult a keeper's wishes in his assignment, the stations to which libraries are furnished sees there is nothing in the regulations to prevent some two hundred different books each year. the transfer of a man appointed in Maine to a There are now pearly three hundred of these station in Georgia; and occasionally keepers libraries in circulation through this establishare with their own consent transferred from ment, and more are being prepared. In their one district to another at a great distance. distribution preference is given to those stations Young men who have seen some sea-service are most distant from towns or villages. preferred as assistants at the larger stations; The board does not, as yet, uniform its emand at stations requiring but one keeper, re- ployees, or pension those who become maimed tired sea-captains or mates who have families or worn out in its service. Keepers are under the are frequently selected. At those stations law paid an average sum of $600 a year; but the where there are fog-signals, it is customary, rates range in individual cases from $100 to however, to have one assistant who is able to $1,000 a year. In March, 1881, Congress apoperate its machinery and keep it in repair; propriated $585,000 for the payment of its 1,015 and he is usually one who is something of a keepers. machinist. Such persons are graded and paid The discipline of the service is somewhat at a higher rate on their original entry into the rigid and severe, and has been from the beservice than others.
ginning. On December 31, 1806, Mr. GallaWhile there are numerous light-stations lo- tin, then Secretary of the Treasury, placed the catel on submarine sites, the greater number following endorsement on a letter: of lights have connected with them a little
The part which relates to the conduct of the keeper of land which the keepers are encouraged to cul- Capo Ilenry lighthouse is submitted to the President tivate. Ilence small farms or gardens are often for his decision.
It was returned endorsed :
the two keepers who had spent those terrible I think the keepers of lighthouses should be dis- hours afloat in Sharp's Island lighthouse, and missed for small degrees of remissness, because of the then had saved its apparatus, were highly comopinion of the collector in this case is of sufficient itself, and then were appointed to the desertcalamities which even these produce, and that the plimented by a letter direct from the board authority for the removal of the present keeper.
ers' places. Light-keepers have been conspic
uously successful in their exertions to save enNow the class of men from whom keepers dangered life. It is recorded of Mrs. Ida Lewisare selected is so good that the punishinent of Wilson, the keeper of Lime Rock lighthouse, dismissal is infrequently inflicted. But it fol, in the harbor of Newport, Rhode Island, that lows swiftly in two cases. A keeper found she has saved the lives of thirteen different intoxicated is not only summarily dismissed the service, but he is instantly ejected from persons, in each instance at the risk of her
Medals and other testimonials to her the station; and a keeper who allows his light heroism have been conferred on her by indito go out is dismissed without regard to his viduals, by humane societies, and by State excuse or his previous good conduct. The
authorities. The latest recognition of her serviews of the board on this subject appear in vices has been made by the General Governthe following extract from one of its letters:
ment, which, in May, 1881, conferred on her The board considers it the duty of every light-keeper the first-class gold medal awarded by Congress to stand by his light as long as the lighthouse stands; to those who save life at the imminent risk of and that for him to desert it when in danger is as
their own. cowardly as for a soldier to leave his guns on the advance of an enemy.
The commerce of the Western rivers was His failure to keep his light burning, especially in mainly restricted to motion by daylight, betime of danger, may cause the wreck of vessels look cause of the difficulty in keeping steamboats in ing for it , and result in the loss of much property and the tortuous channels, and in avoiding the ob
structions with which the channels abound. Keepers are trained to consider the car3 of There were in 1873–4, on the Mississippi, Misthe light and the lighthouse property their par- souri, and Ohio Rivers, 1,100 steamboats, of amount duty, beyond any personal considera- 258,000 tons, 832 licensed barges, of 179,000 tion; and the esprit de corps is such that in- tons, and coal barges and other craft of 750stances have happened where the keepers on 000 tons, making a total of about 1,200,000 duty have, as in the case of the first light on tons. The total value of the cargoes carried Minot's Ledge, gone down with their light- by them was estimated at $400,000,000 per house and died at their post; others where year. The coal sent to market yearly, by the the keeper has saved his lens, letting his family Ohio River alone, amounted to 4,000,000 of tons. shift for themselves; and there are repeated Hence, when those interested in river commerce instances where the keeper has saved his light- took vigorous measures, they had little difficulhouse property and lost his own. A recent ty in procuring Congressional action. In 1874, instance of heroisin is that of the keepers of an appropriation of $50,000 was made for a Sharp's Island lighthouse, in Chesapeake Bay. survey of the Mississippi, Ohio, and Missouri It was lifted from its foundation, thrown over, Rivers, and to establish on them temporary and carried away by ice early in February, lights and buoys. The survey was made, à 1891. The keeper and his assistant clung to favorable report followed, and two lighthouse the fallen house, and, although one of their districts were duly established, one, the fourboats remained uninjured, they were adrift in teenth, extending from Pittsburgh to Cairo, the bay sixteen and a half hours without fire and the other, the fifteenth, comprising the or fool, always in imminent danger, as the Mississippi and the Missouri Rivers. An inheavy floating ico often piled up against and spector and an engineer were appointed for threatened to swamp the house. It grounded, each district; a steamer bastily fitted for the however, on an island shortly after midnight, work was furnished to each inspector, and at high tide, and was full of water. Being they proceeded to light up the rivers. satisfied that it would not float off again, the The navigation of these waters was of the two keepers went ashore in their boat, and most intricate character. The crossings were when the tide had fallen, they returned, saved numerous; and, at some, technically called and took to the shore the lens, its pedestal, “blind crossings," where the banks show no the oil, the library, much damaged by water, diversity of outline, and where the channel is and even the empty oil-cans, and then reported narrow, pilots were frequently delayed, and the facts through their inspector to the board. could not always avoid disaster. At many Meantime the keepers of another lighthouse, points, previous to the establishment of the fearing the ice, had deserted their post, and lights, passage was never attempted on a dark gone on shore. The fact that no vessels could night, but by means of the lights, the passages have needed their light while the ice was un are made practicable at all times. The hidden broken, and that they returned to their post obstructions are numberlegs, and in many places when the danger had passed, did not avail tliem. barely leave room for the passage of large steamSo soon as the fact of their desertion was de- ers. There are many consecutive miles on these termined, they were dismissed the service, and rivers where the wrecks average more than one
to the mile. Keepers for the river lights are March 3, 1881, was also required to light the
proper times. It is now considered that the The fixed lights used, as shown in the cut, time an officer spends on lighthouse duty aids are substantially made lens lanterns, which are to make up his education and to contribute
to his efficiency. Hence this duty is sought in times of peace by ambitious young officers of judgment, tact, and habits of study, who can do the lighthouse establishment good service. The fourteen inspectors now on duty are all officers of the navy; one is a rear-admiral, one a captain, ten are commanders, and two are lieutenant-commanders. They serve without other than their shore-duty pay. It is the duty of each inspector to attend, under the directions of the board, to supplying the lights of his respective district; to maintain its buoyage; to keep up the discipline of the light-keepers; to inspect the light-stations, light-ships, and liglit-tenders, and all the lighthouse people and property in his district each quarter; to attend to the examination, promotion, and transfer of the keepers, to answer the calls made on him by the board, for special information as to the needs of commerce at specified points; to make the numerous reports to the board, on blanks provided for that purpose; to act as purchasing and disbursing officer; and he has recently been ordered to pay each keeper his salary each quarter. Commander C. J. McDougal, U. S. N., the Inspector of the Twelfth Lighthouse District, was drowned on March 28, 1881, when attempting to reach Cape Mendocino, light-station, California, from the lighthouse steam-tender. The surf-boat was upset, and the inspector, though an espert swimmer, together with three other persons, was lost. lle is supposed to have been carried down by
the weight of the coin on his person that he suspended from an arm projecting from a post, was taking on shore, to use in paying to the at an eleration of from eight to ten feet from light-keepers their quarterly salary. the ground. They are of most service during There is no speciñed time for which an low water, though they afford important aid at officer of the corps of engineers shall serve as other times. At points where the channel is a lighthouse engineer, as he often has at the made very narrow by permanent obstructions, same time charge of fortification or barbor enand the passage dangerous, buoys have been gineering works. Ilis lighthouse duties are to placed as day marks, to which floating lights prepare plans and specifications for lighthouse are attached at night. From the testimonials structures, and submit them to the board ; to received from officers and managers of differ- purchase the material, arrange for the labor, ent steamboat lines, boards of trade, and oth- and take charge of their erection or repair; to ers interested in the navigation of those wa set up and keep in repair the illuminating ters, these lights and buoys appear to be a apparatus of each light-station in his district, great benefit to river commerce.
and to purchase and care for the real estate, In 1875, $100,000 were appropriated to main- lighthouse sites, etc., of the establishment in tain the lights on the Western rivers; $150,000 his district. He reports to the board, when in 1876 ; $140,000 in 1877, the same in 1878, requested, as to the necessity and cost of estabbut $130,000 in 1879, $140,000 again in 1880, lishing new aids to navigation. The coasts of and $150,000 were appropriated in 1881. There the country show with what success the engiwere on June 30, 1880, on the Ohio, Missis- neers have grappled with the problems of lightsipppi, and Missouri Rivers, eight hundred and house engineering, not only on land but on nineteen of these lights, each having an average subaqueous foundations. cost for its maintenance of $156.28 per year, Enough has been said of the routine duties and all of them costing in the aggregate $128,- of the board. But two points should be here 000 for that year. The board by the act of mentioned. It is not only its duty to build