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protectorate over the islands. Up to 1846 a March 7, 1830, to Stéphanie Clotilde, second suall portion of the natives struggled against daughter of the King of Belgium, born May this protectorate, but since the population have 21, 1864. The marriage was fixed to take caused no embarrassment to France, and vir- place in February, 1881. tually it has been a French possession since The Ministry for the Common Affairs of the that year.
Empire consisted, toward the close of the Tahiti is about one hundred and eight miles year 1880, of Karl lleinrich Baron ron 11:19in circumference and thirty-two miles long, and merle, Minister of Foreign Affairs and of the is described as an elongated range of highland, Imperial House (appointed October 9, 1879); which, being interrupted in one part, torms an Joseph von Szlavy, Minister of the Finances isthmus (submerged at low water) about three of the Empire (appointed April 8, 1880); and miles broad, which connects the two peninsu- Court Arthur Bylandt-Rheidt, Minister of War las. The larger of these is Tahiti proper, while (appointed 1876). the smaller is named Tairaboo, and both arə The Ministry of Cisleithan Austria, at the surrounded by coral reefs. The highest sum close of_1880, was composed of Count Eduard mit in the island is a mountain in the northern Taaffe, President (appointed lugust 14, 1879); part, 8,500 feet above sea-level; another attain- Baron Moritz von Streit, Justice (1880); Baron ing 6,979 feet. From these two peaks ridges Sigmund von Conru von Eybesfeldt, Public diverge to all parts of the coast, throwing off Worship and Instruction (1880); Count Zeno spurs as they descend. The fertile portion of von Welsersheinb, Defense of the Country the island lies in the valleys, which are of small (1880); Count Julius von Falkenhayn (August extent, and in the plain, which stretches from 14, 1879), Agriculture; Alfred von Kremer von the seashore to the spurs of the mountains. Auenrode (1850), Commerce; Dr. Julian DunThese produce tropical plants in great abun- ajewski (1880), Finance; Florian Ziernialkowdance and luxuriance. Tlie climate is agreeable, ski (11 pril, 1878), and Dr. Ilois Prajak (Hugust being warm, but not enervating. The natives 14, 1879), Vinister without portfolio. are a good-humored, gay, happy, and cheerful The area of the entire monarchy is 622,8:37 people, and are further described as honest, square kilometres*; population, according to well-behaved, an:l obliging. They have been the last census of 1869, 33.5,901,435; according converted to Christianity by the labors of mis- to an official estimatı, in 1880, about 38,000,000. sionaries, and there are few of them who can The area of C'isleitlan Austri:l, or Iustria Propnot both read and write. The island is divided er, is 300,209 square miles; the civil population into seven districts, and is the seat of a Suz- at the end of 1879 was oflicially estimated at 22,preme Court, consisting of seven Judges, two 176,745, to which must be added the army, numof wliom reside in Eimeo. Several vessels of bering about 177,500 persons, making a total about one hundred and thirty tons burden population of' 22,354,21). The oflicial estimate have been built there, which have been ein is based upon the census of 1869, by adling ployed in the trade to New South Wales, whith- the average percentage of increase. The civil er they carry sugar, cocoanut-oil, and arrow population was distributed ainong the different root, the principal productions of the island, crown-lands as follows: and whence they bring back in return hard
Inhabitants, Dec. 31, 1879. ware, cloths, calicoes, etc. Most of the ves
2,230,731 sels that visit Tahiti are whalers, though until
752,413 lately they only averaged less than one hun
1,198.700 dred annually. Its principal town and port is (arinthia..
339,099 Papisto, and its estimated population is some
220,966 what over nine thousand.
Goritz and Gradisca.
i 12,150) The French now have the following possos.
278,219 sions in Occania :
579,-156 New Caledonia..
6.26,11 Loyalty Islanıls..
301.973 Marquesas Islands
475,536 Clipperton Island.
not inhab'd. Tahiti, Morca, and adjacent islands. 1,179 21,936
22,176,745 Tubu:i. Vavitao, Opširo..
21,970,619 Tuaniotu Archipelago, with Gambier Islands
1,000 5,109 From some observations mule in the “StatisTotal..
tical Monthly" ("Statistische Monatsschrift ") 23,491 81,522
of Vienna by IIerr Schimmer, one of the bestAUSTRO-IIUNGARIAN MOVIRCIIY, an
known statistical writers of Austria, we learn empire in ('entral Europe. Emperor, Francis tria show, in a marked degree, the influence of
that the movements of the population in lusJoseph I, born August 18, 1830; succeeded his the bad 'times through which all European uncle, the Emperor Ferdinand I, December 2, states have been passing. The following tablo 1848. lleir-apparent to the throne, Archduke Rudulphus, born Jugust 21, 1858; engaged on * One square kilomstre = 0·850 English square zuile.
1873. 1874. 1875. 1876.
5 55 191 203
26 (31 7-15 5,9
is an abstract of the births, deaths, and mar- riodicals (717) are published in the German riages from 1873 to 1879, inclusive:
language; next in order follow the Czechic periodicals (122); the Polish (73); Italian (66); Slovenish (17); and Ruthenian (15). The nuin
ber of dailies is only 81, the number of week194,815 818,206 811,150 189,017 849,678 662,929 lies 306, and that of monthlies 215.
862,528 634,053 The population of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 170,143 871,623
6.34,303 1877. 101,37 851, 717
677,743 according to an official census taken on June 1878. 164,233 854,752 C33,061 16, 1879, amounted to 1,142,147.
Of these, 16.1,683 873,035 632,171
487,022 belong to the Greek, and 208,950 to
the Roman Catholic Church, making a total For the first time within seven years does the number of 695,972 Christians. The number wave of depression show signs of lifting, as of Mohammedans was 142,500, of Israelites testified by the increased number of marriages 3,426, of others 249. The town of Serajevo, in 1879. The most encouraging point in the which was supposed to contain 45,000 infigures is the decrease in deaths, which is most habitants, turns out, according to the English marked in the case of infant mortality. It will consul Freeman, to have only 22,000, of course be remarked that 1873, the year of the Ex- without counting military or strangers, of hibition, was notorious for the fitalities of the whom about 3,000 are temporary residents. cholera, which carried off great numbers of the discrepancy, which is certainly very conpeople in Vienna.
siderable, may partly be accounted for by the The number of professors and students, in- drain on the population during the Monteneclusive of non-matriculated hearers, was in the grin, Serrian, and Russian wars, while others summer semester, 1879, as follows:
who joined the Mussulman rising have never returned to the town. These absentees, howerer, could not be more than 3,000 or 4,000 at the most, and it only shows how necessary it is to reduce population estimates to the strict
domain of statistics. Not included in these Innspruck Lemberg
census returns is the Sanjak of Novi-Bazar, the Prague
population of which is set down at 61,150 Mus3, 09
sulmans, 101,318 Orthodox Greeks, 49,217 Roman Catholics, 1,310 gypsies, and 65 Jews;
total, 223,120. (See “ Annual Cyclopædia" for According to their mother tongues, tho stu. 1879, p. 62.) dents were classified as 3,863 Germans, 1,351 In accordance with the political constitution Czechs, 1,410 Poles, 439 Ruthenians, 187 Slo- of the Austrian Empire, there are three disvens, 248 Croatians and Servians, 318 Italians, tinct budgets: the first, that of the delega116 Roumanians, 318 Magyars, and 80 others. tions for the whole empire; the second, that According to their religious denominations, of the Reichsrath for Austria Proper; and the 6,642 reported themselves as Roman Catholics, third, that of the Ilungarian Diet, for the king214 as belonging to the Oriental Greek Church, dom of Ilungary: By an agreement, or so262 as Evangelical, 18 as Cnitarians, 1,193 as called “ compromise, entered into, in FebruIsraelites, 6 as members of other churches, and ary, 1868, between the Governments and Les25 as belonging to no religious denomination. islatures of Austria and Ilungary, the former
Besides the seven universities, Austria had, has to pay seventy and the latter thirty per in 1879, 6 technical higli schools, 1 agricultural cent. toward the common expenditures of the high school, 2 academies of mining, 2 acade- empire, not including the interest on the namies of commerce, 2 high schools of art, 42 tional debt. The accounts of the actual revetheological schools, 91 gymnasia, 18 under- nue and expenditure of the empire during the gymnasia, 47 Realgymnasien of various grades, year 1878 were published by the Government 61 Reulschulen, 18 under Realschulen, 42 male in 1880. According to them, the ordinary exteachers' seminaries, and 27 female teachers' penditure of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs seminaries. The number of “Bürger-” and amounted to 3,318,800 florins*; that of the “ Volkschulen "was, in 1875, 15,166, with 31,- Ministry of War, 95,700,455; of the Ministry 196 teachers, and 2,134,683 pupils. There were of Finance, 1,896,855; of the Supreme Court also in 1877 115 Kindergartens, with 11,663 of Accounts, 111,924; total, 101,028,042 florins. children.
The extraordinary expenditures amounted to The total number of periodicals published in 77,876,767 florins; total of ordinary and ex1878 was 1,050, against 1,001 in 1877, 967 in traordinary expenditures, 178,904,809. Tho 1876, and 876 in 1875. As regards the contents surplus from customs apportioned to meet the of the periodicals, there were among them in expenditure for the common affairs of the em1878 330 political periodicals, 32 religious, and pire amounted to 3,956,262 florins, leaving 75 educational. The large majority of the pe- 175,018,547 florins to be provided for by con
* Exclusive of the faculty of evangelical theology.
* Ono Lorin = 19 cents.
tributions from Austria Proper and Hun- ing imports and exports of merchandise and of gary, according to the compromise referred to bullion, was as follows in each of the years above.*
from 1869 to 1876 (value expressed in Austrian The commerce of Austro-Hungary, compris- florins):
CLASSES OF VESSELS.
At the beginning of 1880, Bosnia, Herzego The number of post-offices in 1878 was 4,000 vina, Istria, Dalmatia, and Brody were ad- in Austria Proper, and 1,980 in IIungary; total mitted into the Austro - Hungarian Customs in the Austro-Ilungarian Monarchy, 5,986. Line.
On March 7th the Crown Prince Pudolphus The following statement shows the strength was betrothed to Stéphanie Clotilde, second of the commercial marine of Austro-IIungary daughter of the King of Belgium. The event on the 1st of January, 1879 :
called forth great ovations throughout the em
pire. At Prague, where the Archduke has for Tonnage. Crews.
some time been residing as a colonel of a regi
ment, the burgomaster, in offering to hin the Sea-going steamers (15,69) h. p)..
56,351 2,102 congratulations of the city, expressed the hope Coasting steamers (712 h. p.)....
that the Prince after his marriage would conSailing-vessels, including coasters and fishing-smacks.
7,792 270,025 . 25,493
tinue to reside in Prague. At Vienna, ho re
ceived the congratulations of the two IIouses Total ......
Ministers, and other high functionaries. The army of the Austro-Ilungarian Non The Austrian Reichsrath reassembled on the archy was in August, 1878, composed as fol- 15th of January. The parties in the present lows:
Reichsrath are almost equally balanced, as, at the general election in 1879, 173 of the newly
elected deputies belonged to the different LibOlicers.' Men.
eral fractions, and 175 to the Conservatives.
(See “Annual Cyclopædia” for 1879, article Standing army :::
14,710 257,207 · 23,637 761,929 Austria, p. 64.) The Ministry, presided over by Imperial Royal Landwehr.., 572,
Count Taaffe, consisted in about equal parts of Royal [funzarian Landwehr 1,015
members of the two parties. The moderate Gensdarines and military
elements of both parties seemed generally willpolice.
1,069 Army studs.
ing to support the Ministry, while the extrem
ists on either side showed themselves eager to Total...
that came up for discussion in this session, The naval forces at the end of the year 1878 concerning tho administration of Bosnia, proconsisted of 14 ironclads and 37 other steam- ceeded very smoothly, the bill passing withers, the majority of the latter of small dimen- out a formal vote being taken. 1 sort of arsions, constructed chiefly for coast-defense. mistice seemed to have been established be
The total length of railways in operation on tween the Ministry and the two parties, the January 1, 1879, was: in Austria Proper, 11,- Right having come to the conclusion that it 268 kilometres; in Ilungary, 7,002; total, 18,- would be inopportune to exercise on this occa270. The length of the telegraph lines and sion any pressure upon the Minister-President wires, and the number of stations and messages with a view to forcing him to recorstruct the carried, was in 1878 as follows:
Ministry out of the ranks of their party. The
Left or Constitutional party, on the other hand, Austria, 1877. Hungary, 1878.
perceived that it was not in their interest to 34,087 kil.
49,416 kil. continue a relentless and uncompromising op87,535
position to the Ministry, and thereby to precipiStations,
2,418 Messages... 5,355,5 14 2,522,259 8,190,503
tate a crisis which would probably not end in
their favor. Both the Right and the Left were For an account of the finances of Austria Proper and of all the more unprepared for a Cabinet crisis, as the public debt of the empiro, see " Annual Cyclopædia " for 1379.
both were weakened by internal dissensions.
In the Right, which embraces as subdivisions February the two parties in the House of Depthe Feudal, the Clerical, the Czechist, the Pol- uties measured their strength at the election ish, and tlie Slovenish parties, the Poles were of twelve members of the Staatsgerichtshof openly at variance with the Czechs, and a large (State Court), who bave to be chosen by the number of the Poles with a minority of the House. The Right succeeded in electing their Czechs were decidedly opposed to the principles entire ticket. A partial change in the Ministry of the Clerical party. In the Left, the two prin- took place on February 17th, when Baron Concipal divisions of which are the Constitutional rad von Eybesfeldt, the Governor of Lower party (Verfassungspartei) and the party of Prog- Austria, was appointed to the Department of ress (Fortschrittspartei), the latter informed the Education, and Baron Kriegsau, formerly a former that in consequence of the support candidate for the office of Education, to the given by a large portion of the Constitutional Ministry of Finance. Neither of the two new party to certain anti-liberal measures of the Ministers had played a political part, but both Government, the party of Progress deemed it bad made their way in the administrative best to recede from a union of the two parties. career. Baron Eybesfeldt, who was appointed The latent dissension among the sections of the to the post of Governor of Lower Austria when Right was greatly widened in the beginning of the Constitutional party was in power,
supFebruary by a memorandum addressed by the posed to have a leaning toward that party. Catholic bishops of Bohemia to the Ministry of On April 6th the important debate on the Education and Worship, in which they demand budget began. Great preparations had been the restoration of denominational schools. The made for it on both sides, for it was known memorandum is signed by all the four bishops that the discussion, as is customary on such of Bohemia, and concludes with these words: Occasions, would extend to all great questions “The principle of undenominational schools, of the day, political and national. One of the and therefore of a separation of the school from most remarkable speeches made on the occathe Church, blocks the way to any thorough inn- sion was that by Dr. Plener, one of the most provement in tho educational system. Farors gifted among the younger generation of Parin regard to any secondary provisions, even if liamentary men in Austria. Ile severely critithey were granted (which hitherto has generally cised the political and, above all, the financial not been the case),can not avert the injury which measures of the Government, and developed a is inherent in that principle. Nothing is there
new scheme of financial reform which attracted fore left to the bishops but to request the Min- great atiention on all sides of the IIouse. He istry to adopt the necessary measures for re combated the idea that the equilibrium between storing the denominational character of the the revenue and expenditure could be brought schools for the Catholic population, and to se about by any reduction on a grand scale, either cure to the Church her due influence upon the in the military expenditure or in the internal instruction and education of the youth. If the administration. On the contrary, he maintained Imperial Ministry should leave this remon tlıat the improvements which must be made on strance of the bishops likewise without answer, account of the army, and the cutlay which is or if it should not afford a definite prospect of still necessary in order to complete the means a speedy and radical improvement of educa- of communication, will tend rather to increase tional affairs, it would be impossible for the than to diminish the expenditure. The only bishops to coöperate any longer in the execu way to deal with the deficit was to make a tion of the school laws. They could, in that thorough reform of the taxation. Dr. Plener case, no longer allow any participation of the went fully into this suliject, and showed the clergy in the school boards, and they would general features of such a reform, laying great deern it their duty to remind the faithful of the stress on the income-tax and the indirect taxes sacred duties which will devolve upon them if on sugar and spirits. Ile criticised the present their children can be intrusted to the schools system of drawbacks on these two articles upon into which they are compelled to send them, not exportation, the result of which is that, owing with confidence, but rather not without great to the large sun thus repaid at esportation, the detriments." The Czechs as a national party home consumption of these articles is rery care more for national (Szechie than for l'athi- small as compared with the consumption in olic schools, and, thongh the Old Czeclic party France or Germany. If only one half of the regards an alliance with the Church as desira- quantity consumed in Germany was consumed ble, they are loth to subordinate their national in Austria, it would make a revenue of over claims to the interests of the Church. The“ Po- ten million florins, instead of one million krok," the organ of the young Czechs, openly which it now makes, net, after the subtraction opposed the episcopal memorandum and tho of the duty repaid on exportation. It is the action of the Clericals, and expressed the con same with the duty on spirits, a considerable viction that the Czech members would leave portion of the revenue on which is also returned no doubt as to their views. The Poles desire at the exportation. The reform of the system a more efficient state control than in the case of taxation on these two articles would be alof confessional or national schools, which in most sufficient to grapple with the deficit. Galicia might be claimed equally by the Ru- Instead of initiating such a policy of reform on thenes or the Greek Church. On the 3d of a grand scale which alone could meet the diffi
culty, the Government and the party which existed before. On May 10th, the German supports it had taken refuge in paltry meas- deputy Wurmbrand moved that the German ures, increasing the charges of direct taxation language be declared the official language of without producing any tangible result. Dr. the empire (Reichssprache), but on inotion of Plener never hinted that he spoke in the name the Polish deputy Dunajewski, the Reichstag of the constitutional party; still, from the way declined, by 158 against 143 votes, to enter into in which his speech was receired on that side, a discussion of the question. it was inferred that his plan would eventually Another reconstruction of the Ministry took be accepted by the Constitutional party as their place on June 27th, when the resignations of four financial programme. The principal speech on Ministers, Dr. Stremayr, General IIorst, Baron the part of the Right was made by Count Clain Korb Weidenheim, and Baron Kriegsau, were Martinitz. The debate came to an end on accepted, and Baron Streit, Baron WelsersApril 13th. The real issue between the two heimb, Baron Kremer, and Dr. Dunajewski great parties was on the secret-service money. appointed in their places. The four Ministers Both fractions of the Constitutional party who resigned were the representatives of the agreed to refuse the money on the ground that Constitutional party in the Cabinet; of the they had no confidence in the Ministry. In the new Ministers the three first named are mere naine of the Ruthenes, M. Kovalski declared functionaries, while the appointment of Dr. that they would also vote against the grant, as Dunajewski was regarded as a new concession the Ministry had use:1 the money against the to the lutonomist party. freedom of the elections the previous year. As The Diets of all the crown lands were opened the Ministry was supported in this question by on the 8th of June. Most of their proceedings the Poles, the Czechs, and the Conservatives, were not of general interest. The Diet of the it was expected that the grant would be votoʻl, Tyrol received a joint protest from the Archbut, to every one's surprise, when the vote was bisliop of Salzburg and the Bishops of Trent taken, it was lost by 154 votes against 152 and Brixen against the formation of two Proyeas. In view of the small majority against testant congregations which the bishops say them, the Minister-President and the mem hal taken place against the will and by a viobers of the Cabinet belonging to the Consti- lation of the most sacred feelings of the Tyro)tutional party did not deem it nocess.iry to lese people. The bishops at the same time reresign.
quested the Diet to embody their protest in the Still more than by religious and financial minutes. The Diet of Bohemia rejected, by questions, the Austrian Parliament was dis- 135 against 79 votes, a proposition made by the turbed by the interminable n:utionality question. Government to change tho electoral law of tho The conflict of nationalities at the beginning of crown-land. The change proposed by the Gorthe year was especially severe in Bohemia. ernment would diminish the German element Meetings of the German-Bohemian members of of the Diet, and the Germans who at present the Reichsrath and t're Görm:in members of the constitute the majority of the Diet did not feel Bohemian Diet were held in January and Fel- disposed to lend a hand to a diminution of their ruary to draw up a mo:norandum in opposi own influence. tion to a Czechic mom:randl!ım by which the The German Liberals look upon the majority loaders of the Czechs hul, in December, 1879), of the Cabinet as hostile to the interests of the expressed their nation:21 wishes to the Emperor. German nationality, and as inclined to sacrifice The counter-memorandun drawn up by the them to the ('zechs and the Poles. They are Germins was presented to the Emperor on therefore inaking earnest efforts to perfect a February 9th, by Count Vansteld, Ministr of national organization. Provincial assemblies Agriculture in the former Ministry. Count of German members of the Reichsrath and Mansfeld assured the Emperor that the Germin other proininent men of the party were held at memorandum was not dictated by any hostility Mödling in Lower Austria, at Brünn in Morato the Czechs, but was prompted only by a via, and at Karlsbad in Bohemia. The Bohesense of the duty of preservinz the unity and mian meeting, which took place in October, power of the state. The Emperor, in reply, was attended by more than 1,800 persons. The stated that the reconciliation of the two nation- Government showed its hostility to this movealities was his most ardent wish. An ordi- ment by confiscating all the papers containing nance having been issueil by the Government, the resolutions which had been drawn up for in April, placing the ('zechic language on the adoption at Karlsbad. The Municipal Council samo footing as the German in all political and of l'ienna expressed the warmest sympathy judicial proceedings in Bohemia and Moravia, with this German movement, and resolved in Minister Stremayr, on May 5th, explained in October to invite prominent Germans from all the Reichsrath that the Governinent ordinance, parts of Austria to hold a general meeting at by which the free usj of their language was Vienna. The ineeting took place on Novemsecured to both nationalities, and which merely ber 14th, and was attended by 4,000 prominent ordered the authorities to uphold the rights men of the German Constitutional party. Resexisting in this respect, has kept within the olutions were adopted, amid great enthusiasm, bounds of its authority.' The Government, in declaring the fecieralistic tendencies of the his opinion, had not deviated from what had Slavs to be dangerous to the unity of Austria,