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The_Shower of November 14th.—Professor explosion occurred at a point very nearly D. E. Hunter gives the following results of bis north. Its apparent magnitude was one half watch for meteors at the Leonid epoch in 1880, that of the moon. No
sound was heard to at Washington, Davies County, Indiana: The follow the explosion. The same meteor was morning of November 13th was cloudy, and seen by many persons at Washington, Ind., on the 15th the moonlight interfered with ob- fifty miles southwest of Bloomington. servations till daylight. On the morning of Nero Stars, or hitherto Undiscovered Variathe 14th, watch was kept for two hours, from bles.—The “Observatory” for June, 1880, con3. 45m. to 5" 45*. by Professor Ilunter and tains a letter from Mr. Joseph Baxendell, of three assistants. One hundred and sixteen Southport, England, announcing the discovery meteors were seen, of which ninety-one were of two stars, which he regards as either new Leonids. During the first hour, before the or as long-period variables, whose cycles of moon had set, but fifteen meteors of the No- change have not been determined. The first vember shower were seen; but in the second is in Gemini, and was discovered January 28th. hour (the moon being absent) seventy-six were The second is in Boötes, and was first seen on observed, and of these fifty-one were counted the night of March 12th. in the last thirty minutes. The length of the The Variable R Hydra.—Dr. Gould, Directracks varied from 2° to 40°, the average being tor of the Cordoba Observatory, South Amerabout 6° or 7o.
ica, has lately discussed the recorded observaFire-balls.—Many large meteors or fire-balls tions of this interesting variable, dating back were seen during the year, of which the fol- to 1662. The variability was discovered by lowing are some of the principal: A meteor Maraldi, at Paris, in 1704. The assigned pe" of immense size" was seen at Welling, in riod was four hundred and thirty-six days, and Kent, England, at 5" 20", P. M., January 3d. the range of variation was from the fourth to On January 19th, at 7h. 20m., P. M., Dr. L. Wal- the tenth magnitude. Dr. Gould's discussion do saw at Now Ilaven a fine double meteor. has led to a significant and important discorIt was first observed very near Capella, and it ery, viz., that the period of variation is rapidly moved toward Theta in Ursa Major, the track decreasing. This decrease, according to Dr. being parallel to the line joining Beta and Gould, amounts to more than nine hours in Gamma in that constellation. The distance each period. between the meteors was about 1° 30'.
New Double Stars.—The monthly notice of On April 12th, at 9h 42m., Professor F. P. the Royal Astronomical Society for December, Denza, at Moncalieri, saw a fine meteoric fire- 1879, has a communication froin S. W. Burnball with a path from right ascension 30°, dec- ham, Esq., of Chicago, giving an account of lination 620 north, to right ascension 29°, dec- his discoveries of double stars since the publination 45° north, leaving a long streak, and lication of his last catalogue. Beta Scorpii moving slowly. (“* Observatory " for June, has long been known as a wide double, but 1850.)
now Mr. Burnham announces the duplicity of A large fire-ball, whose light was nearly the principal component. The star is therefore equal to that of the full moon, was seen by triple, and the members in all probability conProfessor E. W. Claypole, of Antioch ('ollege, stitute a physical system. 48 Virginis, seen Ohio, June 101h, at ten minutes after nine as a single star by all former observers, was o'clock, P. M. It was first seen very near found to be a very close pair, the members Benetnasch, “and disappeared behind à cloud being each of the sixth magnitude. 86 Viron its way to the west-nortlıwest point of the ginis had been known as double, but the Chihorizon. It was visible about two seconds, cago telescope has separated each of the comand left no sparks behind."
ponents. The four stars taken together form Several daylight meteors have been seen the closest quadruple system known. They during the year. In “ Nature," for July 1st, are of the sixth, tenth, eleventh, and thirteenth Mr. W. Odell, of Corentry, England, states magnitudes, respectively: 550 Virginis is al that on June 11th, shortly before sunset, he double star, which Schmidt, in 1866, discorsaw, due east of his position, a bright white ered to be variable. Mr. Burnham has demeteor moving toward the north with a path tected a distant companion, of the twelfth or slightly inclined to the horizon. The length thirteenth magnitude, forming with tho olu of its track was 10° or 12o. A fire-ball half components a triple system. the apparent size of the moon was seen in day The Burner Obserrutory.—Through the liblight on the afternoon of July 9th, by the Rev. erality of Mr. H. II. Warner, a new astronomLloyd Jones, one mile east of Greenwich, Eng- ical observatory has just been built at Rochland. According to the Indianapolis "Dailyester, New York. It is to be supplied with a Journal,” of November 23d, a large meteor telescope having an object-glass sixteen inches was seen by several persons at Bloomington, in diameter, and a focal length of twenty-two Ind., about 4h. 30m.-shortly before sunset feet. The observatory will be placed in charge on the evening of November 18th. It was of Dr. Lewis Swiit, a gentleman already distinfirst observed at a point nearly northwest guished by his discovery of comets. an altitude of 30° or 35°. Its motion was ap The Lick Obserratory.-Perhaps no enterproximately parallel to the horizon, and its prise of our time gives brighter promise of
Area in square
9,791 17,003 3,580
294,029 Included in total.
optical discovery than the projected observatory on Mount Hamilton, California. The site
Population. of the observatory was originally suggested by Professor Edward S. Holden in 1874, and the
145,555 606, 500 Polynesia.
130, 100 recommendation was subsequently concurred Sandwich Islands.
59.000 in by Professor Newcomb. In order to test Micronesia..
47,650 the fitness of the location, the trustees of the
176,181 879,350 “James Lick Trust” authorized Mr. S. W. Burnham, of Chicago, an experienced and skill II. Britisi PossessioNS.—The following taful observer, to fit up a temporary observatory ble exhibits the population of the Australasian on Mount Hamilton, to be used as long as might colonies of Great Britain according
to the cenbe necessary for the purpose. The results of suses taken in 1871 or 1870, and according to the experiment are embodied in Mr. Burnham's an official estinate in December, 1878: report, presented to the Board of Trustees in the summer of 1880.
1871 or 1870. : The latitude of the Observatory Peak is 37°
New South Wales.
69:3,743 21' 3" north; longitude, 121° 36' 40" west. By the highway it is twenty-six miles (nearly South Australia
18:,995 Northern Territory.
3,265 east) from San José; by an air-line, only thir- Quceusland... teen. The elevation is 4,250 feet above the
28,166 level of the sea. 66 The sides of the mountain,
1,365,294 2,063,921 in most directions, are very steep, and form an
Tasmania.. acute angle at the summit. The view from the
432,32: peaks is unobstructed in every direction, thero Vatives.
100,000 being no hivher ground within a radius of one
Total of the Australasian hundred miles."
1,955.650 2,706,191 Mr. Burnham remained on Mount IIamilton from August 17th to October 16th, inclusive. On June 30, 1879, an official calculation esThe atmospheric and other conditions of the timated the population (exclusive of natives) place wore found eminently suited for the in New South Wales at 112,019; in Victoria, permanent location of the Lick Observatory, at 887,431; in South Australia, at 25.5,1-48. The trustees have accor:lingly announced The new census of New Zealand reveals the that “the preliminary work on Mount llam- fact that the Maories are rapidly decreasing. ilton has already been commenced, and will In 1861 they were still estimated to number be prosecuted as rapidly as possible under 5.7,336 ; now they have dwindled down to 433,the circumstances. The smaller equatorial, 595. The Registrar-General of New Zealand of twelve inches' aperture, has been order- is not sanguine as to their recovery from their ed of Alvan Clark and Sons, and will be downward career, for, apart from their deplaced in position early in 1891; and the .ficiency in moral qualities necessary to arrest great equatorial, meridian circle, and other the progress of decay, the history of aborigines instruments, will be contracted for at an early invariably shows, in his opinion, an inability day."
to graft the habits of civilization on native AUSTRALIA AND POLYNESIA. I. GEN- habits and customs. At the time when the ERAL STATISTICS.—The area and population of colonists first landed it is believed their numthe principal divisions of Australia and Polyne- ber was not less than 120,000. About fiftysia are given as follows in the new volume of seven schools are now in existenco under Govthe “Bevölkerung der Erde" (sixth volume, ernment auspices, at which there is an attendGotha, 1880):
ance of 1,799 children, in which the rudiments
of knowledge are tauglit, and the girls are inKilometres. Population. structed in domestic duties. The number of
natives in New South Wales was (in 1871) 983; Australia...
7.692,599 New Zealand and adjacent islands..
in Victoria (1877), 1,007; in South Australia
meration has taken place.
migration in the lustralian colonies may be From careful estimates the area of New obtained from a report of the Colonial GorGuinea is set down by Behm and Wagner as ernment of Victoria. It appears from this re785,362 square kilometres (1 square kilometre port that in 18.59 there were 16,000 (Chinese =0:386 English square mile) or, with the residing in Victoria ; but the number has greatneighboring islands, 807,956 square kilometres, ly diminished during the last twenty years, and and the population at 500,000.
does not now exceed 13,000. As far as can be The four groups into which the Oceanic ascertained, the number of Chinese in Queensislands are divided have, acrording to the land is 14,724; in Victoria, about 133,000; in same authority, the following area and popula- New South Wales, 9,500; New Zealand, +,+:33; tion:
South lustralia and Purt Darwin, 2,000; Tas
mania, 750; making a total of 44,207, being verging in a northwesterly direction, so as to nearly 2,000 less than in Victoria alone twen- embrace the group known as the Talbot Islty years ago. The Chinese dwelling in the city ands, thence to and embracing the Deliverance of Melbourne are about 500, and in its sub- Islands, and onward in a west-by-south direcurbs 380. Of these, not more than sixty-six tion (true) to 138° east longitude, should be can be fairly considered to compete in the la- annexed to and form part of the colony of bor market with Europeans, and these are em- Queensland.” The law authorizing this annexployed as waiters and domestic servants. All ation came into operation on August 1, 1879. the rest obtain their livelihood as gardeners, The “Melbourne Argus" estimates the yield as hucksters, or by employments with which of gold in the colony of Victoria in the year a European' would not dream of occupying 1879 at a little over 715,000 ounces, being nearhimself.
ly 39,000 ounces less than in 1878, and being The Queensland Government has passed an also less than half the quantity obtained in act authorizing the construction of the Trans- 1868. The “Argus” adds: “It is well known continental Railway, which shall connect the that the yields of gold during the latter half northern with the southern shores of the island of 1879 were much superior to those of the continent, and bring the colonies within thirty first half, and, if mining should continue as days of England. A syndicate has already healthy during 1880 as it has recently been, it agreed to perform the work, on the condition is probable that the yield for it will exceed of receiving, among certain other privileges, an that of the year just closed.” The amount of area of 8,000 acres of land for each mile of rail- gold coin issued from the Melbourne mint in way constructed. The railway extending from 1879 was 703,709 ounces, the ralue of which Brisbane in a northwesterly direction to Roma, was £2,740,000. The discovery of the Temora a distance of 317 miles, was completed in the gold-field near Sydney in 1880 created great excourse of 1880, and from this point to the near- citement in Australia. est part of the Gulf of Carpentaria on the north l'ictoria.- The Parliament of Victoria adcoast is, in a direct line, barely 850 miles. The journed on December 20, 1879. As the Parline would almost touch on its way the impor- liament had refused to pass the Reform Bill, tant railway from Rockhampton to Emerald which embodied a scheme for the introduction Town, also in Queensland, and the blanks to be of the plébiscite and the substitution of a Counfilled up in the existing lines between Brisbano cil nominated by the Ministry of the day for and Sydney are no greater than the links re an elective Upper Chamber, the Ministry proquired to complete the chain between Adelaide posed to the Governor to dissolve Parliament. and Sydney. If these latter are completed, The request was acceded to, and new elections there will be on the completion of the now pro- took place in February, which placed the Minjected line from Roma to the Gulf of Carpen- istry in a minority of twelve in the Legislataria, continuous railway communication be- tive Assembly. Accordingly, the Ilon. Graham tween the northern and southern coasts of Aus- Berry and the members of his Cabinet tendered tralia, having the additional ailvantage of trav- their resignations. The Governor accepted the ersing the whole of the most settled districts, resignations, and formed a new Cabinet, which and connecting all the principal cities, except was composed as follows: Colonial Treasurer, those in Western Australia.
Mr. James Service; Chief Secretary and Minister The other Englishı possessions in Australia, of Public Instruction, Mr. Robert Ramsay; Atexclusive of some uninhabited islands, are : torney-General, Mr. George Kerferd ; Minister
of Lands, the Ilon. J. G. Duffy ; PostmasterFeejee Islands.
112,272 General and Coininissioner of Trade and Cus
toms, Mr. llenry Cuthbert; Commissioner of Rotumal (annexed in 1850).
Railways and Roads, Mr. Duncan Gillies; ComFanning Island.
missioner of Public Works, Vr. Thomas Bent;
Minister of Mines, Mr. Clark. The new Pre
115,402 mier, Mr. James Service, in an address to his The territory of Queensland was enlarged constituents on March 10th, explained the proin 1879 by the annexation of some islands sit- gramme of his Cabinet. It was proposed to uated in Torres Strait. Letters patent dated empower the Legislative Council to expunge October 10, 1878, for the rectification of the items involving questions of public policy froin maritime boundary of the colony, provide that the Appropriation Act, and to deal with them "all islands included within a line drawn from in a separate bill. The ministerial programme Sandy Cape northward to the southeastern further announced bills regarding irrigation limit of Great Barrier Reefs, thence following and mining on private property. The railways the line of the Great Barrier Reefs to their would be placed under the control of a comnortheastern extremity near 91° south lati- mission or board. Reforms would be proposed tudo, thenco in a northwesterly direction, in the civil service in the direction of reducing embracing East, Anchor, and Bramble Cays, the salaries of all classes of public officials, such thence from Bramble Cays in a lino west by reduction, however, only to apply to those apsouth (south 79° west, true), embracing War- pointed subsequently to the passing of the bill. rior Reef, Saibai, and Tuan Islands, thonco di- Pensions would be totally abolished in the case
of civilians, who would be required to insure votes against forty-one, which clearly showed their lives. Government officials would be pro- that Mr. Berry in his attacks upon the Governhibited from taking any part in politics. The ment was joined by six or seven members who Government, while endeavoring to relieve the had been elected as his opponents. The debate farmers and miners, did not propose to make on the address showed that the nominal maany change in the policy of protection, neither jority for Ministers, or rather against Mr. Berwould it interfere with the present system of ry, was weakened from the beginning by ineducation. All the members of the new Cabi- ternal jealousies. The “Corner party,” connet were reēlected unopposed. The new Par- sisting of Independent Liberals who bad parted liament was opened on May 12th by the Gov- company with Vr. Berry, were dissatisfied at the ernor, the Marquis of Normanby, who referred composition of the Cabinet, in which doubtless to the question of the construction of colonial they supposed they had themselves a claim to defenses, and stated that commissioners hall be considered. Irritation on the same ground been appointed to report on the subject. Af was more openly expressed by Sir John O'Shater dwelling on the necessity of irrigation nassy, the leader of the Roman Catholics, who works and an extension of the railway system, stoutly asserted the right of his following to a the Governor said that the depression in trade share in the distribution of official places, and was passing away and confidence was being condemned the absence in the ministerial prorestored. Bills would be introduced for a re gramme of any concession to the Roman Cathform of the Constitution, and the settlement of olic demands for separate educational grants. land; and a scheme of reforms relative to rail. In compliance with Mr. Service's proposal, the way management and the civil service would Governor dissolved the Parliament. New elecalso be submitted to Parliament. The Reformtions took place on July 14th, when fortyBill was soon after introduced. It provided in four opposition candidates were elected and the first place for the introduction of the so- only thirty-five ministerialists. Besides, there called “ Norwegian system.” When any bill were seven members who declared themselves has been passed by the Assembly and rejected neutral. The Catholic vote was cast against by the Council in two consecutive sessions, the Mr. Service, and the leaders of the party deGovernor, according to Mr. Service's plan, will clared that they would not support any gorhave power to dissolve both Houses at the ernment until the country would consent to samo time; if, after the elections, the Assem- make separate olucational provision in the pubbly and the Council continue to differ, the lic schools for Catholic children. The defeatGovernor may summon them to meet as a ed Service Government resolved to meet the single legislative body for the purpose of dis- lIouse and encounter a deliberate vote of want cussing and deciding upon the contested mat- of confidence. The new Assembly was opened ter, an absolute majority of the whole number on July 22d. In bis opening speech the Gorof inembers being required for the enactment ernor, after alluding to the deficit in the reveof the bill in dispute. As the Issembly is com nue for the year, expressed a hope that Parposed of eighty-six members and the Council liament would pass a satisfactory measure for of thirty—to be increased gradually to forty- the reform of the Constitution. Mr. Berry two_these provisions insure the ultimate vic- subsequently moved a vote of want of confitory of the popular branch of the Legislature, dence in the Cabinet of Mr. Service, which was when the preponderant opinion in favor of any passed by forty-eight to thirty-five votes. In measure is unmistakable. Mr. Service's Ro- consequence of this, the Cabinet resigned, and form Bill dealt also with the constitution of the Mr. Berry, after failing in an attempt to form Council, providing for an addition to the num a coalition Ministry, formed a Cabinet entirely bers of that body and a very large reduction constituted of men of his own party. The folin the qualifications of members and of elec- lowing are the members of his Cabinet: Chief tors. With respect to the Appropriation Bill Secretary and Colonial Treasurer, Mr. Berry ; and to the practice of “tacking,” Mr. Service Attorney-General, Mr. Vale; Minister of Lands, proposed that tho Council should in no case Mr. Richardson ; Minister of Public Instruction, be allowed to throw out the bill, as has more Mr. W. C. Smith; Coinmissioner of Railways than once been done, to the injury of the whole and Roads, Mr. Patterson; Minister of Vines, community, but that where two thirds of the Jr. Langridge; Commissioner of Trade and Council decide that any particular vote is not Customs, Mr. Williams; Minister of Justice, "a grant of money for the ordinary service of Mr. 1. T. Clark. the year,” the Assembly shall be bound to deal The Melbourne International Exhibition was with the matter in question by a separate bill. formally opened on Friday, October 1st, by the Although at the last general election the con- Governor of Victoria, the Marquis of Formanstituencies had emphatically refused to give by, in the presence of the Duke of Manchester any support to Mr. Berry's policy, the new and the Governors of South Australia, New Assembly rejected the only alternative scheme South Wales, and Western Australia. The which was before the colony, and upon which Marquis of Normanby, in reply to an address, tho Ministry of Mr. Service bad staked their said the undertaking had been carried out in a political credit. Early in June the second read- most creditable manner, and that the display ing of the bill was thrown out by forty-three was one of which any country might be proud.
The day was observed in Melbourne as a which he had submitted to the Home Governpublic holiday. A dispatch from Sir Herbert ment for the establishment of an improved Sandford, the official representative of the mail service and the transport of immigrants Royal Commission for the Australian Exhibi- via Suez and Torres Straits. The Governor tion, stated that the exhibition had opened proceeded to state that the last Queensland most successfully, nearly all the courts being loan issued had been completely successful. very complete, especially the British court, The settlement of land, and especially for the thanks to the exertions of the exhibitors and cultivation of sugar, was increasing. The disof the Great Britain committee, who respect- covery of tin in the northern rirers showed fully desire to congratulate his Royal Highness that the settlement of the country was prothe Prince of Wales and her Majesty's com- gressing very favorably. The revenue of the missioners on the splendid display of British colony for the year showed an increase of fine arts and manufactures.
£20,000. The financial statement of the TreasNew South Iales.—The Governor's speech, urer, which was submitted on the 18th of Auin proroguing Parliament in August, 1880, re- gust, estimates the revenue at £1,700,000 and fers to some signs of progress. Among the the expenditure at £1,670,000. The debit most important acts passed by the Legislature balance on June 30th was £190,000. The is the act to amend the Land Acts of 1861 and deficit is to be corered by transferring under 1875, the aim of which is to afford additional the new statute to the consolidated revenue facilities and securities for industrial settlement the receipts of the land department previousupon the soil ; the Public Instruction Act, for ly applied to railway construction. There is carrying out a system of primary instruction, to be no increase of taxation except in the open alike to all classes and all creeds, and which excise duties upon colonial spirits. The Treasprovides the means for improving the methodsurer considered that it would be unjust to of te:ching to the highest degree, and places the augment the public burdens in order to push teacher within reach of the remotest child in forward the construction of railways in the inthe land; the Electoral Act, which reduces the terior, when the sale of a portion of the land anomalies in the representation to a principle made accessible would suffice to pay interest of virtual equality, and enlarges the representa on the capital required. British capitalists were tive branch of the Legislature. As regards the offering to complete the railway system in conmaterial progress of the colony, it is stated that sideration of a Government grant of land, and during the current year two hundred and twen a bill to sanction that course would be introty-three iniles of new railway lines will be duced. The depressed state of trade was passopened to the public, while provision is made ing away, and there was a gradual increase of for new extensions, which will when completed the revenue. Votling was wanting for the add more than a thousand miles to the railway restoration of the full prosperity of the colony system of the colony. The revenue from the but means for placing its surplus food and prodworking railways is steadily increasing, and at ucts within the reach of the British consumer. the present time is fifty thousand pounds in In the sitting on the 19th a vote of want of advance of that for the corresponding period confidence in the Government on account of of 1879. Other large public works have been the budget was moved by the leader of the completed or are in course of construction, opposition, but was rejected by twenty-seven including the fortification of the harbors of votes to eighteen. Sydney and Newcastle, lighthouses on various Ver Zeuland.-In July, Sir IIercules Robinparts of the coast, Government offices and pub- son, the Governor of New Zealand, delivered a lic buildings. It is confidently expected that speech, in which he condemned the New Zeathe International Exhibition of Art and Indus- land educational system as too expensive, too trial skill recently closed at Sydney will have secular in character, and in advance of the regiven a stimulus to enterprise and invention, quirements of the colony; also deprecated the and amply justify the grants for its inaugura- absence of religious teaching in the public tion.
schools. The International Exhibition at Sydney was III. French POSSESSIONS.—Tahiti, or Otalieiclosed in April. At the cl ing ceremonial ti, with its adjacent islands, which litherto had t!ie Governor, Ministers, Judges, both houses been under French protectorate, was on June of Parliament, and a vast concourse of the 29, 1880, formally annexed to France. It is republic attended. Seven thousand awards wero ported that the King, Pomaré l', accomplished declared officially, and an address and gold the act of his own free will, that it was acmedal were presented to the Governor. The cepted by the commissary of the French Govwhole ceremony was very successful. Three ernment, and hailed with enthusiasm by the cheers were given for the Queen, Governor, Tahitian population. l'omaré ! will retain Lady Augustus Loftus, and the Executive Com- the honorary title of King. lle had been the mission.
nominal ruler of the islands since 1877, when Queenslanıl.-Parliament was opened in July. he succeeded, as the nearest relation of royal The Governor, in his speech on the occasion, blood, Queen Pomaré, who in 1842 signed tho referred to the return of the Premier, Mr. convention with the French Admiral Dupetit McIlw raith, from England, and the proposals Thouars about the establishment of a French