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ward of_thirty colors” (Hancock's official re- spicuous share in that great and decisive vicport). The fighting at this point was as fierce tory.” July 26, 1866, he was appointed a as any during the war, the battle raging furi- major-general in the regular army. ously and incessantly along the whole line August 6th General Iancock was assigned to throughout the day and late into the night, the command of the Department of Missouri, General Lee making no fewer than five sepa- where he conducted a successful warfare against rate assaults in his attempts to retake the the hostile Indians on the Plains, till relieved by works, but without success.
General Sheridan, September 12, 1867. He was In the subsequent operations of the army, in command of the Fifth Military District, comat the crossing of the North Anna, the second prising Louisiana and Texas, from November, battle of Cold Harbor, and the assault on the 1867, to March, 1868; the Division of the Atlines in front of Petersburg, he was active and lantic from March, 1868, to March, 1869; and indefatigable till the 17th of June, when his the Department of Dakota from 1869 to 1872. Gettysburg wound, breaking out afresh, became On the death of General George G. Meade, he so inflamed and dangerous that he was com was again assigned to the command of the Dipelled to go on sick-leave, but resumed his vision of the Atlantic, November 25, 1872, his command again in ten days. The battles at headquarters being in New York City, till Deep Bottom, Ream's Station, and of Boydton 1878, when they were transferred to GovPlank-road, were conducted by him. lle was ernor's Island, New York Harbor. appointed a brigadier-general in the regular General Hancock's name was favorably menarmy, August 12, 1864, "for gallant and dis- tioned in 1868 and 1872 as a candidate for tinguished services in the battles of the Wilder- Presidential honors. Ile was unanimously nomness, Spottsylvania, and Cold Ilarbor, and in inated the candidate of the Democratic party all the operations of the army in Virginia un- in the Cincinnati Convention, June 24, 1880. der Lieutenant-General Grant."
On the first ballot he received 171 votes, in a On November 26th he was called to Wash- convention containing 738 members, and Senaington to organize a veteran corps from the tor Bayard, of Delaware, 1531. The remainder honorably discharged soldiers who had served of the votes were scattered among twelve cantwo years. lle continued at that duty till Feb- didates. On the second ballot General Hancock ruary 26, 1865, when he was assigned to the received 320 votes, Senator Bayard 111; and command of the Middle Military Division, and Speaker Randall, of the House of Representaordered to Winchester, Virginia, to relieve tives, advanced from 6 to 1284 votes. On the from the command of the Army of the Shenan- next ballot General llancock received 705 votes, doah General Sheridan, who started the next and the nomination was made unanimous. morning with a large force of cavalry on his IIARCOURT, Sir WILLIAM GEORGE GRANexpedition down the Shenandoah Valley. Gen VILLE VERNON, the Secretary of State for the eral llancock now bent all his energies to or IIome Department in the new Liberal English ganizing and equipping a force as powerful as Cabinet, was born in 1827. He is the second possible from the mass at his command. His son of the Rev. William Harcourt, of Nuneham success is attested by the following extract Park, Oxfordshire, and grandson of the late from a dispatch from the Secretary of War: Archbishop of York. lle was educated at “I am very in
gratified by your energy Trinity College, Cambridge, and graduated in organizing and administering the military there in honors in 1851. Three years later he force of your important command. Your dis was called to the bar at the Inner Temple, and patch of this evening to General Ilalleck vin- in 1866 became a Queen's Counsel. Ile was dicates my judgment in assigning you to that elected Professor of International Law at Camposition, and shows that you could not in any bridge University in 1869, and was a member other render service so valuable and urgent to of the Royal Commission for amending the the Government. I would be glad to have a Neutrality Laws. IIe was appointed Solicitordetailed report of the force and its location, a General in November, 1873, being knighted on thing I have never been able to procure. For his appointment, and held this office until the what you have done already, you have the resignation of Mr. Gladstone's Ministry in Febthanks of this Iepartment."
lle wrote various political pamAfter the assassination of President Lincoln, phlets and letters on international law in the April 14, 1865, General Ilancock's headquarters “ Times,” under the pseudonym "Historicus.” were transferred to Washington, and he was IIe represented Oxford in the Liberal interest placed in command of the defenses of the capi- from 1868 to 1880. Ile was successful at the tal. July 30th he was assigned to the command general election of 1880, but, when he accepted of the Middle Department, with headquarters an office in the Cabinet and offered himself for in Baltimore. A resolution approved April 21, a new election, he was defeated on May 8th by 1866, tenders him with other officers and sol- the Conservative candidate. On May 25th he diers the thanks of Congress, “ for the skill and was, however, returned for Derby, which seat heroic valor which, at Gettysburg, repulsed, Mr. Plimsoll resigned in his favor. His second defeated, and drove back, broken and dispirited, wife, to whom he was married in 1876, was a the veteran army of the rebellion,” and for daughter of the late J. L. Motley, of the United himself, “for his gallant, meritorious, and con States.
HARTINGTON, SPENCER Compton CAVEN- tioned for two years as pastor in Boston. His DISH, Marquis of, the Secretary of State for earnest advocacy of the cause of the colored India in the new Liberal English Cabinet, was people, before and during the war, led to his born July 23, 1833, and is the eldest surviving appointment, in 1865, to the supervision of the son of William, seventh Duke of Devonshire. interests of destitute freedmen and whites in He graduated at Cambridge in 1854, and was the State of Mississippi. In 1867 he became made LL. D. in 1862. In 1856 he was at- the editor of “Zion's IIerald,” Boston, and contached to Earl Granville's special mission to tinued in this office until 1872, when he was Russia. (See GRANVILLE.) In 1857 he was elected Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal returned to the House of Commons as one of Church. He was afterward assigned by the Genthe members in the Liberal interest for North eral Conference to the superintendence of the Lancashire. In 1859, at the opening of the Methodist Episcopal Church in the extreme new Parliament, he moved a vote of no confi- Southern States, his residence being Atlanta, dence in Lord's Derby's Government, and it Georgia. Ile was a persistent advocate of Proteswas carried by 323 votes against 310. He took tant inissions in Italy and among Spanish-speakoffice as a Lord of the Admiralty in March, ing peoples, and in 1872–73 visited Mexico in 1863; a month afterward became under-Sec- this cause. He published “The Pilgrim's Walretary for War; and, when Earl Russell recon- let” in 1864, and “National Sermons; Serstructed his Cabinet in 1866, he received the mons, Speeches, and Letters on Slavery and appointment of Secretary for War. He lost its War," in 1869. A inan of strong intelbis seat at the general election of 1868, but lect and will, he was also vigorous in his was returned soon afterward for the Radnor prejudices, Boroughs, having first received the office of II ÉBERT, Paul ()., ex-Governor of LouisPostmaster-General in Mr. Gladstone's Cabinet. iana, was born at Bayon Goula, Iberville ParIn 1871 he succeeded Mr. Chichester Fortes- ish, Louisiana, in 1818. IIe graduated from cue as Secretary for Ireland, and remained in the Jesuit College, St. James Parish, in 1836, that post until the dissolution of the Cabinet and went to West Point, where he graduated in in 1874. On Mr. Gladstone renouncing the 1840, in the same class with Generals Hancock, leadership of the Liberal party, shortly before Thomas, Sherman, and other officers of distincthe assembling of the Parliament in 1875, he tion. Ile was Assistant Professor of Engineerwas unanimously chosen by the members of ing at the Military Academy in 1811–12. He the opposition as their acknowledged leader in was employed in the construction of the Westthe Commons. At the general election held orn Passes of the month of the Mississippi unin 1880 he was returned both for the Radnor til 1845, when he resigned and was appointed Boroughs and Northeast Lancashire. lIe Chief Engineer of the State of Lonisiana. This chose to sit for the latter, and was reëlected office he held until the Mexican War, when he on his being appointed Secretary of State for was reappointed to the United States Army, India. In 1877, and again in 1879, he was with the rank of lieutenant-colonel of the elected Lord Rector for Edinburgh Univer- Fourteenth Infantry. He was at the battle of sity. Two of Lord IIartington's brothers, Contreras, at the storming of Chapultepec, and Lord Frederick Charles Cavendish and Lord at the taking of the city of Mexico. IIo was Edward Cavendish, are likewise Liberal mein brevetted colonel for gallant conduct at Molibers of the House of Commons, Lord Freder no del Rey. In 1818 the army was disbanded, ick representing the northern division of West and Colonel IIébert returned to his plantation Yorkshire, and Lord Edward North Derby- at Bayou Goula. In 1851 he went as comshire. Lord Frederick was private secretary missioner to France. In 1852 he was a memto Earl Granville, when the latter was Lord- ber of the Convention which framed a new ConPresident of the Council, 1859–64; to Mr. stitution for Louisiana. He was Governor of Gladstone, 1872–73; a Lord of the Treasury, the State from January 1, 1833, to January 1, 1873–74; and Financial Secretary to the Treas- 1856. One of the notable appointments of his ry in 1880.
term was that of General W. T. Sherman as HAVEN, GILBERT, was born near Boston, President of the Louisiana Military Academy. September 19, 1821; died January 3, 1880, at In 1861 he was appointed one of the five brigMalden, Massachusetts. IIe graduated at the adier-generals in the Provisional Confederate Wesleyan University in 1846, and for two years Army, the others being Robert E. Lee, Albert taught Greek and Latin in Amenia Seminary, Sidney Jolinston, Beauregard, and Magruder. of which, in 1818, he became the principal. Ile was in command of the trans-Mississippi In 1851 he joined the New England Conference Department until relieved by General Magruof the Methodist Episcopal Church, and was der, when he took charge of the defenses at stationed successively at Northampton, Wilbra. Galveston. Very shortly after the surrender, ham, Westfield, Roxbury, and Cambridge, Mas- Governor IIébert applied for the removal of sachusetts. In 1861 he was appointed Chaplain his disabilities. IIe was then appointed on the of the Eighth Massachusetts Regiment, the first Board of State Engineers. In 1873 President commissioned chaplain after the breaking out Grant appointed him Commissioner of Engiof the civil war. In 1862 he made a tour in neers for the Mississippi Levee. IIe died in Europe and the East; and on his return was sta- New Orleans, August 29th.
VOL. XX.–23 A
HERING, Dr. Constantine, President of the is not confined to the moderns, as Homer comAmerican Institute of Ilomæopathy, was born mends the fountains of Scamander for their hot in Oschatz, Germany, January 1, 1800. He water; Pindar mentions “the hot baths of the was educated at the University of Leipsic and nymphs”; and Minerva or Vulcan is said to have at the Surgical Academy of Dresden. Ile was discovered to Hercules a hot spring, in which engaged to write a book confuting homæ- to refresh himself after one of his labors; the opathy. In order to do this, he read IIahne- famous pass of Thermopyla derives its name mann's works, and he finally became a convert from the warm springs in its vicinity; the Therto the doctrine “similia similibus curantur.” ma of Sicily, near Selinus, have been known He sought out Hahnemann, studied under him, for a long period, and the grammarian Solinus and became his personal friend. Ile had filled in his “Polyhistor" has given a description of the position of Instructor in Mathematics and Bath, England. Traditionary legends and mythNatural Sciences in Berckmann's Institute, ological lore weaved a potent spell about the Dresden, and the King sent him to Surinam old therm®, and doubtless added to their other to make a zoological collection. Ile practiced beneficial effects upon invalids, that of powermedicine for a time in Paramaribo, and then fully stimulating the imagination. Thus it is sailed to Philadelphia, arriving there in Janu- said that the curative powers of the waters of ary, 1833. Ile was head of tho Homeopathic Bath were discovered by accident, during the School, the first of its kind established any- reign of Hudibras the son of Liel, who is alwhere. From 1845 to 1869 he was Professor leged to have been contemporaneous with Solof Institutes and Materia Medica in the Phila omon. It is related, with superabundance of delphia College of Ilomeopathy. Ile edited the detail, that the Prince Bladud, the son of Hudi"American Journal of Ilomæopathic Materia bras, having been driven in disgrace from the Medica.” Ile published many works, including court in consequence of his leprosy, engaged “ Condensed Materia Medica,” “Guiding Symp- limself to a swineherd, and communicated the toms and Analytical Therapeutics,” and “Ile- disease to his swine. The amateur swineherd ring's Domestic Physician.” Ile developed and his herd wandered about until by accident many of Hahnemann's theories, and ranks only one of the animals wallowed in the warm spring second to him with the members of his school. at Bath and was healed, whereupon the exainHe died in Philadelphia, July 23d.
ple was followed by Prince Bladud, and the HOME HYGIENE. Buths and Bathing.— resulting cure established the efficacy of the The use of the bath in some form has been waters for all succeeding time. common to all races, in all ages. Ilomer, in The Romans, as might be expected from the
Odyssey," has left a vivid description perfection of the water - supply of the city, of the several baths taken by Ulysses at his brought the practice of bathing to its highest principal halting-places, while pursuing his perfection; indeed, no modern essay upon balzigzag journey from the grotto of Calypso to neology is deemed complete without a descriphis native Ithaca, and from those descriptions tion of the Roman bathis. By the term Ronian we may conclude that the method in use by baths, the public baths are meant, although the ancient Greeks was not materially dif- bath-rooms in all grades of magnificence were ferent from that in use at the present day. common in the houses of the wealthy. (A deThe water was heated in a brass basin, upon scription of the public baths of ancient Rome a tripod over a fire, and thence poured into and Pompeii may be seen in the “ American a larger basin or vase of brass or marble to Cyclopædia,”. vol. ii, pages 382–384.) The temper the water therein contained. Cold balnea pensilia (hanging-baths) introduced by water was rarely used, although sea-bathing Sergius Orata, about which there has been was common, not only as a means of cleansing much dispute, appear, from the directions given and refreshing the body after fatigue, but as à for their construction by the architect Vitruremedy in disease, and persons who lived at a vins, to have been nothing more than baths distance from the sea were frequently removed supported upon pillars or arches. All Roman thither for the sake of recovering their health, baths, of which there were upward of cight mainly to "the most pleasant city Ostia, to hundred, included the cella frigidaria, the cold enjoy the benefit of bathing in the sea, which is bath-room; tho frigidlarium (the cold bath); an easy and expeditious method of drying up the cella caldaria (the hot bath-room); the calthe superfluous humors of the body." IIot darium (the hot bath); the cella tepidaria, the baths were long known, but were indulged in tepidarium; the sudatoria, or sweating-rooms; only after great fatigue; the tepid bath, pre- apoiiteria, or undressing-room; and the unctuapared as indicated above, being that nsually ria, or perfuming-rooms. The bath-keeper (balemployed, the Greeks considering the hot bath neator) had slaves under his command (capeffeminate. During the last illness of Alexan- sarii), who took care of the garments of the der the Great, he was bathed very frequently, bathers, and other slaves (alipte or unctores) having a greater reliance upon the curative whose duty it was to rub the body of the bather virtue of the bath than in that of medicine, and with the strigilis, a sort of carry-comb made finally he caused his bed to be brought near of horn, brass, silver, or gold, and at the concluthe bath, that it might be more easy of access. sion of the bath to apply the oil. Air-baths
The knowledge of the hot springs, or therma, were in most cases attached, statuary and bril
liant frescoes met the eye of the bather, and temperature of 112° to 120° Fahr. These baths libraries were commonly in the same building. are at a village (Loony - Chuen - Ting) about Scholars composed or dictated, and poets read thirty-three miles east from Yentai. There are their compositions to the concourse gathered also hot sulphur-baths at I San Tang, fitty miles at the baths in the hot season. In our day, from Chefoo. The temperature of these baths there is no civilized nation that attaches the is higher, being 124° Fahr., and Dr. Myers sugsame importance to public baths as the Ro- gests that as foreigners are not weil treated mans did, and the baths are nowhere con there, persons visiting them should take their structed with a tithe of the ancient splendor. tubs with them. There are two celebrated The Turkish baths, perhaps, approach moro baths near Peking; one at Piyünze, a Buddhist nearly those of ancient Roine, and the process temple, twelve miles froin Peking. There are of bathing according to the Turkish inethod is two springs near each other, which have been simply a modification of that of the Romans. built round with marble, and inclosed in a Turkish baths are now quite common in Euro- park. The southern spring is the warmest, pean and American cities, but they are little standing at a temperature of 120° Fahr. These frequented here except by invalids.* Among baths, however, are not open to the public, all Mohammedans the bath forins an important being held as an imperial reservation. The religious ceremony, as also among the Ilin- public baths of Japan have been described in doos. Bayard Taylor thus described the cere- the “ American (yclopædia," vol. ii, page 385. mony as practiced at Allahabad :
The private bath is thus described by Dr. G. Soveral boats, containing flower-deckel shrines with llenderson: “In the bottom of an ordinary images of the gods, were moored on the Jumna side, wooden or metal batlı-tub, a hole is cut six the current of the Ganyes being exceclinzly rapidl. inches in diameter, and about an inch distant The natives objected to our getting upon the platforins, from the side; into this hole is fitted a copper defile them; so we'stood in the mud for a short time cylinder closed at the bottom by a very open and witnessed the ceremony of bathing. The lindosos grating; the cylinder is contracted at the top so always batle with it cloth around the loins, out of as to resemble somewhat a large beer-bottle; respect for the goddess Guncujce. There were about this shape increases the draught. their heads to the tiur points of the compass, and cold water, in order to heat it we have only to
“The bathtub being ready and filled with muttering invocations; others, standin, on the bank, threw wreaths of yellow flowers upon the water. drop into the copper cylinder from one to two Dr. Dudgeon informs us that there are numer
pounds of hot coals, and in half an hour che
water will be raised in temperature forty or ous public baths in Peking. They aro known
fifty degrees." by a lantern lighted at night and raised on a
The North American Indians, when sick, lofty pole. The buildings are damp, dirty, and have resorted to vapor-baths from time immefilled with a rank, steamy atmosphere; there are three apartments, viz. 1. Undressing-rooin. the warm season, and then in the rivers and
morial, but in health tley bathe only during 2. Bathing-room. 3. Lounging or smoking
lakes. The same water is used for several
The vapor-bath is made by placing bathers; at any rate, it is changed but once ously made air-tight by covering tho lodge
some lot stones in a small lodge or tent, previdaily, except during the hottest weather, when it is changed twice. Is the Chinese dread the with skins or blankets; then water is poured effect of water applied to the surface of the upon the stones, and a hot steam is the result. body, tho“ bath " of the better classes usually similar practice prevails in Lapland. consists of "a teacupful of warm water applied American resorts for persons desiring the bene
An account of the different European and with a silk handkerchief"; the public baths, fit of baths in natural mineral waters, as well therefore, are mainly used by the lower orders of people. An ordinary bath costs il penny,
as the effect of the various medicated baths as
a remeilial measure in disease, is foreign to the but during the last month of the Chinese year, the price is raised to about three pence.
In purpose of this paper; indeed, the mere enu
meration of the treatises upon the subject of many wash the upper half of the medical balneology would occupy nearly the body who refuse to wash the lower, being entire space assigned to this article. It may afraid of the lower vapor ascending and in
not be out of place, however, to say that no juring the upper." The Chinese dread of water is somewhat embarrassing to foreign practi- person in the l'nited States need go beyond its tioners of medicine, resident in China, as it is borders to tind mineral springs of any desired said that when called to attenil Chinese pa- and that the remedial etfect of any particular
composition and of any required temperature, tients they are obliged to eschew water-dressings, baths, fomentations, and the like, if they at the spring, since waters prepared of identi
waters can not be obtained anywhere else than desire to ret:in the confidence of their patrons, cal chemical composition and temperature do There are several hot springs in Chini, much used as a resort for invalids; those near Chefoo, lows, therefore, that there are other elements
not produce the same effect elsewhere. It folaccording to Dr. Myers, supply the baths at a
entering into the causation of the curative * Pide American Cyclopædia," vol ii.
effect, such as the atmosphere of the place, its + The river deity.
elevation and consequent barometric pressure,
the careful regulation of diet, the relaxation cutaneous appendages in some way. Reptiles from business, and change of scene.
cast off the entire skin each year, quadrupeds Free public baths are not as common either shed their hair and portions of their epidermis, in Europe or America as they should be. In the “molting process is more or less conthe city of New York there are only eight; in stant in birds, crustaceans cast off their shells Brooklyn three ; in Philadelphia two; in Bos- in whole or in part, according to species, and ton twenty. There are none in Baltimore, fishes their scales. The epidermis of man, alNew Orleans, Cincinnati, Chicago, St. Louis, though more gradually thrown off, is yet as or San Francisco. These baths are floating constantly undergoing that process. The blood baths for men and boys in one compartment, circulating through the skin is cooled by indiand for women and girls in the other; they rect contact with the air, and it parts with cerare usually moored near some of the public tain of its salts and water by means of the docks; in Boston they are near the bridges, sweat-glands, with which it is numerously supwhich are numerous in that city; in any event, plied ; if, then, from any cause the sweat-ducts they are necessarily near one or more of the (pores) become obstructed, a local sore or a sewer outlets. When intercepting sewers shall general disease is the result: a local sore if but have been established for the better purifica- few are obstructed, and general disease in extion of our great harbors, this disadvantage act and definite proportion to the number of will be obviated. It has been alleged, not glands involved. Numerous experiments have without a show of reason, that the absorption been made by physiologists tending to show of sewage matters, by reason of the immersion the effect of closure of the sweat-ducts upon of the body in the waters of our harbors, was lower animals, by covering the skin with an itself moro harmful than the uncleanliness of impermeable coating, and death was the invarithe bather; but this is certainly an exaggera- able result, the duration of life after the coattion; and, moreover, absorption by the skin is ing only varying according to the thoroughvery slow, and the great reduction of the tem- ness of the application. Dr. Flint quotes from perature of the body consequent upon the Laschkewitch the case of a child who was saline bath_compensates in some measure for covered with gold-leaf in order to represent an the evil. It is not, however, irremediable. angel in the ceremonies attending the coronaMr. Charles Slagg, O. E., of England, has pro- tion of Pope Leo X. This child died a few posed a very ingenious scheme for providing hours after the coating had been applied. The filtered-water swimming-baths in impure rive effect of the closure of a smaller number of
IIe proposes to place floating baths in the sweat-ducts is, as before stated, to produce a current of a river, “and by means of tide- local sore, which is manifested in the form of wheels to utilize the motive power of the cur a cutaneous eruption. It follows, then, that rent to pump water into the bath from a well the application of water has a general tendency into which the river-water enters through a to assist the natural process of throwing off the filter in the bottom of the vessel." This epidermis, and, by dissolving and carrying off scheme is doubtless practicable, but has not the perspiration, assists in keeping open the been tried in this country, and the writer has pores of the body, which, although not the only seen no account of its having been tried else- drains, are yet highly important ones. So in where. The public baths have not as yet been all ages its use has been accounted a great heated, nor have any been constructed except benefit. There are, however, thousands of hufloating baths. Dr. Bell suggested some years man beings who do not bathe, except, perhaps, ago that large manufacturing establishments the hands and face; such persons are usually could e:sily furnish the necessary facilities for of the laboring-classes, whose perspiration is heating the water for public baths. He esti- very free, sufficient in quantity to enforce its „nated that the waste water of a five hundred passage through the ducts, and prevent obstruchorse-power steam-engine would be sufficient tion. In towns and villages throughout the to “furnish bathis for twenty-six hundred per- United States not furnished with a general sons daily, at an average temperature of 70° to water-supply, bath-rooms are the exception, 75° Fahr." It is not probable that this plan and in winter the only bath taken is a sponge could be made available. Since the city as or towel bath. In summer the male inhabisumes the responsibility of providing froe pub- tants of such villages usually seek the nearest lic baths at all, it would seem eminently proper lake or watercourse. that it should provide them with the necessary Baths are divided first, according to the meappliances for accomplishing their intended dium employed, as air, vapor, sand, mud, or purpose. The furnishing of a suitable tank, chemicals, etc. ; second, a subdivision of the and a steam-boiler for hot water, would not media ; but, as the water-bath only is within appear to present an insuperable obstacle. The the scope of this article, the first need not engreatest difficulty consists in obtaining the ne gage our attention. Water-baths are classed cessary appropriation from the city treasury. as plunge-baths, foot-baths, hip-baths, shower
Withont special discussion of the physiology baths, and sponge-baths; they are divided into of the human skin, or particular mention of cold baths, 42° to 70° Fahr.; tepid baths, from the details of its anatomy, it may be stated 72° to 82° Fahr. ; warm baths, from 83° to 98° that all living animals cast off and renew their Fahr.; hot baths, from 990 to 112° Fabr. and