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reconstituted as follows: M. Coumoundouros, Phone,” remarked on this plan: “Doubtless & President of the Council and Minister of the synod of representatives of all the autocephaInterior; M. Augherinos, Minister of Educa- lous Orthodox Churches, with equal rights, savtion; M. Papamichalopulo, Minister of Finance; ing only the precedency of honor reserved to M. Delyannis, Minister of Foreign Affairs; M. the ecumenical and other patriarchs of the East, Valamakis, Minister of Justice ; M. Bonboulis, meeting from time to tiine at Constantinople Minister of Marine; M. Valtinos, Minister of as the first in honor of the churches, or in any War. On January 26th the Chamber, by 97 other city that might be determined on, would against 73 votes, refused to grant to the Minis- contribute greatly to the settlement of questry 2,500,000 drachmas of a new loan of 60,- tions of general interest, and would have in its 000,000 for the defrayal of current expenses. hands the supreme administration of the whole The Ministry consequently resigned, but when Eastern Church.” M. Trikoupis informed the King that the Op The “Threskeutike Phone,” referred to above, position agreed that the vote did not raise a is the first religious newspaper of Greece. It Cabinet question, the King requested M. Cou was established at the beginning of 1880, and is moundouros to remain in office. The Cham- edited by A. Diomedes Griacus, Professor of ber subsequently voted the grant demanded by Theology in the University of Athens, and Igthe Ministry. On March 18th M. Coumoun- natius Moshake, a theological instructor in the douros again resigned, as the Chamber adopt- same institution. The editors are well acquainted, by 99 votes against 93, a resolution moved ed with the literature of Western Europe, and by the Opposition that the budget was not by the establishment of the first Church newsadapted to the financial condition of the coun paper, will endeavor to give to their Church an try, and expressly disapproved of the policy institution which has long been in a flourishof the Government. A new Ministry was ing condition in the Protestant and Catholic formed under the presidency of M. Trikoupis, Churches of America and Europe. Even in its who took the portfolio of Foreign Affairs, and first numbers it discussed several important refor a time that of Finance also. M. Trikoupis form questions, as the convocation of an Ecuresigned in his turn, in August, when the menical Council of the Orthodox Church, and Chamber of Deputies elected, by 92 votes the reēstablishment of a patriarchate in Russia. against 55, the Opposition candidate as its Pres An important event in the history of the ident, and M. Coumoundouros became once Russian Church is the resignation of Count more Prime Minister.
Demetrius Andreevitch Tolstoy as chief procuGREEK CIIURCI. The aggregate popu- rator of the Holy Synod. Count Tolstoy, who lation connected with the Greek or Orthodox was made chief procurator June 3, 1865, and Eastern Church was estimated in 1850 at about Minister of Public Instruction the following 78,000,000.* It is the predominant Church in year, had but one predecessor who held the seven countries in the following order : Greece, two offices at once, Prince Alexander Nicolaewhere 98.9 per cent. of the total population vitch Galitzin, in 1816-'17. He was the twentybelong to it; Servia, 91:5 per cent.; Roumania, second chief procurator since the Holy Synod 874 per cent.; Montenegro, 82-5 per cent.; was established, in 1721. IIe is succeeded as Russia, 68.6 per cent.; Bulgaria, 67.7 per cent.; chief procurator by the Privy-Councilor Conand Eastern Roumelia, 60:6 per cent. In the stantine Petrovitch Pobedonostchev, who, howAustro-Hungarian monarchy it numbers about ever, will not be at the same time Minister of 8 per cent. of the total population.
Public Instruction. The plan of holding a General Conference of The “ Tserkovnaia Vaistnik” says of the new Eastern Orthodox Bishops was discussed in procurator that some years ago the Ecclesiastiseveral Russian and Greek newspapers. It was cal Academy of St. Petersburg counted him one originally proposed by the “St. Petersburg of its most honored members. The St. PetersSection of the Society of Friends of Religious burg“Vaidomosti” says that he “is known, not Enlightenment” to the Holy Synod of Russia. only as a man of high culture and much learnThe patriarchs of the East and other Orthodox ing, but also, in the best and fullest sense, a bishops were to be invited to attend the thorough Russian. Not long since a university consecration of the Church of the Saviour at professor, he has attained, in a comparatively Mosco:v, August 12 to September 7, 1880, and short time, the position of a member of the to consult together with the Russian bishops Emperor's Council. In the wider sphere of concerning many important questions relating duties opened up before him he has not fallen to tho Orthodox Church. As subjects well behind in literary labor. And, withal, he has worthy of engaging the attention of the Eastern occupied a position of activity and influence in bishops were designated, in Russian papers, the the new enterprise of the volunteer fleet, which Bulgarian question, the Rascolniks of Russia seems likely to play an important part in Rusand the liturgical books, the general adminis- sia's future. What he has done in the past is tration of the Eastern Church, the establish a pledge that in the new post to which he has ment of a patriarchate in Russia, and church been called he will discharge its duties, not in unity. A paper of Athens, the “Threskeutike a merely formal way, but with an earnestness
and zeal so needful at this time for the orthodox * For detailed statistics, see " Annual Cyclopædia " of 1879. world." The Russian Church continues to be
in the widest sense of the word a state Church. one and the same city there could be two OrThe Holy Synod in 1880 caused a manifesto to thodox bishops, a thing quite contrary to the be read in the western and central provinces, canons of the Orthodox Church. The Greek solemnly consigning the revolutionists to eter- ecclesiastics think that a Bulgarian priest living nal punishment. “Russia being ruled by the at Constantinople ought not to be subject to anointed of the Lord,” says the manifesto, “it any other than the æcumenical Patriarch, just is the sacred duty of every subject to obey the as a Greek priest, living in St. Petersburg, behests of the sovereign, and to contribute to would be subject to the Metropolitan of St. the exterioination of the rebels.” An official Petersburg. The Bulgarians do not want any list of the Russian episcopate for the year 1880 fellowship with the Greeks, and the Greeks gives the following statistics : Of the prelates in bitterly complain of the hostilities displayed active service, there are in Russia proper three by the Bulgarians toward them. In Niarch, metropolitans, thirteen archbishops, thirty-six 1880, the Greek Patriarch of Constantinople bishops in charge of dioceses, and twenty-two directed the attention of the Porte to the outassistant bishops (entitled vicar-bishops). The rages committed by the Bulgarian population Exarchate of Georgia bas one archbishop, two
of Eastern Roumelia toward the Greek popubishops, and three vicar-bishops. In America lation. there is the bishop of the Aleutian Islands and The Bishops of Bosnia and IIerzegovina were Alaska. These, then, number in all eighty-one. officially notified by the Patriarch of ConstanThere are retired, two archbishops and eleven tinople of a convention concluded between the bishops. The entire number of Russian bishops Patriarch and the Government of Austro-Hunis therefore ninety-four. In Russia, with very gary. Tho convention was signed on April few exceptions, the bishops, on their first en 6th at the Patriarchate in the Fanar, between trance upon the episcopal office, serve for a the Patriarch and Count Dubski, the Austrian few years as vicar-bishops, and are then trans representative. Some difficulties were raised ferred to the charge of a diocese—very rarely at first by the Porte, on account of the undebeing, in case of survival, the successors of the termined character of the occupation; but bishops to whom they were assistants. The Or these were between the Porte and the Patrithodox Missionary Society for Russia, of which arch, and not between the former and the Austhe Metropolitan of Russia is president, has had trian Government, and were finally overcome. for years a special missionary paper, called As the population connected with the Greek “The Missioner.” It has now been deemed best Church of Bosnia and Ilerzegovina belongs to to suspend for the present the publication of the Servian nationality, the occupation of the a special missionary journal, and “The Mis- two provinces by Austria naturally awakened sioner" has been joined to the “Moscow Dio- a wish among the Servians of Hungary for the cesan Gazette."
consolidation of all the churches of the Servian The “Golos” of Moscow stated in January, nationality under the jurisdiction of the Patrithat in the prison of Suzealya there were at arch of Carloritz.* The Servian nationalists that time an archbishop and two bishops of the hoped iv this way to obtain a strong reinforceStarolbryatsi, or Old Believers, their only crime ment in their struggle against the Magyars. being that of having held to their faith and per. The central Government of Austro-Ilungary formed their office accordingly. One had been was urged to avail itself of the advantages in prison twenty-six years, another twenty which the submission of the churches of the two, and the third seventeen years.
two provinces would lave for the confirmaIn Turkey, the Patriarchate of Constantino- tion of the Austrian rule, and for the extenple has suffered a considerable loss in its ordi- sion of Austrian influence on the Balkan Peninnary revenues in consequence of the troubled sula. The Hungarian Government of Budatimes; and the Patriarch, who is trying to Pesth did not ignore the dangers which an inimprove the education of the clergy, tindscrease of the Servian element of the monarchy himself straitened in his designs for lack of might involve for the predominance of the means. The Greek cominunity in London, Magyars, and therefore made greater efforts therefore, sent the Patriarch in 1880 a volun- than ever before to secure for the highest oftary contribution of £104, that of Manchester fices in the Servian Church men deroted to the £40, that of Marseilles 1,810 francs, and that Ilungarian interests. On December 11, 1879, of Vienna 1,077 francs. In Asia Minor, also, the Patriarch of Carlovitz, Iratchkovits, was several persons have determined to pay for the relieved “at his own request" from the adeducation, at the Theological School of Chalce, ministration of the Serrian patriarchate, and of theological students from their own part of in his place the Bishop of Bacz (German Andthe country.
jelits) was appointed "administrator of the The Bulgarians endeavor to carry through Servian patriarchate.”. Bishop Andjelits was the nationality principle in the organization of regarded by the Servian nationalisis as the a national church as well as in the building up most devoted partisan of the Magyar Gorernof a state embracing all Bulgarian districts of ment, and it was expected that the Servian the Balkan Peninsula. They desire every Bul. Congress would not elect him Patriarch. Many garian, wherever he lives, to be under the ju
• See" Annual ("yclopædia" of 1679 for an bistorical sketch risdiction of the Bulgarian Exarch, so that in
of the Servian Church.
of the prominent Servians protested against his more than 6,000. In the summer of 1878 there appointment as an illegal act, because they de- were six priests and 88 unconsecrated Japanese nied the right of the Government to appoint preachers working for the propagation of the an administrator of the patriarchate. In Oc- Orthodox-Greek faith. Among the native tober, 1880, the assemblies of the eparchies priests, the most prominent, from his infla(dioceses) generally demanded the immediate ence and the persecutions to wl he has been convocation of the Servian Church Cougress. subjected, is a converted bonze, named Paul The majority of the bishops have been gained Savabé. over by the Magyar Government, and take GUATEMALA (REPÚBLICA DE GUATEMALA), side against the demands of the national Servian the most westerly of the five independent states party. The Greek Church of the Roumanian of Central America. For statistics relating to nationality in the lands of the Hungarian crown area, population, etc., reference may be made has, until 1880, been on better terms with the to the “Annual Cyclopædia" for 1875. Here Magyar Government. But the new elections, follows a list of the twenty-two departments held in 1880, for the Roumanian Church Con- into which the republic is divided, and their gress resulted in favor of the nationalists, and capitals : the Hungarian Government has now adopted
Capitals. the same hostile policy against the Roumanians
Amatitlan, which has for several years been pursued with regard to the Servians. The Roumanian Church Sacatepéquez..
Antigua Guatemala, Chimaltenango
Chimaltenango. Congress was to have met on October 13, 1880,
Sololá. at Ilermannstadt. But a few days before, the Totonicapan.
Totonicapan, Metropolitan Miron countermanded the con
Mazatenango. vocation of the Church Congress, and the Rou Quezaltenango..
Quezaltenango. manian nationalists generally denounce him as
Huehuetenango. a tool of the Magyar Government.
Santa Cruz del Quiché. In the Synod of the Municipality of Rou Santa Rosa ..
..Cuajiniquilapa. mania, which met in November, 1880, Bishop
...Jalapa. Ghenadie, of Argesh, moved the establishment
Chiquimula. of a theological faculty, and declared his readi Zacapa..
Izabal, ness to devote a considerable portion of his Alta Verapaz..
.Coban, revenues for this purpose. The lower clergy Baja Verapaz.
Peten.. of Roumania are generally in a deplorable con
La Libertad, or Sacluk. dition. Their income is utterly insufficient, The President of the Republic is General and they are generally destitute of theological Rufino Barrios, elected May 7, 1873, and reknowledge.
elected in 1880 for a period of six years. The Russian papers give the following statistics Cabinet was composed of the following Minisas to the number of persons belonging to the ters: Interior and Justice, Señor Don Fernando Orthodox Eastern Church in the western part Cruz; Foreign Affairs, Dr. L. Montúfar; War, of the United States: There are in the diocese Finance, and Public Credit, Señor Don J. M. of the Aleutian Islands and Alaska, including Barrundia; Public Instruction, Señor Don Delabout 200 Slars and Greeks at San Francisco, fino Sanchez; Public Works, Señor Don M. 11,572 members of the Eastern Church. The llerrera. church-buildings are nine in number, including The Guatemala Minister to the United States one at San Francisco.
is Señor Don A. Ubico, accredited in 1880; The head of the Russian mission in Japan, and the Consul-General (for the Union) at New the Rev. Nicolas Kassatkine, was, in 1880, con York is Señor Don Jacobo Baiz. socrated as missionary bishop for Japan. He The United States Minister (resident in Guahas been laboring in Japan as a missionary temala and accredited to the five Central Amersince 1861, when he was sent there for the ican republics) is Dr. Cornelius A. Logan; and avowed purpose of exploring the country with the United States Consul (at Guatemala City), a view to religious propaganda. IIe gave eight Mr. J. F. Medina. years' preparation to this work, studying the The armed force of the Republic comprises language and manners of the country, and 3,200 men in active service, and 15,225 militia. translating into Japanese several of the sacred The finances of the country are by general books of the Russian Church. In 1869 he had, report in a prosperous state. The revenue has however, converted only three persons. As his of late years fallen little short of $5,000,000, confidence in the success of his work was un- while the ordinary expenditures are for the bounded, he returned to Russia for the purpose most part below that limit. The total amount of soliciting the establishment in Japan of a of the national debt on January 1, 1879, was religious mission. He obtained it, and since set down at $5,369,529. According to returns his return to Japan the conversions have for published in 1880, by the manager-general of ten years continued to increase. In 1875 there the Treasury, the portion of the home debt were already in the empire 500 Orthodox- redeemable by forty per cent. of the customs' Greek Christians; a year after, more than 1,000; receipts (import branch) had been reduced by in 1878, 4,115; and in 1880 they numbered $66,617.85, and stood at $1,408,578.68 on July
31st. The consolidated debt at the same date 201,685 pounds; the several countries to which was set down at $1,218,408.85, having in- it was sent, and the value of the shipments recreased by $11,500.34 during the month men- spectively, having been as below: tioned.
Values. The following statements relating to the Great Britain..
$1,2-1,033 41 commerce of Guatemala are from official re
521,050 24 Germany.
675,672 00 turns published in 1880). The subjoined table l'nited States..
1,130,812 00 shows the value of the imports and exports for
267,075 04 Belgium..
102,337 60 each of the five years 1875–79:
1,95 23 South America.
4017 60 YEARS. Imports. Exports. Spain.
1,130 10 1975 $2.173.573 62 $3,217,244 66
$1,032,269 60 1876.
3,767,171 04 1877
The imports for the same year were from 1973
3,91912 32 the sources and of the respective values ex1879.
pressed in the annexed tables: The increase of the exports, as here seen,
$74.9:35 12 has been constant, and the imports have varied France..
457,664 13 little, thus showing the developinent of pro
478.74 52 Germany.
392,129 97 ducing power, and maintaining an ever-grow
207,437 95 ing balance of trade in favor of the republic. New York,
(hin... The exports for 1879 were to the following
91,847 12 Belgium..
68,570 09 countries in order of importance: United States, Spain
76,701 55 Great Britain, Germany, France, Balize, the J:pan.
81,15 26 Cuba
24,694 17 other Central American states, Belgium, South
9,551 82 America, Spain, Italy; and the staples shipped Mexico.
8.121 44 were: bullion, cochineal, hides, woolens, su
3,695 66 Nicaragua..
1.722 15 gar, maize, indigo, cocoanuts, sarsaparilla, tim Costa Rica...
1,539 67 ber, Spanish beans, cacao, vanilla, skins, horses, Colombia...
6.99 53 and India-rubber. The most important of these was coffee, the value of which stood at $4,032,
Duties. 269.60, against $2,617,278.24 for 1875. The
1.501,097 54 quantity of coffee exported in 1879 was 25,
This last item indicates an average rate of Escuintla, the occasion having been solemnized duty of over 50 per cent., the distribution of in due form, and celebrated with brilliant fêtes, which is exhibited in the following schedule attended by the Presidents of Guatemala, Honof the different articles imported, together with duras, and Salvador. It is confidently stated the values of these:
that the line will be completed to the capital at an early day.
Education continues to be the object of seduProvisions.. $336,432 78 $153,372 10
lous attention on the part of President Barrios,
4,636 22 45,171 45 who has brought the system of public schools Manufactured goods.
1,263,231 52 893,322 97 Wearing-apparei
to its present prosperous condition. The Fancy wares
174,615 73 65,927. 24 amount expended on public instruction 1879 Raw material, and agricultu
was $800,000, against $1,440 in 1871! Edaral, artistic, and scientific appliances
321,713 8 193,505 39 cation is compulsory, and parents or guardians Specie and precious metals . 572,629 30
not providing for the mental culture of their 5,356 81
children in private schools, or by private tui$2,929,461 56 $1,591,697 84 tion, are required to send them to the public
schools. There are at present eighteen graded On June 18, 1880, was opened to traffic the primary schools in the capital. Active ineasbranch of the Guaternala Central Railway ex ures are being taken for the education of the tending from the Pacific port of San José to Indian population.
HALDEMAN, SAMUEL S., naturalist and Pennsylvania, September 10th, at the age of philologist, was born of Dutch ancestry near sixty-eight. Columbia, Pennsylvania, in 1812.
HANCOCK, WINFIELD Scott, an American educated at Dickinson College, Carlisle, devot- soldier, was born February 14, 1824, in Monting himself chiefly to the scientific course. In goinery Square, a small village in Montgomery 1836 he was assistant to the geological survey County, Pennsylvania. His grandfather, Richof New Jersey; in 1837 to that of Pennsylva- ard Hancock, of Scottish birth, was one of the nia. In the conrse of this year he discovered 2,500 impressed American seamen of the War the Scolithus linearis, the earliest fossil then of 1812, who wero incarcerated in the Dartfound. In 1851 he was Professor of Natural moor Prison in England. His father, Benjamin IIistory in the University of Pennsylvania, and, Franklin Ilancock, was born in Philadelphia, later, Professor of Comparative Philolozy. and when quite a young man was thrown upon At different times he held professorships in his own resources for a livelihood, having disDelaware College and in the Agricultural Col pleased his guardian by not marrying in the lege of that State. IIe wrote essays for the Society of Friends. He married the daughter of American Association for the Advancement of a Revolutionary soldier, Elizabeth Hayworth, Science, American Philosophical Society, and whose ancestry was English and Welsh. He other societies, including the Philological Asso supported himself and wife by teaching, while ciation, of which he was a founder and Presi studying law; was admitted to the bar in 1828, dent. He was a contributor to "Silliman's and removed to Norristown, where he practiced Journal,” the “Literary World," the “ Icono- his profession forty years, earning the repu. graphic Cyclopedia," und " Johnson's Cyclo- tation of a well-read, judicious, and successful pædia,” of which he was associate editor. Ile lawyer. wrote the zoological portion of Trego's "Ge Winfield S. IIancock and his brother Hilary ography of Pennsylvania" (1813), and Rupp's B. had the combined advantages of home in
IIistory of Lancaster County” (1814). IIe struction and a course in the Norristown was an advocate of spelling reform, and, besides Academy and the public high-school, which several manuals of orthography, orthoëpy, and afforded the educational facilities of the betetymology, he gained in 1858, over eighteen ter class of academies of that day. He early competitors, the Trevelyan prize, by a treatise evinced a decided taste for military exercises.
Analytical Orthography.” Ile made ex At the age of sixteen he entered the Military tensive researches into Indian antiquities and Academy at West Point, having obtained his
Pennsylvania Duteh.". IIe published in 1819 cadetslip through the unsolicited influence of “Soine Points in Linguistic Ethnology," deal his father's friend, John B. Sterigere, who reping with Indian dialects, and, in 1856, “Rela resented his district in Congress. Among his tions of the English and Chinese Languages." contemporaries as cadets in the Academy were Besides these, he was the author of " Fresh Grant, McClellan, Reynolds, Buell, Franklin, Water Univalve Molluscx," the “Zoology of Rosecrans, and Lyon, who afterward became Invertebrate Animals” (1850), and other works distinguished generals in the Union army, and of scientific value. Ile died near Columbia, Longstreet, Picket, and “Stonewall” Jackson,