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000 in the next year; changes which were pro ous times, when systems were advocated which posed in the malt-tax, causing a further loss of threatened social and family life ; and in such £1,100,000 in the present year, which could times Christians who revered one common God be recovered by an addition of one penny to could not afford to aggravate their grievances. the income-tax. On the other hand, a pro- The Archbishop was supported in the debate posed increase and adjustment of the license by the Archbishop of York and the Bishops of duties for the sale of alcoholic liquors would Bath and Wells and of London, and the bill bring an increase of £305,000 in the present was passed to its second reading by a vote of and £350,000 in future years. The total amount 126 to 101. It was amended by the addition of the additions to the expenditure side would of clauses excluding from its provisions churchbe £1,533,000, and the additions to the revenue, yards in parishes where burying-grounds are together with the surplus of £184,000 pro- provided, and enlarging the discretion of the vided by Sir Stafford Northcote, would amount clergy as to the manner in which they should to £1,914,000, leaving a revised surplus of £381,- perform the burial service, and was passed to 000.
its third reading June 17th. On its second A bill relating to the law of burials was in- reading in the House of Commons, August 12th, troduced in the House of Lords, May 27th, by the bill was supported by Mr. Osborne Morthe Lord Chancellor, who remarked that the gan, who said that by the common law of Engexisting law on the subject was unsatisfactory, land, which no one had attempted to alter, and that a speedy settlement of the questions every parishioner was entitled to be buried in it raised was desirable. He held that burial was the parish churchyard. That right was a right a civil right of universal necessity and great in no way depending upon the creed which he importance, but that it was fettered by ecclesias- professed or the religion of the church to which tical provisions which affected a large number he belonged. It was a civic and not a religious of her Majesty's subjects and were antagonistic right. Thronghout the country, and especially to the principles of religious liberty. At pres- in Wales, a great grievance existed because ent there could be no service whatever in the this right had not been recognized. The speakchurchyard over the unbaptized and persons er believed that the amendments which the who died by their cwn hands, wbile persons IIouse of Lords had added had a tendency to who dissented from the Church of England defeat the purposes of the measure, and urged could be buried in the churchyards with the that they be stricken out. The further discusservice of the Church of England only, if their sion turned upon the expediency of striking friends desired any service. Tho grievance to out the clause requiring that the services should dissenters was admitted, and it was neither a be “Christian "—which, it was urged, estabsmall nor a diminishing one. The bill he in- lished a distinction against the Jewish and troduced proposed that the person in charge other non-Christian religions and the possiof, or responsible for, a funeral should be at lib- bility of scandals occurring in case any other erty to give notice that the deceased was to be than the authorized services of the Church of buried without the service of the Church of England were permitted. The second reading England; that at any burial under the act all was granted by a vote of 258 to 79. The amendpersons should have access to the churchyard ments added by the IIouse of Lords were thrown or graveyard in which the same should be sol- out in committee; this action was agreed to emnized, and any burial might be performed, by the IIouse of Lords, and the bill was finally at the option of the person having charge passed September 6th. of, or being responsiblo for, the same, either A bill for the protection of occupiers of land without any religious service or with such against the ravages of“ ground-game” (hares Christian and orderly religious service at the and rabbits) was introduced by the Governgrave as such person should think fit. Disor- ment in the House of Commons, May 27th. der at the grave, and any attempt under the Sir W. Harcourt, who had charge of the ineasguise of a religious service to bring into con ure, remarked that it was not intended to deal tempt the Christian religion, or the religion of with tho general question of the game laws, any denomination of Christians, were declared but only with their effect upon the relation to be misdemeanors under the act. Clergymen between landlord and tenant, so far as it bore were authorized to perform the burial service upon the rights with respect to ground-game. of the Church of England in unconsecrated The bill gave the occupier of the land the congrounds, and to assist in parts of the service current and inalienable right to kill all the in cases where the reading of the whole ser- ground-game on his occupation, and made any vice might be a cause of scruple to them, and contract he might agree to for waiving that seem inappropriate. The bill was opposed on right incapable of enforcement at law. It was its second reading by the Bishop of Lincoln, opposed in discussion by representatives of the who urged that as the nonconformists no lon- landed interest, chiefly with the argument that ger founded churchyards, they could not claim its provisions infringed upon the freedom of to have the control of the churchyards taken contract, but was passed August 27th. The away from the clergy of the Establishment. The House of Lords added amendments establishArchbishop of Canterbury argued in support ing a "close-time," and limiting the right to of the measure that the present were danger- shoot to one person on the farm. These amend
ments were rejected by the IIouse of Com- lation which would remove opportunities for mons and receded from hy the House of Lords, temptation would be useful in checking drunkand the bill was finally passed, September 6th.
Among the many objects pressing for In offering a bill for taking the census in legislation, he regarded the reform of the liEngland, July 12th, Lord Enfield in the House censing laws as an essential part of the work of Lords said that it had not been thought ad- of the present Parliament, and he hoped that visable to collect religious statistics, as the at- the settlement of it would include a reasonable tempt would involve much expense and diffi- application of the principle of local option. culty, and was not likely to be rewarded with The resolution was adopted by a vote of 229 a satisfactory degree of accuracy. Lord Cran- to 203. Lord Onslow called attention in the brook objected to the ornission of a religious House of Lords, July 3d, to the report of the census, which was taken in connection with committee of the same House which had been the census of every country in Europe, includ- appointed in 1877 to inquire into the subject ing Ireland and Scotland. Lord Bradbourne of intemperance. He declared himself in favor was glad that the religious element was not to of the principle of local option, and asked the be included, because he thought it was not de- Government what it intended to do in the matsirable to draw fine lines between the members ter. The Bishop of Carlisle appealed to the of the Church of England and nonconformists. Government to carry out the recommendations The Census Bill was finally passed without of the committee for a further restriction of any provision for compiling religious statistics. the hours in which the sale of liquors should (See CENSUS.)
be allowed. Lord Fife replied that the GovAn act, which was passed to provide for the ernment hoped to be able to introduce a meassafe carriage of grain-cargoes, authorizes the ure on the subject at no distant date. Board of Trade to take precautions as to the A resolution for the abrogation of the promanner in which cargoes of corn, rice, paddy, visions under which American cattle are slaughpulse, seeds, and nuts or nut-kernels are stowed, tered at the port of landing was offered by Mr. and gives it power to impose penalties for false Arthur Arnold in the House of Commons, Austatements. The object of the act is the pro- gust 8th. The mover maintained, in support tection of persons connected with merchant- of his resolution, that the present system parshipping and vessels carrying the kind of car took of the nature of a disguised protection, by goes described.
which the English farmer and butcher were Another important measure which became benefited at the expense of the consumer. Mr. a law was relative to the liability of employ- J. Howard said that, if American cattle were ers for injuries suffered by workmen while en- subjected to restrictive legislation, it was the gaged in their service. Another abolished in- fault of the Americans themselves, who did prisonment for debt in Scotland.
not take means to prevent the spread of conA resolution was adopted by the House of tagious epizoötic disease. The question was Commons, July 17th, by a vote of 171 to 116, not one of free trade, but of sanitary regulacondemning the proposed erection in West- tion. The motion was lost. minster Abbey of a statue to Prince Louis Na Parliament was prorogued September 8th. poleon, son of the late Emperor Napoleon III, The Queen said in her speech : to which the Dean of the abbey had consent
I continue to receive assurances of the most friendly ed, as inconsistent with the national character character from all foreign powers. The failure of the of the edifice. The resolution as originally of- Sublime Porte to execute, according to its engagement, fered contained a clause declaring the erection a plan which was agreed upon in April last for the calculated to impair the good feeling between determination of the Ottoman frontier lying toward
Montenegro, has caused unfortunato delays in the setEngland and France, which was struck out.
tlement of that question, and the Treaty of Berlin has The project to erect the statue in the abbey not yet taken effect in other points of importance was abandoned in consequence of this vote. which remained open at the commencement of the
A resolution was moved by Sir Wilfred Law- session. The Governments which were parties to that son in the House of Commons, June 18th, to treaty havc communicated to the Sultan their judg
ment on the means of bringing to a satisfactory settlethe effect that the power of restraining the ment the Greek and Montenegrin frontier questions, issue or renewal of license to sell intoxicating on the administrative organization of the European liquors ought to be placed in the hands of the provinces of Turkey, and on the principal reforms reinhabitants of the district within which the quired in the Asiatic provinces occupied by Armenilicense would be in force. The mover admit- tinue to place reliance on the fact that the concert of ted tbat his resolntion embodied a principle Europe has been steadily maintained in regard to the of the Permissive Bill which he had before Eastern question, and that the powers which signed advocated, but claimed that as a whole it was the treaty are pressing upon the Sublime Porte, with distinct from that measure. lle further re
all the authority which belongs to their united action,
the measures which, in their belief, are best calculated marked that, although he was ready to consid
to insuro tranquillity in the East. er any fair claim for compensation, he did not I have not been unmindful, during the few months consider himself called upon to mention it in which havo clapsed since I last addressed you, of the his resolution. Mr. Gladstone said that the considerations which I stated would guide my policy Government would exercise no pressure on the Measures have already been taken for the complete
on the northwestern frontier of my Indian Empire. subject in either way. He admitted that legis- military evacuation of northern Afghanistan, and some
progress has been made toward the pacification and country and to restore their friendly relations settlement of the country. A renewal of hostilities by the Afghans, under Ayoob Khan, bas rendered
with the Indian Empire. It had not been able necessary further military operations in southern Af
to accomplish all that was wished, but a part of ghanistan. The prompt measures taken by the Gov- the country had been restored to a more hopeernment of India for the relief of the garrison of Can- ful condition, and the military force engaged dabar, and the conspicuous ability and energy dis- there had been diminished by between 20,000 played by my officers and troops in the execution of and 30,000 men. Toward the solution of the those measures, resulting in the brilliant victory recently gained. by Sir Frederick Roberts, will, I trust, Eastern question, the Government had been speedily bring to an honorable termination the war in able to adopt the declaration and to work for that division of the country. I regret that it has not the purpose which had been authentically dehitherto been possible to give you such information on the general state of Indian finance, and the recent mis- succeeded. The late Prime Minister had de
clared on the part of the Government which it carriages in presenting the accounts of military expenditure, as you would justly require before entering clared, justly, two years before, that the Treaty on a practical consideration of the subject. You may, of Berlin was a treaty which, if fully executed, however, rest assured that I shall redcem my pledge "promised to confer great benefits upon Europe, to supply you with this information at the earliest pe- and had stated, with truth and justice, that Engriod within my power.
No advance has recently been made in the project land would not be the power that would shrink of a South African confederation, nor could advan- from any of the obligations connected with its tage arise from endeavors to press it forward, except execution, and had expressed an expectation in proportion to the favorable movement of public that, within a very short period, its several state of affairs in South Africa is, however, on the provisions would take effect. When the preswhole, satisfactory, except in Basutoland, where I ent Cabinet came into office, it found that many trust that a moderate and conciliatory policy may al of the most important parts of the treaty still lay the agitation caused by the enforcement of the Dis- remained unfulfilled. It at once declared its armament Act.
intention to endeavor to secure their execution. Her Majesty concluded with reference to the It had not acted in the spirit of an enemy to favorable harvest; to the “probable improve- Turkey, but as its friend, because, said Mr. ment in the condition of the people of Ireland,” Gladstone, "we endeavored to bring it to a poland to the acts passed by the Parliament, among icy by which, and by which alone, as we are which were named those on burials, educa- convinced, it may have a promise of continued tion, the liability of employers, ground-game, existence. . This we believe,” he concluded, the repeal of the malt duty, savings-banks, post o that for the continued existence of Turkey, office money-orders, the condition of merchant of the Turkish power, either to give a chance seamen, and grain-cargoes.
of that existence, or to justify that existence, Mr. Gladstone spoke of the course and pol- two things are necessary: the one, the fulfillicy of the Government on the principal ques- ment of international engagements; and the tions it had to consider, at the Lord Mayor's other, that the condition of the people over banquet, November 9th. For Ireland, it would whom the Ottoman power is reigning shall be be the duty of the Government again to exam- rendered tolerable by good and equal law." ine the land laws, and it would not scruple, if Lord Granville, speaking at a Liberal meetthat was deemed necessary, again to call the ing in lanley, November 27th, said that it Legislature to deal with the subject. Anxious was painful and discreditable that a want of as it was to be associated with practical im- security for life and property should exist in a provements in the laws of the land, it recog- part of Ireland; that it was impossible that nized the duty of enforcing the law for the such a state of things should continue; and purposes of order as above every other duty. that on the meeting of Parliament the appeal İt inust first look to the law as it stood, to as which the Government would make to it would certain what its fair and just administration not consist in a mere demand for extraordinary meant; but the obligation incumbent upon it powers which might be best fitted to strengthen to protect every citizen in the enjoyment of the hands of the administration in the particuhis life and his property might under certain lar emergency, but should be "for remedies circumstances compel it to ask for an increase which, while they give her Majesty's Governof power and authority, when it would not ment the fittest means for dealing with present shrink from its duty. The struggle in South disorder, will also prepare the way on sound Africa was regarded as one “carried on by principles for the future contentment of the means of colonists, and growing out of a policy people.' In reply to attacks which had been which has been the result of their counsels in made by Lord Salisbury, his lordship showed the exercise of their own independent rights, that the foreign policy of the Government had yet still a struggle which we can not but watch been consistently governed by a purpose to sewith a close and deep anxiety.” When the cure the fulfillment of the 1'reaty of Berlin and present administration came into office, Mr. to maintain the concert of the powers. IIe beGladstone continued, it found an Anglo-Indian lieved it had been proved to be possible for the force of about 70,000 men engaged in sustain- powers in the face of a question of immense ing the military operations that had been car- importance to agree“ to put in due subordinaried on in Afghanistan. It had sought to se tion their own direct and personal interests, and cure the independence of the people of the unite for the purpose of bringing to bear their
influence for settling the general question.” England. Addresses were delivered by the He hai dealt with foreign Governments in a Lord Advocate on Criminal Law Administrafrank, straightforward manner. That frankness tion,” and by other speakers on subjects relating had been reciprocated, and the demeanor of to the drama and education. Sir A. K. Shutthe foreign representatives with whom he had tleworth read a paper in the Economy and come in contact had confirmed him in the Trade Department on charitable endowments, opinion that “the old saw was true that 'hon. in which he pointed out that the income leesty is the best policy.
rived from existing charities was wasted and The new session of Parliament was called to misapplied. In the Health Section, Dr. Alfred meet January 6, 1881.
Carpenter and Dr. Little discussed the subject of An inquiry into the railway disaster of De- the fogs in London. Mr. Hastings, M. P., spoke cember 28, 1879, at the bridge of the North Brit- of the useful measures of legislation which the ish Railway over the river Tay, Scotland, when Congress had promoted, and expressed the bethe bridge was broken down, and the train with lief that its deliberations would materially asall the persons upon it was thrown into the sist the Ilome Secretary in his action with river, was begun before a commission of the reference to javenile delinquents. Board of Trade, January 3d. The investiga A conference of members of the Farmers' Altion resulted in the presentation of two reports, liance, October 18th, adopted resolutions urgboth condemning the construction of the bridge, ing the Government to pass a compulsory act and attributing its downfall to inherent defects. for giving tenants security for capital invested The minority report, by Mr. Rothery, attributed in improvements, and recommending the abothe responsibility for faults of design in the lition of the law of distress, and measures for bridge wholly, for faults of construction prin- securing to ratepayers their legitimate share in cipally, to Sir Thomas Bouch, the engineer county government, and for a fair apportionof the bridge. The majority report agreed ment of local burdens between landlord and as to the responsibility of Sir Thomas Bouch, tenant. but did not regard it as within the province A deputation of peers, land-owners, and ocof the court to express judgment respecting cupiers called on the Local Government Board
early in November, to press upon the GovernGreat anxiety was felt, from and after the ment the necessity of introducing legislation in 24th of March, respecting the safety of her the next session of Parliament, to enable local Majesty's training-ship Atlant:1, which had set action to be taken for dealing with floods and sail froin Portsmouth four months before, with preventing the injury caused by them. The three hundred and twenty persons on board, for Duke of Bedford introduced the deputation, a cruise in the West Indies. She was an old and the Speaker of the House of Commons wooden sailing-frigate, which had been com- urged that as the question was one which afmissioned as a training-ship in 1878, and was fected more or less every watershed in the considered by the Admiralty sound, stanch, kingdom, it should be dealt with by a general and well officered. Vessels were sent in search Government measure. Mr. Dodson, of the of the Atlanta, but no clew could be found Board, admitted the pressing character of the to her fate, and the Almiralty announced in evil, and promised to lay the subject before the month of May that little hope was enter- his colleagues. tained that she was still afloat. An inquiry The Ilouse of Keys of the Isle of Man has was ordered into the fitness of the vessel for adopted an electoral reform bill, by which the service on which she was employed, the the franchise is extended to women who are report of which, published at the end of the householders or owners of property, and a year, was favorable to the soundness of the burial bill, based upon similar provisions to vessel.
those of the English burial bill, but granting The Annual Autumnal Congress of the Sani- larger liberties to nonconformists. tary Institute of Great Britain met at Exeter, GREECE, a kingdom of Southeastern EuSeptember 21st, under the presidency of Lord rope. Reigning King, George I, born DecemFortescue. Papers were read on “ The Sanita-ber 24, 1815, second son of the reigning King tion of Ancient and Modern Times compared," of Denmark; elected King of the Hellenes by on "The Siinitary Condition of the Camps in the National Assembly at Athens, March 18 the Crimea," on · Cleansing Sewers," on "Wo- (30), 1863; accepted the crown June 6, 1863; man as a Sanitary Reformer," on "The Appli- declared of age by a decree of the National cation of the Teachings of Science to Modern Assembly, June 27, 1863; married October 27, Life," and other subjects. A resolution was 1867, to Olga, daughter of the Grand Duke passed, to be forwarded to the Minister of the Constantine of Russia, born August 22, 1851. United States, expressing satisfaction at the Their children are: Constantinos, Duke of admirable manner in which the city of Mem- Sparta, born August 2, 1868; George, born phis, Tennessee, had been drained.
June 24, 1859; Alexandra, born August 30, The Social Science Congress met at Edin- 1870; Nicholas, born January 21, 1872; Maria, burgh, September 29th, and was opened with born March 3, 1876; Princess Olga, who was an address by Lord Reay, who compared the born April 6, 1880, died a few months later. social system of the Continent with that of The area is 50,123 square kilometres; the
13, 150 16,165 15,075 14 3:38
population, according to the census of 1879, conference of plenipotentiaries met at Berlin is 1,679,775.*
on June 15th, which unanimously agreed upon The movement of population was as fol a new line of demarkation between Turkey lows:
and Greece. By the adoption of this line,
Greece would receive an accession to her ter-
ritory of 8,500 square miles, with 535,000 in-
accepted the decision of the Conference, and 1875. 10.250 14,356 30,936
addressed a note to that effect to the powers, 1876.
31,0=3 1877.. 9,472 46,055 81.250
at the same time paying a tribute to the spir1878.
it of justice by which they had been guided.
At Athens there were three days' festivities In the budget for 1880 the receipts were es
in honor of the decision of the Conference. timated at 46,716,857 drachmas, and the expenditures at 62,655,455 drachmas (1 drachma and the city were illuminated, and enthusias
The ancient monuments, the surrounding hills, = 19:3 cents). The foreign debt, in 1880, amounted to of the six powers whose plenipotentiaries at
tic demonstrations made before the legations 196,293,611 drachmas, and the home debt to
teaded the Conference. Hundreds of tele118,906,400 drachmas in all, 315,200,011 drachmas.
grams were received, expressing the universal The strength of the army on a peace footing, As the Turkish Government showed a reso
joy and gratitude of all classes of the people. according to a law passed in 1877, is to be as
lute resistance to the decision of the Conferfollows:
ence, the King of Greece in July signed a deInfantry Chasseurs..
cree ordering the mobilization of troops. The Cavalry.
population of the districts to be ceded intimated Artillery
that, if Greece would not move very soon, they Engineers.. Sanitary troops
would be obliged to withdraw their offers of
assistance. The King personally visited the Total.......
sovereigns of Russia, England, Germany, AusThere is in addition a corps of gendarmes com- tria, and Italy, in order to secure their further prising 2,508 men.
assistance in the Greco-Turkish dispute. The According to a statement made by Minister army was rapidly increased, and at the beginTrikoupis, the army can be raised within twen- ning of September 42,000 men of the active ty days to 35,000 men. The total number of army were reported to be under arms. (n men capable of bearing arms amounts to 228,September 21st the King, in opening the new 649 men. The fleet in 1880 consisted of two session of the Chamber of Deputies, stated in ironclads, six screw-steamers, three schooners, his speech from the throne that the execution two cutters, and one royal yacht; total, four- of the decision of the powers imposed action teen vessels.
upon the Government, and that he was firmly The only railroad is the line connecting resolved to effect as speedily as possible the Athens with the Piræus, which was built in object for which he had made great naval and 1868, and has a length of twelve kilometres. military preparations. A decree was issued at The telegraphic lines were of a total length of the same time, ordering the formation of fifty 3,068 kilometres in 1878, and carried 315,771 battalions of infantry each of nine hundred telegrams. Of post-offices there existed 145 and sixty men. The extraordinary reserves in 1877. The number of letters carried was were to number 10,000 men, and their time 2,683,000, of postal cards 4,600, of newspapers of service was to be a year and a half. At a 1,867,000.
council of war held in Athens in October, The negotiations with Turkey concerning under the presidency of M. Coumoundouros, it the territorial cession to be made to Greece, was resolved to send an army of 24,000 men in accordance with the Treaty of Berlin, did against Thessaly, and another of 36,000 against not lead to a satisfactory result. In February, Epirus. There were to be, further, 20,000 M. Delyannis, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, troops held in reserve. On December 4th the stated in the Chamber that they had failed. Prime Minister, M. ('oumoundouros, stated that The claims of Greece were warmly supported the Government intended to continue the milby France and Italy, and the accession of the itary and naval preparations, so as to be able Liberal party to power in England also gave to execute the decisions arrived at by the Berthem the powerful patronage of the latterlin Conference; at the same time, he would country, which even took_the lead in new endeavor to attain this object with the help measures for coercing the Turks to come to of the European concert, but would, in every terms with the Greeks. When the Turkish case, reserve his liberty of action. Government continued to yield to the joint The strife of parties in the Chamber of Deprepresentations made by the great powers, a uties, proceeding mostly from personal, not
political, differences of opinion, continued to *For a tablo showing the area and population of cach be as violent and unceasing as in former years. of the nomarchies into which the kingdom is divided, see * Annual Cyclopædia " for 1579.
At the beginning of January, the Vinistry was