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by Lord Sandhurst. The Duke of Marlboroughlin gave the Government the right to insist regretted the determination not to renew the upon the fulfillment of its stipulations; but Peace Preservation Act in Ireland, and said Ministers were too well informed of the gravity that he considered that nothing had occurred of the question to come to a conclụsion to put to justify the Government in their resolve. pressure upon the Porte until they were in full Lord Spencer held, upon a general review of possession of all the circumstances which should the position of Ireland, that the Government regulate their conduct. A circular dispatch were fully justified in the policy they had had been addressed to all the signatories to the adopted. Lord Beaconsfield said that the dec- Treaty of Berlin on the necessity of urging. larations contained in the royal message as to the execution of the unfulfilled stipulations of the policy of the Government partook rather that instrument; but it was not intended to of an official than of a polomical character. lay the dispatch on the table until it had borne IIe wished to know the precise nature of those its natural fruit in the adoption by other powactive measures which they were told would ers of a view conformable to that which her be taken by her Majesty's Ministers in respect Majesty's Governinent entertained. In allowto the Treaty of Berlin. It would also be satis- ing the Peace Preservation Act for Ireland to factory to know, he said, what were the precise expire, the Ministers were fully sensible of the instructions given to the special ambassador heavy responsibility which must rest upon at Constantinople, because, if he were invested either the renewal or the abandonment of exwith powers of an unlimited character, he ceptional legislation of the sort. might involve the country in a war without Mr. Gladstone informed the House of Comany one being actually responsible for such an mons, May 27th, that Mr. Goschen, the special event. IIe had no hesitation in expressing his agent of the Government at Constantinople, conviction that, if the policy of the late Viceroy had been instructed to inquire into the expeof India were carried out in relation to Afghan- diency of dispatching agents to the disturbed istan, it would result in a speedy and satisfac- parts of Roumelia and Bulgaria, to obtain intory settlement of the question of that coun- formation in regard to the alleged persecutions try. Lord Granville vindicated the Irish policy of Mohammedans, which might help the Govof the Government, which, he said, they had ernment in deciding upon the course it should carefully considered, and of which they were take. On the next day, Mr. Gladstone acprepared to accept the responsibility. IIe was knowledged that in one of his public addresses not alarmed about foreign affairs, but was con he had spoken of the Anglo-Turkish Convenscious that there were points which would re tion as "insane," and added that he could not quire great care in their management if serious retract the language, but he would not repeat it, complications were to be avoided. The object because a repetition of it could only have the of the dispatch of the special embassy to Con- effect of disparaging an instrument as to which stantinople was to secure the fulfillment of cer- the country was not free to act. Sir Charles tain conditions of the Treaty of Berlin, in rela- Dilke repeated an assurance that had been given tion to which the remonstrances of Sir H. by Lord Salisbury in 1878, that the country Layard had long been neglected. The state was under no engagements to foreign powers of things with reference to the obligations of for the future, except those that were before Turkey under the Treaty of Berlin was most the House, but he declined to state whether unsatisfactory, and her Majesty's Government or not any diplomatic engagements which were were satisfied that a better position of affairs not known to the House had been negotiated could be brought about only by the united ac with any foreign power within the last five tion of Europe. The address was moved in years. Secret agreements, he said, were soinethe IIouse of Commons by Mr. Grey, and sec times necessary to meet the convenience of on:led by Mr. Mason. Sir Stafford Northcote foreign powers, but the Ministry deprecated declared that the Conservative party would them. support in opposition the policy it had main Lord Camperdown called attention in the tained in office. The general tone of her Ma- House of Lords, June 7th, to the finances of jesty's speech was of such a character that he Cyprus. IIe designated the claim of the Turkcould agree in the principles on which the ish Government to the receipt of revenues from Government intended to proceed. In accept- the island as a species of black-mail

, declared ing the Treaty of Berlin as the starting-point the financial position of Cyprus intolerable, for the consideration of foreign relations, they and remarked that in justice to its people no were taking the wise, the only safo course for agreement to pay tribute should have been the country to adopt.' The IIouse ought to be made. Lord Salisbury suggested that while more fully informed as to the nature and mean. the Government had imposed no additional obing of the appointment of Mr. Goschen as spe- ligation to Turkey upon the Cypriotes, it had, cial anbassador to Constantinople; and he by increasing their trade and commerce fourwanted to know what one of the speakers for fold, considerably added to their means of paythe Government meant in speaking of putting ing the tribute. Lord Kimberley, representing pressure" upon the Porte. Mr. Gladstone said the Government, remarked, July 8th, that the that Mr. Göschen would have the powers of Secretary for Foreign Affairs was sensible of an ordinary ambassador. The Treaty of Ber- the difficulties in connection with Cyprus, and

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that the whole question in its various branches, tions to describe what its policy would be in
including the tenure of the island, would have possible contingencies, and that it would not
to be considered by the Government. On the be respectful to Turkey to make the assump-
11th of June Lord Carnarvon called attention tion implied in the question. On the 30th
to the distressed condition of the Armenians, Lord Granville stated that her Majesty had
and recommended the appointment of a Chris- addressed a note to the Sultan, expressing the
tian Governor-General, who should have the hope that he would, even at some sacrifice,
control, for the use of his district, of all or near accede to the unanimous wish of Europe re-
ly all the revenue raised in that district. Lord specting the fulfillment of the Treaty of Berlin.
Granville adinitted that very little had been On the 3d of September, Sir W. Lawson spoke
done to ameliorate the condition of the Arme in the Ilouse of Commons in favor of absolute
nians, though several commissions had been non-intervention. He deprecated the naval
intrusted with the duty of examining into their demonstration against Turkey and the course
grievances and suggesting remedies. The car of the Government in acting without consult-
rying out of the stipulations of the Treaty of ing Parliament, and urged it to explain, before
Berlin in respect of those people was one of the Parliament adjourned, its position with refer-
objects for which he was endeavoring to secure ence to the Eastern question, and especially to
the concerted action of the powers of Europe. the naval demonstration. Lord Hartington re-
Lord Salisbury had little hope of the success plied that the object of the naval demonstra-
of a concert of the powers in bringing pressure tion was to show the Porte that the powers did
to bear upon the Porte. Ilis remedy, which not mean that the Treaty of Berlin should be
he admitted to be a slow one, would be the set at naught. On the 5th Mr. Gladstone spoke
action of consular agents in the Turkish pror- in defense of the policy of the Government
inces in letting in the light of public opinion with reference to Turkey, and described it as
on the atrocities perpetrated in those districts, being based upon the conviction that the for-
and on the wisgovernment of the pashas. The mer policy of allowing Turkey to think that
only alternative he saw to this was the ter- its integrity would be maintained at any cost
rible one of the extermination of the various had led to frightful oppression of its Christian
races of which the populations of those prov- subjects. Sir W. Lawson having expressed an
inces were composed, brought about by the apprehension that the Government would un-
miseries to which they were subjected. The duly interfere in foreign affairs, he appealed to
Duke of Argyll called attention to the fact the antecedents of the ininisters as affording
that one of the authors of the Treaty of Berlin the strongest possible guarantees against their
had virtually said that no remedy existed for engaging upon adventurous courses.
the state of things in Asia Minor, and pointed Lord Ilartington stated in the House of Com-
out that the Porte had undertaken in the treaty mons, June 7th, that the instructions which
to carry out without delay the reforms dernand- had been sent to Lord Ripon respecting the
ed by the condition of the Armenians. He war in Afghanistan related in great part to con-
charged the Marquis with having prevented teinplated negotiations of a very difficult and
the insertion of an article in the treaty binding delicate character. The objects of the Gor-
the powers to act together in seeing it carried ernment were to bring the military operations
out, and said that “a

part of the political mess in Afghanistan to a close, to keep the commuto which the present Government had succeed- nications secure as long as the troops remained ed was the task of reuniting the powers for in the country, to restrict military operations, the fulfillment of the treaty of which the late and to avoid further collisions with the tribes Government was so proud.” The Armenian beyond the limits of the positions occupied, question was the subject of a debate in the and also to leave behind, when the troops House of Commons. July 25th, when Mr. Glad- should have retired, something like the prosstone remarked that the concert of Europe was pect of a stable government. All arrangements a thing of which the Government took a nega- that had been entered into must be respected, tive rather than a positive view; the Ministers but an arrangement which would make necesbad spoken rather of the evil that had resulted sary the permanent occupation of Candahar by from disregarding it than of the probability a large force would not be viewed with favor. of its continuing in existence. This view was Lord Ripon would act upon military advice, brought out most clearly by the Anglo-Turk- and would consider the question of retention ish Convention, which, while it had been bar or abandonment on its merits, political and ren so far as reforms were concerned, had in military, without being influenced by the fact causing jealousy and ill-feeling been inost pro- of the positions having been acquired under ductive. To a question asked in the Ilouse of the Treaty of Gundamuk, a treaty which must Lords, July 8th, whether the Government had be considered as having ceased to exist. Lord come to any determination as to the steps it Ilartington further stated, July 27th, that conwould take in the event of the Porte declining siderable difficulty as well as delay had ocor neglecting to be governed by the decision curred in the negotiations; indeed, Lord Ripon of the recent Conference at Berlin, Lord Gran- had continued them against the advice of some ville replied that it was not the duty of the of his counselors, who had at one time recoinGovernment in answer to hypothetical ques- mended their abandonment. No formal agree

VOL. XX.-22 A

ment had yet been made with Abdurrahman also, with which the Government would cultiKhan; he had simply been recognized as Ameer vate friendly relations, would be united in one of Cabool, and had been offered such support confederation. On the next day Mr. Gladstone as he would require to establish his position. spoke in the House of Commons in compliNo negotiations would at present be entered mentary terms of the honor and capacity of into with regard to Candabar or the other mat- Sir Bartle Frere, her Majesty's High Commisters mentioned in the Treaty of Gundamuk, sioner in South Africa, and observed that, even which the Ameer had been informed would be if it became desirable hereafter to make a treated as separate and independent subjects. change which would involve his retirement, The Ameer would not be allowed to have for no step would be taken to endanger the proseign relations with any power except the Brit- pect of confederation. On the 4th of August ish; and the Government would not interfere the Governinent stated that since confederain the domestic politics of the country. In the tion, the special object for the promotion of IIouse of Lords, August 12th, Lord Camper- which Sir Bartle Frere had been retained in down asked for the production of the papers South Africa, had failed, it had come to the relative to the separation of Candahar from conclusion that he should be recalled. The the rest of Afghanistan, and expressed an ap- Ministers did this with regret, for they could prehension that that ineasure, which had so far not forget the high personal qualities and disbeen attended with unfortunate results, might tinguished services of the Commissioner. lead to future troubles. Lord Granville spoke The Duke of Marlborough inquired in the of the difficulty of going into a discussion on House of Lords, June 7th, what statutory that subject at that moment. The Secretary powers the Government considered to be in of State for India had authorized him to state force in Ireland which would enable the Lord that the papers were being prepared for pres- Lieutenant to send an additional police force entation, but it would require very cureful con into the country for the repression of crime, sideration to decide what part of the informa- and to provide for its maintenance at the extion asked for could at present be produced. pense of the locality. Lord Spencer replied On the next day, the Marquis of Ilartington, that the constabulary acts gave power to rehaving explained before the House of Com- press crime and to charge localities for any mons the military situation in Afghanistan, outrages committed within certain areas. A and rem:rked that nothing could be more un bill looking to the relief of distress in Ireland wise than to interfere with the discretion of by the provision of appropriations of money to military officers in whom the Government had be spent in various works of public improveconfidence, added that Abdurrahm:in Khan ment, etc., was introduced by the Government would not be expected to receive a British en in June. In the debate on the second reading voy, but that the Indian Government would be of this bill, June 17th, Mr. Parnell said that no represented by a native resident.

measure for the relief of distress would be adeOn the occasion of bringing down her Ma- quate which did not deal with the tenure in jesty's reply to the address, Lord Carnarvon, in land of the country, and that the assistance the Ilouse of Lords, May 21st, approved the which it was proposed to give would not really passages in which the policy of a confederation reach the suffering people. Mr. O'Shaughnessy of the South African colonies was upheld, the held that a case had arisen for a liberal grant intention of her Majesty to maintain the su from imperial funds. The Attorney-General premacy of the Crown in the Transvaal was for Ireland pointed out that the main object of announced, and the colonies were promised in the bill was to carry out the policy which had stitutions based on large and liberal principles been sanctioned by the late Parliament. Anof self-government. IIe, however, cautioned other bill was introduced by Mr. Forster on the Government against too great haste in or behalf of the Government, the object of which ganizing those institutions, and against a sum was to confer on the Judges of the County mary withdrawal of the troops from South Courts in certain distressed districts the right Africa, and recommended precautions against to grant compensation for improvements in the importation of arms, and the cultivation of cases where tenants were evicted for non-payfriendly relations with the Orange Free State. ment of rent. This measure was known as the Lord Kimberley held that, although it might Compensation for Disturbance Bill, and was have been better if the Transvaal had not been limited in its operation to the years 1880 and annexed, still, the annexation having been ac 1881. It was opposed on the ground that it complished, and announcement having been infringed upon the rights of the landlords, and made to the Dutch settlers that the measure was in effect a concession to the demands of would not be receded from, it was desirable on the land agitators. Its friends replied to these all grounds to make it clear that the suprema- attacks that the Irish landlords claimed greater cy of the Crown would be maintained there. power than existed in England, where, unless The question of the South African colonies the contract contained a clause of reentry, no was a complex one, and its difficulties had not tenant could be turned out of his holding, been diminished since he was before at the Co- solely for non-payment of rent. Another measlonial Office; yet he was hopeful that hereafter ure, called the Fixity of Tenure Bill, the opall of the colonies, and the Orange Free State eration of which would be to extend what is

known as the Ulster tenant-right over the enabling the judge, on the eviction of a tenant whole of Irelanıl, was introduced without the for non-payment of rent, to discuss how far concurrence of the Government. The Gov- bis default had been occasioned by the rent ernment deprecated the pressing of this meas- being excessive, no such bill would have been ure as premature and calculated to forestall necessary. Lord Grey protested that, even its action, but declined, in the discussion upon though distress existed, the landlord ought not the subject, to make any pledge as to the to be deprived by the law of the means of encharacter of the land act which it intended forcing the payment of rent, as would subto bring in at the next session. Mr. Parnell stantially be done if the power of eviction were declined to support the bill, because he did not suspended; denied that the landlords bad been consider it sufficient for a final settlement, and harsh, or the tenants had done their best to pay also thought that the Government ought to be their rents; and attributed the increase of evicallowed adequate time to deal with the ques- tions to the alarm engendered by the inflamtion involved. This bill was lost on tho first inatory speeches of the land agitators. Lord division. In the discussion of the Compensa- Salisbury depicted land agitation in Ireland as tion for Disturbance Bill, July 6th, Mr. Glad- like a wild beast, which one could no more stone admitted the exceptional nature of the satisfy by concession than he could keep off a measure, but insisted that it was demanded by tiger by giving it his hand. Lord Cairns asexceptional circumstances. It was intended to serted that the bill was drawn up with an inmaintain, not to invade, the rights of property, genuity which would make inevitable a colliand to enable the state with a clear conscience sion in every case between landlord and tenant; to use its power to enforce the provisions of for the tenants, unless they were different from the law. The insinuation that it was intended the rest of mankind, would be impelled to make to conciliate the partisans of Ilome Rule was the claim for compensation in every case. The absurd on its face. The course which the Ilouse bill, he said, offered the tenant an easy way of was asked to adopt in constituting a new ex- getting a considerable sum of money without ception to the land act was justified because paying lis rent, and would allow him to retain the necessity was strong, the situation in some his land while he was making his claim. While parts of Ireland being equivalent to civil war; he opposed this bill, he was nevertheless willbecause the remedy was carefully adapted and ing to consider a measure for Irislı emigration, limited to the necessity ; and because effectual or one for the extension of tenant-right. Lord precautions had been taken against the Ilouse Beaconsfield declared that the bill was a prebeing betrayed unawares into the establislıment lude to the introduction of a similar measure of a dangerous precedent. On the other side, with reference to English land, and urged its the bill was declared to be a dangerous measure rejection as an act “ for which the country of confiscation. One speaker asserted that it would be grateful, and posterity would be would ruin hundreds of landlords, break up proud." The bill was refused a second readmany of their homes, and reduce their families ing, and was consequently rejected by a vote to suffering, without rendering their tenantry of 282 to 51. The total vote, 333, was the more happy or contented. Lord IIartington largest that had been taken in the Ilouse of disavowed all desire to support exceptional Lords for several years. The bill for the relief legislation without giving the case of the land- of distress was passed in the House of Comlords full investigation. Nothing, therefore, mons, July 21st, and having been approved by would have induced him to approve of this the líouse of Lords, received the royal assent measure but the strong conviction which was August 2d. entertained by the Irish Government, and those The Governinent was again questioned in responsible for the peace of Ireland, that some the House of Commons concerning its intenthing of the sort was absolutely necessary. tions with respect to Ireland, August 6th. Mr. Mr. Forster said the Governinent did not intend Forster replied that, while it deeply regretted to say that the peace of Ireland could not be the decision of the House of Lords, the Govpreserved without this bill, but had introduced crnment did not propose to introduce another it because tho Ministers wished to be able to bill during the present session. Ile hoped that enforce the law with a good conscience, and no need would arise for the employment of the they believed that, if an amendment of this military for any purpose in Ireland, but at the character were not provided, they would have same time it was his duty to state that the Goyto enforce a law that was not altogether just. ernment would protect the officers of the courts The bill was passed to its second reading by a of law in the discharge of their duties, while it vote of 295 to 217, and was finally passed July would also fulfill its duty with the utmost con27th and carried to the House of Lords, where sideration for the sufferings of the poor tenants. its second reading was inoved by Lord Gran- On the 23d of August Mr. Forster stated that ville, August 3d. Lord Granville supported the the Government did not think it would be measure chiefly on account of the increasing necessary to ask before the prorogation of number of evictions. lle urged that if the Parliament for additional powers for the presHouse of Lords had not changed the land act ervation of peace and the better security of of 1870 from the form in which it passed the life and property. There was certainly much House of Commons, by striking out the clauses cause for anxiety in the condition of parts of

Ireland. It was not an apprehension of a of the Appropriation Bill through the House rising, for absolutely no fear of a rising existed, of Commons unless a clause embodying the esbut the anxiety was in reference to outrages sential features of the Registration Bill were on individuals. The Government did not, how- added to it. Mr. Forster, speaking on this ever, consider that the condition was at present question, said that a perseverance in their such as to warrant asking Parliament for special course of proceeding by the House of Lords powers. If it should find, in the course of the might lead many men to think whether some autumn and winter, that it could not rely on change in the constitution of that body was not the existing law, it would not hesitate to call advisable and indeed necessary. The amendParliament together for the purpose of securing ments proposed by the Irish members were resuch additional powers as would be needed to jected, and the Appropriation Bill was finally enable it to fulfill its first duty in the protec- passed. tion of life and property. If the outrages ren The Chancellor of the Exchequer, Sir Stafdering such action necessary should have been ford Northcote, made his financial statement provoked by harsh proceedings on the part of to the House of Commons, March 11th. The the landlords, the demand for power of coer revenues of the previous year had fallen short cion would be accompanied with a demand for of the estimates £2,195,000, to which must be measures to put the relations of landlord and added the deficit of £1,161,000, making a total tenant on a better footing. (See IRELAND.) deficit of £3,356,000. The cost of the Zooloo

While the estimates for the civil service were war, £5,138,000, had been largely paid by the under consideration in the IIouse of Commons, Imperial Government, and the question of how August 27th, the appropriations for the Irish repayments should to a certain extent be made constabulary were opposed by the lIome Rulers by the colonies was under consideration. The with arguments directed against the constitu• expenditure for the new financial year was estition:lity of the force, against its partly military mated at £81,486,000, and the revenue at £81,organization, its armament, and the quality of 560,000, giving a surplus of £74,000, which its officers. It was also asserted that the meas would be increased by the operation of the new ure would be inefficient as a means for pro- scale of probate duties. The revenue was finally tecting life and property. Mr. Forster agreed fixed at £82,260,000, and the expenditure at with the Irish members in regretting the state £82,076,000. The financial statement of the Inof things that required the existence of such a dian Government, made in February, was unexforce, but argued that it was absolutely neces- pectedly favorable, and appeared to show a sursary in the present condition of Ireland. Mr. plus. Items were afterward discovered which Bright referred to the important reforms which greatly increased the obligations of the Govhad been effected in Ireland during the last ernment, and showed that it would have to half-century, urged the necessity of a complete meet a deficiency larger than it would be able roorganization of the land system, and invited to cope with unaided

without serious derangethe Irish members to consider whether they ment to its finances. It was agreed by the were not pushing a good cause too far, and to British Government that this deficiency should rely for the reforms which they desired in not be imposed on the Indian Treasury alone, coöperation with the Liberal party led by a but should be met out of imperial funds. Lord Liberal Government. Mr. O'Connor lower re Hartington stated in the House of Cominons, plied that it was impossible for the Irish party in July, that the whole amount of the deficiency to coöperate with any Government which was would be £9,000,000, and that the excess of not prepared to restore the national indepen- the charges for the present year over the estidenco of Ireland). On the 30th of August. Mr. mates would be £3,500,000. Mr. Gladstone Forster was asked by Mr. Parnell whether, in explained a supplementary budget in committhe event of a coercion act being necessary, he tee, June 12th, saying that the Government would still bring in a land bill. An announce- had been led to consider the financial interests ment that he woull, Mr. Parnell believed, of the country, partly on account of circumwould produce a strong and beneficial public stances which it found already in existence, but opinion among the landlords. Mr. Forster re- mainly in connection with other circumstances plied that he was now more hopeful than ever which had occurred since it came into office. that there would be no need for a coercion The surplus which had been provided in the bill. With regard to other legislation, he could original budget had more than disappeared only repeat that, if landlords should be found under the £200,000 of supplementary estimates to any extent committing injustice, he should which had become necessary. In addition to this inform his colleagues that lie could no longer the claim must be considered which might arise be the instrument of the law to enforce that in connection with the Indian deficiency, coninjustice. A bill for the registration of voters cerning which, however, it was impossible at in Ireland, which had been brought in by an present to make any definite proposal. Among Irish member, and was taken up by the Gov- the causes for which the present Government ernment and passed through the House of Com- was responsible was a proposed reduction of mons, was rejected by the Iouse of Lords, he wine duties the new tariff arrangements August 25th. The Irish members, offended by with France, which would entail a loss of from the rejection, undertook to prevent the passage £230,000 to £210,000 in the present and £300,

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