Gambar halaman


Area + in
sq. kilometres.

increase in Armenia

ard for examinations in certain branches of khara, with the adjacent districts of Karatestudy. His case was discussed later on in a meet- gin, Shignan, Roshan, etc., which the Englishing by President Hayes and his Cabinet, and by Russian treaty about the northern frontier of order of the President a trial by court martial, Afghanistan recognized as subject to Bokhara, on the charges of duplicity made against him, has an area of 239,000 square kilometres, and was accorded to take place in January, 1881. a population of 2,130,000. General Schofield has been relieved of his The total area of Arabia is given at 3,156,command at West Point, and General Howard 600 square kilometres, and the population placed in charge of the post.

5,000,000; of this, 2,507,390 square kilometres, ASIA. The sixth issue of Behm and Wag- with a population of 3,700,000, are still indener's* publication, “Die Bevölkerung der pendent of Turkey. Erde” (Gotha, 1880), estimates the territory On the basis of new estimates for one or of Asia at 17,210,044 square miles, or 44,572,- two districts of Persia, the area of this coun000 square kilometres, and the present popu- try is now set down as 1,647,070 square kilolation at 834,707,000. Not included in this metres, with a population of 7,000,000. The number are the Polar Regions, to which the district of Khotoor, ceded to Persia by Turkey, editors of this periodical now assign an inde- in virtue of the Berlin Treaty of 1878, has an pendent position among the large divisions of area of 1,125 square kilometres, and a populathe land-surface of the earth. We give their tion of 8,000. estiinates of the area and population of these As the Afghan-English Treaty of Gundaregions in the article Polar REGIONS.

muk, of May 28, 1879, which placed the disAs long as the final results of the Kulja tricts of Kuram, Pisbeen, and Sibi under the treaty between Russia and China are not protection and the administration of the Britknown, there is some uncertainty about the ish Government, was annulled by the subsepresent boundaries of these two empires. The quent hostilities, and a new agreement had not area and population of the large divisions of been made up to February, 1880, Behm and Asiatic Russia are set down as follows:

Wagner continue to set down the area of Af

ghanistan as 721,664 kilometres, and the popPopulation.

ulation as 4,000,000. At the same time they

give the detailed lists of the various tribes and Caucasus, inclusive of recent (1878)

stocks published by A. H. Keane in "Nature"

7,569,614 5,628,344 (January 22, 1880), as the result of careful and Siberia (exclusive of New Siberia, for which seo POLAR Regions). | 12,469,524 3,410,362

independent research, and yielding as the esti

3,324,096 4,101,376 mate of population the much higher figure of Caspian Sea (without islands)..... 439,418

6,145,000, which may be still further increased Total Asiatic Russia....... 23,502,652 13,470,582 by a more accurate knowledge of the country.

(See AFGIIANISTAN.) Kafiristan has an area of For the Turkish possessions in Asia the fol- 61,687 square kilometres, and a population of lowing figures are given :

1,000,000, and Beloochistan 276,515 square kilometres, and 350,000 inhabitants.

China with all its dependencies has an area

of 11,813,750 square kilometres, and a populaImmediato possessions..

1,839,055 16,133,000 tion of 434,626,500. The latter figure is, howCyprus (under English administration), 9,601 Tributary princedom of Samos..


ever, very uncertain; some authorities main

taining that it is much too high, and others Total....

1,899,206 16,320,000 much too low. Hong-Kong had (1876) an area The area of the still independent region be- 139,144 inhabitants; Macao (1879), 11•75 square

of 83 square kilometres, and a population of tween Khiva, Bokhara, Afghanistan, Persia, kilometres and 77,230 inhabitants. Japan, acand the Russian Transcaspian district, is given cording to official statistics of 1878, had an as 206,500 square kilometres, with a popula- aren of 379,711 kilometres, and a population tion, according to Vambéry, of 450,000. The of 34,338,504. only stock that have up to the present mo

The total area of the immediate British posment retained their entire independence_are the Tekkes, of whom 200,000 are Akhal Tek: sessions in India, including British Burmah, is kes, frequenting the oases at the foot of the 341 square miles), and of tributary states as

given as 2,329,201 square kilometres (=899,Kuren-Dagh; the remainder, about 100,000, 1,444,922 square kilometres (=577,903 square have their seat to the east, at present in Merv. miles); population of the former, 191,095,445, Of Khiva the area is given as 57,800 square of the latter, 49,203,053 ;_total British posseskilometres, and the population 700,000. The sions, 240,298,500. The French possessions in total number of people of the Turkoman stock India have an area of 5087 sqnare kilometres, in Central Asia is given as 1,100,000. Bo

and a population (1877) of 280,381; the Portu* For a fuller reference to this periodical, which has now

guese, an area of 3,855 square kilometres, and become the great fountain from which all statistical works are à population in 1877 of 414,957. Ceylon has supplied, see article Earth in the present volume of the " Annual Cyclopædia."

an area of 24,702 square miles, and a popula+ One square kilometre = 0.836 English square milo.

tion in 1877 of 2,755,557.

Central Asia...


Sq. kilome


| Population,





Area in sq.




1,772 1,695,707





The following table shows the areas and Cabool, and had retired with the Prince Moosa populations of the various subdivisions of the Khan to Gliuznee, and was endeavoring to exIndo-Chinese Peninsula, according to the latest cite the tribes to a new rising. Ayoob Khan attainable data of any value :

was at Herat with a considerable force, which

he was preparing to lead against the British. Population. He assumed the offensive during the summer,

and inflicted a serious defeat upon General British Burmah.

229.351 2,747,148 Burrows at Kushk-i-Nakhub, on the 27th of Manipur (British).

19,675 126,000 Tribes east and south of Assam (inde

July. Ile then laid siege to Candabar, but pendent).

65,500 200,000 was routed on the 1st of September by GenIndependent Burmah.

457,000 4,000,000

eral Roberts, who had marched from Cabool Siam

726,350 | 5,730,000 Anam

10,500 21,000,000

to the relief of the garrison, and was comFrench Cochiu-China.

1,000,000 pelled to retire to Herat, while his troops Cambodia...

890,000 Independent Malacca. $1,500 300,000

Abdurrahman, the nephew

were scattered. Straits Settlements.

3,472 350,000 of Shere Ali, was installed Ameer of Cabool Total ..

2,167,410 36,963,000

on the 22d of July. The British forces were i

withdrawn from Cabool during September; The East India Islands are subdivided thus : the garri-on at Candahar was strengthened,

with the intention of holding the city for the Sq. kilomePopulation.

present; and the Kuram Valley was evacuated

and left in the possession of the Turis under Andaman Islands..

6,197 14,500 a British guarantee that their independence Nicobar

5,500 of the Ameer of Cabool should be maintained. Sunda Islands and Moluccas..

27.313.000 Philippine Islands..

2.95,355 7,130,000


The progress of erents in Afghanistan, and 2,002,011 31,513 000

matters connected with them, constituted the The following table exhibits estimates of

most important objects of attention in India. the population connected with the Roman

The estimates for the expenditures on account Catholic, Protestant, and E:stern Churches:

of the war, which were published at the beginning of the year, gare promise that the cost would be light, and encouraged the belief that

the viceroyalty would be able to sustain it Population.

without calling upon the British Government

for help. This expectation was afterward disRussia. 13,471,000

14,000 3,041.000 appointed by the production of other items of Turkey

16,170,000 200,000 25,000 3,000,000
7,000,000 10,000 3.100 50,000

expense, and nei estimates which showed 435,000,000 453,000 t0,000 5,000 that the cost of the war would be one hunJapan. . 34,335,000 21,000 4,000 6,000

dred and fifty per cent. more than that which 21,000,000 480.000 4,000,000

had first been given, and very far beyond the Siam. 5,750,000 23,000

ability of India to sustain. I'pon the occurBritish possessions † 213.893,000 1,261,000 2,6(0,000 400,000 2,770,000 300,000

rence of a change in the British Government, Spanish 6,200,000 5,601,000

Lord Lytton was recalled from the office of Poruguese"

S22,000 350,000 Dutch 26.715,000 80,000 170,000

Viceroy, and the Marquis of Ripon was apOther countries...... 17,448,000

pointed in his place. Apprehensions were en

tertained for a time that the new GorernTotal. 63-4,707.000 8,529,000 2.465.000 9,102,000

ment might abruptly enter upon a policy of The number of Mohammedans in Asia is

administration, particularly with reference to about 115,114,000. (See MOILAMMEDANISM.)

Afghanistan, so different from that which had According to recent works on Japan, the

been pursued by the previous Government, as, Shinto religion, although it is recognized as

by a too sudden change, to bring disaster upon the state religion of Japan, has no more than

interests and enterprises which had been from 100,000 to 200.000 professed adherents,

adapted to the old policy. The measures of the rest being Buddhists or nothing. (See

the new Government were taken, however, JAPAN.)

with such carefulness and deliberation as to In Afghanistan, the British leld, at the be- assure the country that these fears had no ginning of the year, Candahar, Cabool, which

solid foundation. I land-slide which occurred they had reconquered from the Afghan insur at the summer resort Vaini Tal, on the 18th of rectionists, and the districts bordering on In September, caused the death of several officers dia with their passes. Mohammed Jan had been of the Government of Bengal, and of other driven from the positions he had taken before persons of high standing in Indian society.

(See India.) * Including dependencies.

1 Russian expedition was dispatched against + Including native states under British protectorate, and Cyprus. The population set down as Protestant is based

the Tekke Turkemans to chastise thew for the upon an estimate made by Protestant missionaries of the na- depredations and incursions of which they had tive population under the control and direct intluence of the Protestant churches.

been guilty. It was said before the expedition # Including Cambodia.

started that it would not occupy Merv, for the





China *





Russian Government was desirous to avoid made extensive depredations, pillaging and such an occupation, lest it should provoke a destroying numerous villages, of which they counter-occupation of Herat by the British. killed most of the inhabitants. (See Persia.) It was intended to be conducted on a reduced Burmah has been in an unsettled condition, scale during two years, and the operations of on account of the discontent and hostility the first year were to be confined to establish- which the capricious conduct of King Theebaw ing outposts, lines of communication, etc. has aroused. An embassy dispatched by the The expedition started at the beginning of the King for the purpose of bringing about a resummer, under the command of General Sko- sumption of diplomatic relations with the Britbeleff, pashed on beyond Geok Tepe, against ish Government, received no encouragement; which a detachment from it made a recon- but, after having remained for several months naissance, to a point between that place and at Thayetmayo awaiting a recognition which Merv, where it made preparations to spend the British agent refused to give it, was the winter. Another Russian expedition, un obliged to return without having accomder Colonel Prjevalsky, of a scientific and plished its mission. The kingdom was distopographical character, had penetrated into turbed by an insurrection in behalf of the Thibet, when its further progress was stopped Nyoungoke Prince; but the insurrection was by the order of the Thibet:in Government. put down, and the Prince fled into British terThe expedition was obliged to retrace its steps, ritory, where he was arrested. The King and was traveling along the Yellow River, claimed an indemnity of the British, because with the intention of returning to Siberia, the Prince had entereil Burinah from British when the members of the party were arrested territory, and in October sent troops to the by the Chineso. They were afterward set at frontier. (See BurmAH.) liberty, and permitted to continue the explora ASTRONOMICIL PHENOMENA AND tion of the Yellow River, but intended to re PROGRESS. Solor Purullar from the l’elociturn to Kiakhta before the end of the season. ty of Light.The most trustworthy method (See Russia.)

of finding the sun's liorizontal parallax is now The Chinese Government has exerted great believed, with good reason, to be that based strength, and has persistently followed the on the experimental determination of the vepolicy of reasserting its claims to equality of locity of light. The “ Aunerican Journal of consideration with any other power, and to Science" for January, 1880, contains a paper the recovery of whatever territory has been on this subject by Vr. D. P. Todd, M. A., ilswrested from it. The arran zeinent m:uosistant in the Nautical Almanac Office, Washwith Russia in the provious year for the de- ington, 1). C. The latest determination of the livery of Kulja was not satisfactory to the velocity of light is that of Jr. A. 1. MichelGovernment. The envoy who negotiated the son, of the United States Navy; viz., 186,360 treaty was degraded for his failure to secure miles pei' second. Ilence the mean horizontal better terms, and the demand for a revision of parailax of the sun is found to be 8:808" The the treaty was pressed upon Russia with such corresponding distance of the sun from the energy that war was regarded as imminent earth is 92,800,000 miles, during nearly the whole year. The claims of Sun-Spots.—The quiescence of the sun's surChina to the paramount sorereig:ity of the face during the spot minimum of 1878–79 was Loochoo Islands were vigoro:1sly pressed extraordinary and long continued. We have against Japan. The Government has given now entered, however, on another period of notice to Portugal of its intention to resume activity. In 1889, especially toward its close, the occupation of the promontory of Vacao. the spots were quite numerous. In accordance (See Onna.)

with the theory of a connection between auJapan has made a consilerable adranco in roral phenomena and the variation in the nuthe exploitation of its mines and the develop- ber of sun-spots, the former have been found ment of its manufacturing interests. The Gov- to be likewise increasing. It is worthy of noernment continues to make great efforts for tice that the period between the last two spot promoting the education of the entire people. minima was not only greater than that immeImportant reform movements are going on diately preceding, but greater also than the among the Buddhists of the country. (See average length. JAPAN.)

Ellipticity of Jars.—The "American JourEnglish influence has become ascendant in nal of Science” for March, 1890, contains a Persia. Negotiations have been reported to p:per on the “Ellipticity of Mars,” by Protesbe in progress between the British and Persian sor 0. A. Young, of Princeton, New Jersey. Governments, for a treats, under which Persia liter remarking that the polar flattening of should be permitted to acquire and hold Ierat, Mars had never been satisfactorily determined, in consideration of its granting to British com and specifying the results obtained by different panies certain privileges of navigation in its observers, Professor Young continues : waters, and of the construction of roads in its territory. A portion of the conntry suffered with the planet's known mass and period of rotation

Either of these values is apparently irreconcilable soverely from famine ; and the Kurds rose in it we admit t?re presence of water upon its surface, as the fall, and, joined by the Turkish Kurds, the polarynow-caps seem to indicate, except upon

VOL. XX.-3 A

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the almost absurd assumption of a density rapidly in- for January, 1880, H. Pratt, Esq., of England, creasing from the center toward the surface.

discusses a series of observations of the great It has seemed to the writer quite possible that the red spot of Jupiter. These observations were caused by phase, may lie at the bottom of the difficul- continued from July 26 to December 6, 1879, ty. Except on rare occasions there is phase enough, including 321 rotations of the planet. Mr. cven at the moment of opposition, to produce a notable difference of appearance between the fully illu- 33.91" This exceeds the period found by the

Pratt’s resulting period of rotation is g. 55m. minated edge of the planet's disk and that opposite, a difference which can hardly fail to be felt in micro- Astronomer Royal in 1835 by 12.915. A series metric measurements. Unexceptionable observations of observations by T. D. Brewin, Esq., coverfor determining the polar compression can therefore being a period of 437 rotations, gave gh._55m. made only when the planet reaches opposition and its 34:18. —-exceeding the value found by Mr. Pratt node together. This was so nearly the case last season that, on the night of November 12th, an observer by only 0.198. on the planet would have witnessed a transit of the

Evidence that the Light of Jupiter is partly earth. At this time, and for a few days before and intrinsic.—Among the papers read at the after, the phase was extremely small, and an oppor- meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society, tunity was presented for determininy the planet's ellipticity such as will not be available again for nearly Ir. Henry Draper, of New York. For several

on May 14, 1880, was one of great value, by half a century. An elaborate discussion of Professor Young's others, that Jupiter's light is not wholly re

years it has been held, by Mr. Proctor and observations gives, as a final result of the work flected. The facts now obtained by spectrodetailed, an ellipticity of id. In other words, the polar diameter is to the equatorial in the scopic investigation seem clearly to indicate, ratio of 218 to 219. This agrees very closely hot enough to give out light, though perhaps

as Dr. Draper remarks, that "Jupiter is still with Professor J. C. Adams's recent estimate only in a periodic or eruptive manner.

It is of the compression (obs) which the planet proper to remark, however, that in the discusought to have if it follows the same law as

sion which followed the reading of Ir. Draper's the earth in the variation of its density. The

paper, some doubt was expressed in regard to ellipticity assigned by Professor Young is con

his conclusions. The question can not be residerably greater, it will be observed, than that garded as definitively settled without further of the earth.

investigation. Alinor Planets. Since the date of our last

Jupiter's Red Spot.- Observations of Jupireport, nine minor planets have been added to ter's great red spot in 1879 and 1880 indicate the cluster between Mars and Jupiter, making but little change in its appearance between the the present number 219.

The dates of discov- last two oppositions of the planet. ery, names of discoverers, periods and mean

Probable Eristence of l'ltra - Neptunian distances, are as follows:

Planets.—In February, 1880, Professor George Forbes, of the University of Glasgow, read a memoir before the Royal Society of Edinburgh,

designed "first, to show reasons for a belief in

1,949 1850, February 6, Palisa....

the existence of two planets, whose orbits are 1880, February 19, Peters...' 2.7453

greater than that of Neptune; and, secondly, 1950, March 1, Palisa.

to indicate the probable positions of these 1550, April 7, Knorre. 1850, April 10, Palisa.

1,706 planets." 1850, August 30, Coggia.

The whole of this research is founded upon the the

2.7010 1850, September 4, Palisa.


ory of the introduction of comets as permanent mem1890), September 30, Palisa.. 2.3820 1,312

bers of the solar system, which is now venerally held. No. 216 has the greatest eccentricity (0-29) composition, and character, which we need not at

According to this theory, comets are bodies of size, of those discovered during the year, and the present discuss, but which inove through interstellar last in the catalogue the greatest apparent space subject to the laws of gravitation. Every time magnitude.

that such a comet becomes sensibly attracted by any The 219 minor planets now known have it is attracted toward it, and tends to describe about

star, such as we have reason to suppose our sun to be, been detected by thirty-five discoverers. First it an orbit sensibly parabolic. in this list is Dr. C. II. F. l'eters, Director of Let us call the distance of the Earth from the sun the Observatory of Ilamilton College, at Clin

one Earth's radius. The orbits of comets thus atton, New York, who has discoverel forty-one numerical average parabolie, may have their orbits

tracted into the sun's neighborhood, though on the -nearly one fifth of the whole number. The transformed, by planetary perturbation, either into next is Professor Palisa, of Pola, now credited ellipses or hyperbolas. "Ito the comet approach a with twenty-seven. This successful observer planet in such a manner that its velocity is increased, discovered five of those announced in 1880. it then will describe an hyperbolic orbit in future, The third is the lamented James C. Watson, action of the planet be such as to reduce the velocity

and will never again return to the sun. But if the late Director of the Observatory at Ann Ar- of the comet, it will then for the future revolve in bor, Michigan, who detected twenty-two. Of an elliptic orbit round the sun, which may have its the whole number, seventy have been discov- elements altered by planetary perturbations, and may ered by American astronomers.

eventually be actually in this way driven out of the Jupiter's Period of Rotation. In the month- accidental occurrences, must become a permanent mem

solar system altogether, but which, in default of these ly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society ber of the solar system.


When, and by whom discovered.

Mean distances.

Periods in days.

1879, December 10, Palisa...


211.. 212.. 21B.. 214. 215. 216.. 217.. 219. 219..



It has long been known that the aphelion-distances ered, on the 6th of April, by Mr. J. M. Schäof comets are grouped in classes at definite distances berle, Assistant Astronomer at the Ann Arbor from the sun. Thus we know that there is a large Observatory. It passed its perihelion on the same as the distance of Jupiter from the sun. Jupi- 1st of July, at a distance from the sun considter's distance is 5 Earth's radii, and there are eleven erably greater than that of Mars in aphelion. periodic comets whose aphelion-distance is between The comet of Faye, whose period is seven 4 and 6 Earth's radii. Neptune's distance is 30 Earth's radii, and there are six comets whose aphelion-dis- years and five months, was detected by Mr. tances vary from 32 to 35 Earth's radii,

Common, of England, on the 2d of August. On tabulating the aphelion-distances of all the This is its fifth return to perihelion since its known elliptic orbits of comets, it was found that in discovery, in 1843. no case was there any grouping of aphelion comet A comet was discovered by Dr. Lewis Swift, distances which did not agree with the distances of planets, except that beyond the distance of Neptune at Rochester, New York, on the night of Authere were two groupings of comet aphelion-distances, gust 11th. The body, however, on account of one at 100 Earth's radii, the other at 300 Earth’s radii cloudy weather for several nights following: approximately.

was not reobserved, and consequently its orbit Taking Professor H. A. Newton's theory with re

is wholly unknown. spect to the introduction of comets into the solar system, it would follow that the disturbing planet must,

The fifth comet of 1880 was discovered by at the time when the comet was so introduced, havé Dr. Hartwig, of the Strasburg Observatory, been somewhere near the position of the comet's aphe on the 29th of September. It was barely visilion. Two hypotheses then present themselves : 1.

ble to the naked eye, and had a tail two deWe may suppose that the planet must have been extremely close to the comce when it introduced it, in grees long; It was discovered independently which case it would be necessary to prove that the

on the following night at Ann Arbor, Mich., aphelion-positions of a fair proportion of these couets by Professor Harrington, and on the 3d of lie in one plane which passes through the sun. In October by Mr. Baxendell, of Southport, Engthis case we could determine the date when the planet land. Professor Winnecke, of Strasburg, havwas in some definite positions, and so might predict its present position ; 2. We may suppose that the ing discussed the observations of this body and planet revolved in some orbit close to the ecliptic, and compared them with those of former comets, assuing that it attracted the comet into the solar sys- thinks it probably identical with the cornets tem, when it was most ncar to the comet’s aphelion- of 1382, 1144, 1506, and 1569. The period position.

deduced is sixty-two and one third years. It The details of Professor Forbes's interesting is regarded, however, as not wholly improbresearches can not here be given.* IIe ans able that this may be a multiple of the true sumes that the comets 18-10 IV, 1816 VII, period. The orbit approaches very near to 1861 I, and 1861 II, were introduced by a that of Mercury, and Dr. Winnecke thinks it planet whose distance is about one hundred possible that the former may owe its elliptic times that of the earth, and whose period is form to Mercury's disturbing influence. The about one thousand years. The estimated po- elements are as follows: sition of the planet in 1880 is in longitude 174°,

Perihelion passage.

..September 6, 1850. and north polar distance 87°. Some attempt Longitude of perihelion...

Mean equihas also been made to determine the position Longitude of ascending nodo.... 41 33 30"} of the more remote planet, but no satisfactory Eccentricity:

33,856 result has yet been attained. If the bodies Semi-axis major.. really exist, their apparent magnitudes are

Mean daily motion.. doubtless very small.

Another comet was detected by Dr. Swift Comets.-On the evening of February 2, on the night of October 10th. Its apparent 1880, Dr. B. A. Gould, Director of the Obser- diameter was three or four minutes, but the vatory at Cordoba, South America, noticed a disk was ill defined and irregular in outline. bright stream of light rising from a point be- From the first available observations the eleneath the western horizon. As was supposed ments of its orbit were computed by Mr. Seth when first observed, this luminous beam soon O. Ohandler, Jr., of Boston, Massachusetts. proved to be the tail of a very large comet. These elements so closely resemble those of From observations at Cordoba, the Cape of the third comet of 1869 that the identity of Good IIope, and other points in the southern the bodies can scarcely be doubted. The probhemisphere, the elements of the orbit were able period is, therefore, either eleven or five calculated by Dr. Gould, Mr. Ilind, and others, and one half years. The same comet was inwith the remarkablo result that the comet had dependently discovered by Mr. Lohse at Duactually passed through the sun's atmosphere; necht Observatory, England, November 7th. the nucleus, in perihelion, having been less Meteors.—The shower of meteors radiating than 100,000 miles from the solar surface. It from Quadrans, and hence termed Quadrantids, was found, moreover, that the orbit coincided

was observed, in 1880, by Mr. E. F. Sawyer, at so closely with that of the great comet of 1813 Cambridgeport, Massachusetts. Between seven as to render it nearly certain that the bodies and eight o'clock on the evening of January 2d, were identical.

Mr. Sawyer recorded six meteors of this wellThe second comet of the year was discov known group. The radiant was in right ascen* They may be found in Christie's “ Observatory" for

sion 227°, declination 48° north. The meteors Jane, 1530.

were bright, and their motions rather slow.

83° 33' 28

nox, 1950.

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0.9777 15.72 56.931

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