Gambar halaman

selected, and other business transacted relating 5. That, recognizing from well-attested acts and to the State election.

conduct in the recent past that the time has come The Greenback National-Labor Convention ignoriny the party affiliations and prejudices of a bit

when a larye number of our colored fellow-citizens, assembled on June 17th, and nominated for

ter past, are now willing to strike bands with us in Governor, W. P. Parks ; for Secretary of State, the liviny present and march shoulder to shoulder C. E. Tobey ; for State Treasurer, W. A. Wat- with the great political party to which is intrusted the son; for Auditor of State, ('. E. Cunningham; reing of power to be exercised for our common weal, for State Land Commissioner, Wilshire Riley; and disposition already shown, and cordially invite for Superintendent of Public Instruction, Pe- them to a yet fuller and more active coöperation with ter Brugman; for Chief Justice of Supreme us in fostering and forwarding our common interests, Court, J. Cole Davis; for Clerk of Chancery and the weltare of our noble Commonwealth.

We endorse the action of' the Democratic State ConCourt, W. T. IIolloway.

vention assembled in 1878 in recommending the subThe Democratic Convention assembled on mission of the question of our State's bonded indebtJune 4th, and nominated for Governor, T. J. edness to the people by resolution providing for an Churchill; for Secretary of State, Jacob Fro- amendment to our State ('onstitution, as also the aclich; for Auditor of State, John ('rawford ;

tion of our State Legislature of 1079 in submitting the for Treasurer of State, William E. Woodruff

, question as a political one, and remit the same to

same to the people, and we do not now regard that Jr.; for Attorney-General, C. B. Moore; for the people to be voted on by them at the approaching Commissioner of Public Lands, I). W. Lear; election, irrespective of party. for Supreme Judge, E. H. English ; for Super The result of the election was the success of intendent of Public Instruction, J. L. Denton; the Democratic ticket by a large majority. for Judge of Pulaski Chancery Court, 1). W. ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES. LieuCarroll; for Clerk of Pulaski Chancery Court, tenant-General Sheridan reports that there J. W. Calloway.

were 4,850 officers and men in the Department The following platform was adopted: of Dakota; 2,840 in the Department of the

We, the Democratie party of the state of Arkansas, Platte ; 4,720 in the Department of Missouri ; in delegated convention assembled, reaffirming and and 3,640 in the Department of Texas. He renewing the pledge of our allegiance and unwavering devotion to those great principles of equal rights; protests anew that this force is too small for untramweled suffraye, and universal toleration toward the work which it has to perform, and inadeall men of whatsoever race, nationality, crocil, or con quate for the suppression of disturbances in dition, that underlie and uphold the fabric of our free the Territories 'and Western States, and the Government and republican institutions, and hereby tion, observance, and enforcement of the same, do the West there is only one man for 75 square solemnly plighting ourselves to a continued recogni protection of the borders. In the Division of further make these our declarations of party prin- miles of territory, in the Department of Texas ciples:

only one man for 125 miles. 1. That the General and State governments are each Major-General llancock reports a force of in their own proper and constitutionally appointed sphere supreme, and entitled to equal love, Hediences

, 317 commissioned officers and 2,390 enlisted and devotion, and that neither can trench upon the

men in the Division of the Atlantic. province or prerovatives of the other without grave The number of soldiers drawing increased danger and detriment to the highest interests of both. pay for length of service under the act of 1854

2. That, recognizing morality and intelligence together as the true and lasting basis of every free gov: 3,762; for ten years, 1,872; for fifteen years,

is 6,129); for five years of continuous service, cise and enjoyment of the rights and privileges of the 227; for twenty years, 130); for twenty-five same, we are in favor of such a systein of free public years, 97; for thirty years, 11. schools as will increase to even greater extent the fu The number of men and oflicers killed and cilities of education our people now enjoy, and with this view we commend to the Legislature of our State mortally wounded in actions with Indians in such needed revision of our school laws as may be the four years past was for each year as folmost conducive to this end.

lows: In 1876, 16 officers and 272 men; in 3. That we favor and cordially invite immigration 1877, ñ officers and 121 men; in 1878, 2 offifrom every quarter without restriction, save that it be cers and 8 men; in 1879, 2 officers and 32 men. of an honest and industrious class, and we hereby The total losses for the four years were 27 ofiproclaim and publish to the world that all charges and intimations that any man or classes of men have cers and 333 men. been or will be in any manner proscribed, or ostra According to the report of Adjutant-General cized among us on account of political opinion, or Drum, the enlistment of soldiers has been conotherwise, is an unjust and unfounded libel upon our ducted with such care in selection, that out of people and State; and we hereby guarantee equal protection and enlightened tolerance to all aliko who may 23,300 applicants only 5,026, or less than 22 come to cast their lot among us, and make our beauti- per cent., were enlisted. A great improvemont ful and growing Stato their home; and we demand in the class of men applying for enlistment has from the Legislature the enactment of such suitable been observed within the past few years, which laws as will tend to encourage and increase immigra- he ascribes to the act of June 18, 1878, to adtion into our midst. 4. We are in favor of such wholesome legislation as

vance the more soldierly and intelligent of the may be necessary to encourage the investment of cap- enlisted men to commissions. The total numital in and the building up of manufactories in the ber of soldiers who have passed out of the serState to the full extent that the same may be dono vice during the year is reported as 7,582: 235 branch of industry or enterprise before another of by death, 2,043 by desertion, 3,158 discharged equal importance to the welfare of the people at large. on expiration of service, 482 by court-martial,

In an engage

15 by civil authority, 116 on account of minor- States, offering to aid in the organization of the ity, and 653 by order. The assignments of re- State militia, and to help assimilate the rules cruits and reënlistments amounted to 5,620: and forms used in the State organizations to recruits assigned, 4,166; non-commissioned of- those employed in the regular service. The ficers reēnlisted, 474; musicians, etc., 41; pri- motive of the interest in the discipline of the vates, 939.

State forces manifested on the part of the auThe deaths reported among the white troops thorities of the regular army is to enable the by the Surgeon-General were 219, or about 1 army to be readily strengthened by the State per cent. of the mean strength (22,100), of troops and regular and volunteer recruits suitwhich number 126 died of disease and 93 of ably officered by officers of the militia in the wounds and casualties. The proportion of event of a war. Officers were detailed to visit deaths to cases treated was 1 to 179. The and inspect the suminer encampments of the number of white soldiers discharged from the State troops. service on surgeons' certificates of disability The year has witnessed the suppression of was 734, 3.3 per cent. of the average strength. the two troublesome bands of hostile Indians The number of deaths among the colored sol- who have infested the Northern and Southern diers was 46, or 1.9 per cent. of the mean frontiers for many months, escaping over the strength; 21 of these died of disease, and 25 borders when hard pressed by the military. of wounds, accidents, and injuries. The pro- The Apache leader Victoria and his band have portion of deaths to cases treated was 1 to 88. been destroyed in Mexico, and the main body The number of colored soldiers discharged on of the Sioux led by Sitting Bull have delivcertificates of disability was 42, or 2.2 per cent. ered themselves up to the military authorities. of mean strength (2,368), Casualties of seven In the engagement between Major Thornteen hostile engagements with the Indians were burgh and the Utes, near the White River reported for the year ending June 30, 1830. Agency, September 29, 1879, 10 were reportThe organization of the army at present pro- ed killed and 35 wounded. In an attack upon vidos for 11 general officers, 555 officers, and Colonel Miles's command by the Sioux, at Bea1,286 enlisted men for the staff ; and 1,989 ver Creek, Montana, 3 were killed and 3 woundofficers and 24,214 enlisted men for the line. ed, July 17th; in a 'skirinish at Salt Lake, TexSecretaries Sherman and Ramsey in their re- as, July 25th, 2 were wounded; at Big Creek, ports to the President recommend that the Idaho, July 29th, 2 were wounded, and 1 killed strength of the army be increased to 25,000 at the same place August 20th. men in the troops of the line, instead of that mont with the Apaches, near Fort Bayard, New number of enlisted men for all duties, to which Mexico, + were killed and 1 wounded, Septemlimit the army is confined by the appropriation ber 5th. A number of engagements took place bills. Frontier tactics have undergone a great in New Mexico between a detachment under change since the extension of railroads through Colonel Morrow and the Apaches belonging the Territories. It is no longer necessary to to Victoria's band. On Septeinber 30, 1879, guard stage-routes and maintain small posts; 2 were killed at the head-waters of the Rio but considerable bodies of troops may be con- Cuchillo Negro; 3 were killed and 1 wounded centrated at points of intersection on the rail- at Grozman Mountain, October 26th and 27th; roads, whence they can be rapidly forwarded on the Rio Perche, January 13, 1880, 1 was to the scene of action when Indian outbreaks killed and 1 wounded. In an engagement in take place. It is desirable to build permanent the San Mateo Mountains, January 17th, 2 quarters for the soldiers at these central posts. privates were wounded and an officer killed. Many of the small posts are still occupied, be- In engagements in the Carvallo and San Ancause they afford the only available quarters dreas Mountains, January 30th and February for the troops, which havo ceased to be of any 7th, 1 was killed and 4 wounded. A severe strategic importance. Secretary Ramsey and fight took place on the east side of San Andreas General Sherman recommend that authority Mountain, April 6th and 7th, between Mescalbe given to sell these useless sites and build- lero Apaches and a portion of Colonel Hatch's iugs, and apply the proceeds to erocting new command, in which an officer and 8 men were barracks at the important military positions. wounded. In a meeting on Ash Creek, AriThe lack of officers for field-service prompts zona, with Victoria's Apaches, May 7th, 1 man the suggestion that only retired officers be was killed.

Trouble occurred also with the allowed in the educational employments for Sioux in Montana, who attacked several scoutwhich regimental officers are now frequently ing parties. A party supposed to belong to Sitdetailed.

ting Bull's band attacked a small detachment There are 78 schools in operation in the on Pumpkin Creek, February 7th, wounding 1 army, under the supervision of officers, with and killing 1; in another attack near Rosebud an aggregate attendance of 2,305 enlisted men River, March 8th, 2 scouts were killed. On and children. The enlistment of 150 school- April 1st a skirmish took place on O'Fallon's masters, with the rank and pay of sergeants, Creek, in which 1 man was killed. is recommended by the Secretary of War. The Apaches were hotly pressed in New

Adjutant-General Drum addressed a circular Mexico and Arizona by the United States in July to the adjutant-generals of the different troops and by volunteer organizations of citi


They were encountered and scattered The number of Indians in the United States, by a force commanded by General Grierson, exclusive of Alaska, is 255,938, all of whom and pursued wherever they showed them- except some 18,000 are under the control of selves. Victoria and his band of marauders agents of the Government. In the Indian Terwere finally driven over the Mexican border ritory there are 60,560 civilized and 17,750 unin September by General Buell. The Ameri: civilized Indians. There are about 25,000 Incan forces pursued them into Mexican terri- dians in Dakota, 23,000 in New Mexico, 21,000 tory for more than 100 miles south of Quit- in Montana, 17,000 in Arizona, and 14,000 in man, Texas, when they were notified by the Washington Territory. Over 5,000 Indians Mexican Colonel Terrassas, with whom they live in the State of New York, and 10,000 in had communicated, that a further advance into Michigan. The number of acres broken by InMexico would be objectionable. After com dians not belonging to the five civilized nations mitting a massacre in the district of Chihuahua, of Indian Territory in 1880 was 27,283; the the Indians were met by the Mexican troops number of acres under cultivation, 170,847; under Terrassas. Victoria was slain with 60 bushels of wheat raised, 415,777; of corn, 666,of his warriors and 18 women and children; 430; of oats and barley, 222,439; of vegetables, and 68 women and children were captured. 376,145; tons of hay, 56,527 ; number of cattle The remainder of his band, about 30, fled owned, 78,812 ; of sheep, 864,137. By the civacross the line into American territory again. ilized tribes the number of acres cultivated was The raids of Victoria extended through a year 314,398; the number of bushels of wheat grown, and a half. His band and their allies are sup- 336,424; of corn, 2,346,042 ; of oats and barley, posed to have committed as many as 400 mur 124,568; of vegetables, 595,000; tons of hay cut, ders. A party of Mescalleros who had been 149,000, bales of cotton raised, 16,800 ; numseparated from Victoria's band in the fight ber of cattle owned, 297,040; of swine, 400,with General Grierson attacked a picket near 282. Among the Indians, exclusive of the five Eagle Springs, Texas, October 29th, and killed civilized tribes, 110 day-schools and 60 board. 4 men.

ing-schools have been maintained with 316 An organized band of emigrants from Kan- teachers. These have been attended by upsas, Arkansas, and Texas, called the Oklahoma ward of 7,000 children. The boarding-schools Colony, started in November for the strip of are regarded as more efficacious than the dayterritory of 57 miles beyond the border-line of schools, since in them the teaching of farming Kansas in Indian Territory, which they claimed and domestic work can be more successfully was not a portion of the ceded reservation, and conducted. As much attention is given to inwhich they announced that they would settle struction in useful labor necessary to self-mainupon and occupy by force unless forbidden tenance as to the schoolroom studies. There by act of Congress, since the Secretary of the are tribes numbering 50,000 Indians who have Interior had expressed the intention to settle no treaty school funds. The Indian Bureau the wild Indian tribes of the Southwest upon intends to open 13 new boarding-schools durthe disputed tract, and the Federal courts had ing the present season, which will be the first not promptly accorded a judicial hearing of schools established for the instruction of the the matter. The president of the colony was Western Shoshones, the San Carlos Apaches, D. I. Payne.

and the first regular and satisfactory instrucThe removal of the Utes from the reserva tion provided for nine other tribes, numbering tion in which silver and gold mines have been in all over 33,000 individuals. The officers confound, in Colorado, has been attended by many ducting Indian affairs deem that the time is difficulties. A critical conjuncture, in which come when the tribal customs can be supplantthe Indian agents and the small body of troops ed by the law of the land to a considerable exon the reservation were in danger of becoming tent, and when the policy of granting commuthe victims of a sudden outburst of savage nal rights only in the reservations may safely rage, was brought on by the action of the be abandoned, and agricultural lands be allotState authorities in regard to a case of man ted to individual Indians to hold in severalty. slaughter, in which an Indian was killed by a Acting-Commissioner Marble reports that the freight-carrier, and the perpetrator captured feeling among the Indians on the reservations and put to death by the Indians. (See Colo- in favor of individual ownership is almost uniRADO.)

versal. “Following the issue of patents comes At the beginning of November about 1,500 disintegration of tribal relations, and if his land Indians who had taken part in the rebellion of is secured for a wholesome period against alienSitting Bull had surrendered to the military, ation, and is protected against the rapacity of and were placed on the reservation in Mon- speculators, the Indian acquires a sense of owntana, under the control of the garrison at Fort ership, and, learning to appreciate the advanKeogh, and set to agricultural employments. tages and results of labor, insensibly prepares The chiefs Spotted Tail and Rain-in-the-Face himself for the duties of a citizen.” The Comgave themselves up with their camps; but Sit- missioner recommends a law also to prevent ting Bull refused to deliver himself up till the polygamy and legalize marriage among the Inreturn of the British officer, Major Walsh, who dians, and the enactment of a code of criminal had treated with him as a mediator,

law for the reservations. Ile considers that the

laws for the punishment of trespassers upon In- posed to quick destruction upon the first outdian reservations are inadequate, and asks for a break of a war. This danger can only be suclaw making such interlopers strictly amenable to cessfully guarded against by a thorouglı system punishment. Secretary of the Interior Schurz, of harbor fortifications constructed in accordin his annual report, expresses similar views of ance with the principles followed by European Indian policy. The policy of massing the In- nations, casemated forts armed with the heavidians on the largest reservations, which was est artillery and protected by thick iron scarps, followed in the beginning of the present Ad- supplemented by earthen batteries and a wellministration, in accordance with which the planned system of torpedo defense. Barbette Pawnees, the northern Cheyennes, and the batteries may be used entirely in the ports Poncas were removed to the Indian Territory, with shallow harbors which will not float the Mr. Schurz thinks has been a mistaken one. heaviest ironclads. Fortifications should be The policy advocated is to respect the rights studded along the channels of approach of which the Indians possess in the lands they oc every harbor and in the harbor, and in all cupy and their attachments to their homes, waters in the neiglıborhood of a city within and by teaching and encouragement to culti- the longest direct or curved range of modern vate among them independence and a love of gunnery. In the harbor inouths and channels work and desire to accumulate private prop- should be placed lines of torpedoes for the purerty. He advises giving separate holdings of pose of holding the vessels of the enemy under land, with an inalienable title running a suffi- the fire of the fortifications. The torpedves cient length of time; proposing to allot lands should be ready in the fortresses to be laid in fee simple eventually to Indians able to down at the breaking out of a war according maintain themselves upon them, and to dis- to regular plans which have been studied out pose of the lands of those of the Indians with reference to the topography of the botwho do not prove themselves able or disposed tom and the tidal currents. The wire for firing to maintain themselves upon them, for the the torpedoes should be securely laid in subterbenefit of and with the consent of the own rane in galleries conducting from the secure ers, to white settlers. The aim of such a chambers within the fortifications, where the policy is to dissolve the tribal system and to electrical apparatus is placed, out into deep gradually make citizens of the Indians. By water. Heavy mortars should be placed to à decision of the United States Circuit Court, command every position where the enemy rendered by Judge Dundy, the Ponca Indi- might anchor either for the purpose of shellans are entitled to the lands in Nebraska from ing the city or of destroying the torpedo lines. which they were removed. By the samo prin- The guns and mortars should be heavy enough ciple their former reservation in Dakota will to penetrate the iron plating and break through be returned to them, and the Sioux, to wliom the decks of ironclads, and shonld be numerous the Poncas' lands were assigned and who now enough to prevent the fastest war-steamers from hold them, have no legal title and may be dis- running their fire. The present casemated forts, possessed.

where they can be strengthened and pierced for The Chief of Engineers, General Horatio G. heavy ordnance, ought to be coated with strong Wright, directs attention to the backward con- plates of iron, and provided with iron casemate dition of the harbor defenses. Only a small shields to protect the guns and gunners from portion of the existing fortifications are of re direct or curved fire. cent construction, and planned with reference The trial of a 11-inch muzzle-loading rified to modern heavy ordnance. These are all of cannon which had been made over from a 15them earthen barbette batteries.

The case

inch smooth-bore has been very successful, and inated forts, which were as good as any in the proves the practicability of converting old guns world when they were built, were designed into effective weapons of the approved form. only to resist the attacks of wooden vessels, With this guin 398 rounds were fired with 90 and are pierced for guns long out of date. The pounds of powder and 495 and 543 pound shot, modern naval vessels are armed with guns of and 3 with 95 pounds of powder and 510 pound from 9 to 17 inch bores, firing 800 to 2,000 shot. Tests with an 8-inch breech-loader, with

und projectiles, and are clad with from 6 to battering charges of 35 pounds of powder, 24 inches of iron armor. Foreign nations have led the Board of Ordnance to recommend the naval stations within a few hours' sail from the breech-lo:ding system. The advantages of the American shore. Immediately upon the dec. use of chambers in rified cannon for hoavy laration of a war these fast war-steamers could charges having been tested with a 3-inch rifle, appear at any one of the American ports and one of the 8 inch rifles was chambered and pass the present batteries with ease. The navy tried. After a preliminary trial 100 rounds could not avert such a danger, and no rapid were fired with the maximum charge of 55 concentration of troops could prevent the burn- ponnds of powder and 180-pound shot. The ing of the seaport thus attacked by explosive relocity was found to be about one third shot. Some of the wealthiest cities of the greater than in the unchambered grins, and United States, thousands of millions' worth of the power and accuracy were increased, while property, and a large part of the naval and the wear of the bore by the 55-pound charge military stores of the Government, are thus er was no greater than that produced in the other

form by 35-pound charges. The penetration was found with the cartilage of his ears cut at 1,000 yards was 9.93 inches, while that of open, and with other injuries and marks of the unchambered rifle of the same caliber is violence, which he asserted had been comunit7.73 inches, and that of the English 9-inch rifle ted upon him during the night by a band of stu8.76 inches. In all kinds and calibers up to 11- dents of the Academy, aroused considerable popinch bores the method of converting old guns ular excitement. The authorities of the school into the newer forms, both muzzle- and breech were convinced from the first that the tale was loading, has proved a success. Four 12-inch an imposture, and that the cadet had inflicted breech-loading rifled guns were directed to be the marks upon himself for the purpose of obconstructed in the bill making an appropria- taining an excuse from certain examinations, tion of $400,000 for armament. The reluc- or from some other notive. An investigation tance of contractors to take the orders for guns was entered upon, in which Whittaker exhibitheavier than the foundry plants are adapted to ed a threatening anonymous letter, which he caused a delay; but the contracts were finally said bad come to him several days before the placed. The manufacture of small-arms in the alleged outrage. The presence of the AttorneyNational Armory during the fiscal year aggre- General, who was requested to watch the progated 20,387 rifles and carbines. The reserve ceedings of the trial as a representative of the supply on hand at the end of the year was Government, was resented by the commandant 22,979, including the manufactures of the year. and other officers. No one was implicated beThe Springfield breech-loader is still retained. sides the supposed sufferer by the evidence No form of magazine gun has yet been brought brought out at the trial. In the yearly report to the point of perfection which would war of Major-General Schofield, commanding the rant its general use in the army. The Hotch- post, the officers and teachers are defended kiss type is the most promising one, and is from the charge of showing disfavor to the colbeing developed and improved, and, if success ored cadets, and the students are exonerated ful, will probably be adopted, though the bolt from the imputation of hazing Whittaker. The and handle are not looked upon with favor in regulations which require white cadets to sit at the service. The Chief of Ordnance, General the same mess with colored students, to meet Benet, has recommended that the bayoret and them and hold the necessary intercourse with the saber both be abolished. The General of them in the class. room, on parade, and in other the Army gave orders for studies and experi- places, General Schofield considers an invasion ments with the design to have the ramrod of their social liberty. The two races are not shaped so that it would serve the additional required to occupy the same dormitories. The purpose of a bayonet or foil after the manner white cadets respect the legal rights of colored devised by Lieutenant Zalinski, and for the man cadets more scrupulously than those of each ufacture of a light, efficient knife or trowel for other. “The enforced association of the white digging in the ground and other uses. Colonel cadets with their colored companions, to which Benton, commanding the Armory, Las produced they have never been accustomed before they a combined bayonet and ramrod, which is a sim came from home, appears to have destroyed any ple modification of one used in IIall's breech- disposition which before existed to indulge in loading carbine, invented seventy years ago. such association. The intellectual inferiority It occupies the same space as the ordinary ram of the lately enslaved race is a reason for the rod, is strong and efficient, reduces the weight want of success of colored cadets at West carried by the soldier, and does away with the Point. One out of the eleven appointees has bayonet-scabbard. In the butt of the gun is a passed through the course and graduated with receptacle for the screw-driver, cartridge-er- credit, though without social recognition. The tractor, and wiper. A trowel-knife has also case of the cadet Whittaker is the natural rebeen devised. A limited number of both in- sult of the assumption that the enfranchised struments have been furnished to soldiers for race have attained in half a generation the trial. Trials at extreme ranges have demon- social, moral, and intellectual level which the strated that the service-rifle is able to wound average white man has reached in hundreds of or kill up to nearly 3,000 yards, and that the years. . . . Ile imagined that officers who had carbine with the rifle-cartridge made for the fought to make him free, and who were laboriservice carries as far. The 500-grain bullet ously striving to teach him what he could not fired from any rifle with sufficient twist ranges comprehend, were governed in their conduct nearly 3,700 yards. Ordinary variations in the toward him by 'hate of the nigger,' and that weight of powder-charges do not affect eleva- cadets who would neither touch him nor speak tion at very long ranges, velocities approxi- to him, could be believed to have tied his mating each other. The range of the Govern- hands and feet, and cut his hair and ears, and ment rifle may be made, according to Colonel that so tenderly as not to hurt him. He had Benton and Captain Greer who made the trials, not reached that point in civilization where it as long as that of any in the world by pre- is first apprehended that human nature may be paring the cartridge as at present, but with governed by motives other than love, hatred, or an increased weight of ball.

fear.” The cadet Whittaker was subsequentThe case of suspected hazing of the colored ly dropped from the roll of the college, having cadet Whittaker, at West Point, in April, who failed to satisfy the requirements of the stand

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