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1865. 1870. 1871. 1872. 1873.
In the foregoing statements are not included there is too much of the gambling element; the municipal taxes of Buenos Ayres, or the and a country whose foreign securities have local taxes of the thirteen other provinces. It almost attained par value, ought not to be exis, however, sufficient to remark that the city posed to the humiliation of a depreciated curof Buenos Ayres paid thirty-five times as much rency at home. per capita as the other provinces, than which The great feature in Argentine durcircumstance none can more satisfactorily ex- ing the past few years is the increase of proplain the wish of the Buenos Ayreans to get duction, and the marked excess in the value of rid of so much government. “The cause of the exports over that of the imports, the reverse such heavy taxation,” observes an Argentine of which condition was formerly the rule. The economist, " is the extra liberality of the Brit- appended tables show the values, sources, and ish public in lending is money," and indeed the destinations, respectively, of the imports and interest and sinking fund of the following loan exports for 1879: constitute a heavy yearly drain:
321,000 Buenos Ayres.
2,218,000 Hard dollars.
12,033,000 Buenos Ayres..
2,177,000 United States.
3,794,000 In this table are not coinprised the Buschen
2,116,000 thal loan of 1863, the foreign indemnity bond, West Indies.
128,000 the 1876 loan of 500,000,000 pesos current
943,000 In transitu...
3,076,000 money (about $20,000,000), the Lottery loan of 1878, nor such minor matters as the loans to
$4,567,000 Santa Fé and Entre-Rios. If the railway guarantees be excepted, the whole indebtedment of the republic and of Buenos Ayres is about $100, Belgium.
$13,870,000 000,000, or a little over $10 per capita of the
1,180,000 population of the country, and one fourth of the
11,621,000 Australian average. If the finances be carefully Germany.
3,753,000 handled, says the writer last referred to, tho
1,602,000 country will retrieve itself in ten or fifteen years. Paraguay. It is a pity that the public men are violent
3,791.000 protectionists, and paralyze the imports with Uruguay
1, 136,000 an impost of 50 per cent. ad valorem for the
475,000 purpose of protecting manufactures. In this
3,004,000 way “good sheep farmers are being converted
Total. into bad bootmakers and execrable tailors,"
$17,765,000 and the exports for 1878 showed a decline of The values of the principal commodities ex20 per cent. from those of the year immediately ported in the same year were as follows: wool preceding, particularly in wool, tallow, and (91,951,094 kilogrammes), $21,610,000 ; oxÎides. At the close of 1877 the price of Ar: hides (2,336,799 kilogrammes), $8,149,000 ; gentine bonds in the London market (tak- horse-hides (317,429 kilogrammes), $292,000 ; ing those of 1868 for a guide) was 70; at the sheep-skins (25,088,878 kilogrammes), $3,965,end of 1879 it was 90 to 92; and in December, 000; tallow (15,538,289 kilogranımes), $2,033,1880, some were, for the first time, sold at par. 000; salt beef (32,309,577 kilogrammes), $2,Here is an evident indication of financial pros- 812,000; animals (297,073), $2,130,000 ; hair perity. Yet one great drawback still proves (2,372,962 kilograinmes), $766,000 ; bones, a heavy drag on the financial and commercial $506,000; various skins, not above enumerprosperity of the country, namely, a depreciated ated, $789,000. According to statistics, Buenos currency which calls aloud for remedial meas- Ayres owned at the commencement of 1880,
Gold, the "shuttle-cock of the bolsa, 5,116,029 head of cattle, or 936 for every 100 is still at a high premium. With the large in- inhabitants; and 46,600,000 sheep, or 8,275 flux of gold from Great Britain in 1879, and for every 100 inhabitants; which last figures the confidence felt in the stability of the Gov are without a parallel elsewhere, though, sinernment, there ought to be but little difficulty gularly enough, the number of cattle in Uruin reëstablishing the Oficina de Cambios, mak- guay was 6,000,000, or 1,385 per 100 inhabing paper a legal tender at the former rate of itants, while the number of the sheep was but 122 pesos to the pound sterling, a financial 12,000,000. achievement which would favor the flow of No returns of shipping movements at the capital into the republic, and render commer various ports of the republic have been pubcial transactions safe and steady. As things lished of a later date than those given in the have been for a number of years past, however, “Annual Cyclopædia” for 1879.
The total length of railway lines in opera- place in some quarters to apprehensions of tion in 1878 was 1,448 miles; and concessions belligerent designs toward Chili, with which had been, up to the end of that year, granted country, as already hinted, the Patagonian for new lines to the extent of 1,989 miles, in- boundary question is still pending. cluding the great interoceanic railway from more reasonable explanation of the armament Buenos Ayres to Santiago (Chili), 888 miles. would be the prudent desire on the part of Still further concessions were granted in 1879 the Argentine Republic to be prepared in case and 1880, and works on the new lines and Chili, after making peace with Peru, should continuation of those already built were car: feel tempted to make use of her liberated forces ried on with activity.
in support of her claim to sovereign jurisdicThe telegraph lines in operation in 1877 tion over the disputed Patagonian peninsula. comprised 9,887 miles of wires, of which 3,365 The following extracts we translate from belonged to the state. The total number of President Roca's inaugural speech to the Ardispatches in 1878 was 214,714.
gentine Congress on October 12, 1880, than The tide of immigration continues to in- which no other description could present a crease, the number of immigrants for 1879 clearer view of the present political condition having reached 50,000, a figure hitherto un- of the country: precedented outside of the United States, and showing an increase of 14,329 as compared with
Messrs. SENATORS AND DEPUTIES: I have just taken
the oath prescribed by the Constitution for the office that of the year immediately preceding. The
to which the most important duties and the gravest lack of immigration from Northern Europe to responsibilities attach ; and I consider that I should, the Argentine shores is very generally deplored, on this solemn occasion, express to the representatives and active measures are on foot for encourag- cepting that high post.
of the Argentine people what my intentions are on acing its augmentation. Of the 286,000 immi.
I do not come unconsciously to power. I well know grants from the United Kingdom and Ger- that the path now before me is beset with snares for many in 1879, hardly 1,000 went to the River him who feels the responsibility of this elevated charge Plate regions.
among a free people; nor am I unaware of the bitter The political situation of the country in 1880 discharge of his duty. But, as you know, it was be
trials ever awaiting him who is resolved upon the rigid contrasted widely with that of 1879, the events yond my power to control the current of' opinions which of which latter year comprised only measures has terminated in this ( by me unsought for) result of of peaceful industry at home, while the single
the electoral contest-a contest which has served as a question of a menacing character in the foreign bood. When the liberties of mankind and the growth
pretext for staininy once more our country's soil with relations of the republic was the still existing of a nation are concerned, all that is yreat or enduring 'vexed question with Chili as to the possession is to be attained only at the expense of vast efforts and of territory in Patagonia. In the year just painful sacrifices. Nor are the severe trials passed past, as the final issue of the elections for a through by the Argentine Republic to be wondered new President approached, the smoldering fire at, when we survey her rapid progress and the triof party strife broke out and raged for severai umphs achieved in half a century of national exist
ence, at». compared with the tardy development to months with unmitigated violence, paralyzing which history bears testimony in the governments of all branches of trade and industry, and being the most advanced societies. attended with considerable bloodshed, the city to reach in a day the level arrived at by other nations
We live very rapidly, and in our feverish impatience of Buenos Ayres itself having suffered the hard- through centuries of labor and sanguinary attempts, ships and inconveniences inseparable froin a most of the problems of our organization, political and state of siege. An incident which seriously social, tako us by surprise. complicated the main question at issue was The ('ongress of 1830 has completed the federal repthat of the discussion concerning the definitive resentative system of government; and we may be
said to have ihis day fairly entered the period of conestablishment of the capital of the republic, stitutional rule. The law just sanctioned by your Buenos Ayres, which had been the provisional body for the final settlement of the capital of the recapital ever since the days of the independence, public, is at once the starting-point of a new cra in with the trammels and expense of a double which the Government will have entire freedom of ac
tion, and the realization of the people's dearest wish, gubernatorial machine, and the object of envy as implyins the consolidation of the union and the and jealousy of all the provinces save that in reign of peace for long years to come. The existence which it is situated. The first days of October of that law had come to be an inevitable necessity, brought the reëstablishment of peace, with the and your highest claim to the nation's esteem will be termination of the electoral campaign, and the Four having so faithfully interpreted its desire.
Ilenceforth, free of preoccupation and undisturbed inauguration of the new Chief Magistrate of by the internal commotions which hourly imperiled the Republic, Brigadier-General Don Julio A. the very integrity of the republie, the Government Roca, whose administration is regarded as one
will be enabled to devote its attention to the concerns full of patriotic and fruitful promise. General of administration and the fruitful works of peaco ; and Roca gained considerable distinction as Min- the revolutionary period being closed for ever, which
constantly retarded our onward march, we shall soon ister of War and in other important capacities reap the fruits of your firmness and tact. under the Avellaneda government. The fact On assuming the general administration of the counof his being a soldier, together with his reso
try, I would mention the subjects which occupy my lution to initiate a military policy, and the mind more particularly than all the others—the army,
and means of internal communication. continued arrival, for some time past, of war The army and navy, implying, as they do, the inmaterial for the Argentine Government, gave tegrity and safeguard of our country from without,
and peace and order at home, have the first claim to shall soon see them peopled. by eager multitudes of the attention of Congress and of the new Government. every race and from every clime, the future founders
The present army of the republic is a model of dis of new states to swell the power and greatness of the interestedness, fortitude, valor, and loyalty to its flay, republic. but at the mercy of arbitrary dispositions, and without A young and vigorous nation like our own, with a rules for its guidance or laws for its organization on a vast extent of territory, fortile lands, a favored cliregular and systematized plan.
mate, and liberal institutions, ought not to look with To the reforms required in this direction I shall de amazement at such teats as these, of the accomplishvote my best endeavors, in order to avert the dangers ment of which elsewhere under similar circumstances of militarism, which is the suppression of liberty, at numerous examples are recorded in the history of bua more or less distant day, and make of the army a man societies. veritable institution, accordiny to the terms of the We are the outline of a great nation destined to exConstitution and the requirements of modern prog crcise powerful influence in the civilization of Amerress. By this means, and being removed from party ica and of the world; but in order to complete the influence, it will occupy, as it now does, an exalted picture with full perfection of detail, we must enter place in public opinion, and in the unfortunate event with firm tread the path of regular life, as a people of our country's rights being endangered, be in a po constituted in the image of those we have chosen for sition to disinvolve an irresistible force. This meas our model : that is to say, we require lasting peace, ure will prove advantageous also in an economical order unbroken, and permanent liberty. And, touchpoint of view, doing away with useless expenses which ing these particulars, I declare aloud from this exalted weigh heavily upon the Treasury because of the impos- seat that I may be heard throughout the entire resibility for previous Governments to establish a per- public, I will make use of all means and authority fect system of civil and military administration in the placed by the Constitution in the hands of the Execuservices connected with the army.
tive power of the nation to avert, crush, and repress As for internal means of communication, they pre- any attempt against the public peace. If in any spot sent to my mind an imperative and unavoidable neces of Argentine territory a fratricidal arm be raised, or a sity, which can not be neglected without injury to the movement subversive of the constituted authority, common weal. It is indispensable to complete our thither the nation's whole power shall be directed to railways to their natural termini in the north, west,
restrain them. Yet I trust there shall be no need of and east, with their several branches, thus perfecting this; for there are now none—either individuals or the facilities of travel and cementing the bonds of parties—any longer mighty enough to arrest the charunion between the provinces.
iot of the republic's progress by the crime of a civil Such as have attentively watched the progress of
On the other hand, the liberties and rights of this country can not have failed to observe, as you citizens will be faithfully protected; and political paryourselves well know, the marked chanyes-economi- ties, so long as they keep within constitutional bounds cal, social, and political--effected by railways and tel and do not degenerate into revolutionary parties, egraph lines in their progressive extension through may remain in peaceful security from interference or the interior.
hindrance on the part of my Government. The door Rich and fertile provinces but await the construc of the Constitution and the law is wide enough for all tion of railways to increase their yieldiny powers a
parties and all noble ambitions. And thus, who can hundred-fold, with ready means of transportation to doubt that the party which twico in the course of six markets and the scacoast for their varied and mayniti- years committed the error of attempting to repair cent products, representing the threc kingdoms of na electoral deteats by force of arms might this day be ture.
the legitimate directors of the destinies of the nation, For my part, I shall regard it as the greatest glory had they not resorted to such odious extremes? In of my Government if, in three years from this day, wo cases of doubt or of impossibility to discern where succeed in saluting with the whistle of the locomotive the rights of the citizen end and the attributes of tho the towns of San Juan and Mendoza (the region of the Government begin, my preference will always be to vine and the olive), ot' Salta and Jujuy (the region of refrain from action, leaving time and public reason to coffee, sugar, and other tropical products), and, throw solve the difficulty; and, should I be forced to take ing wide open at the same time our gates to the com any steps that might affect the political interests of merce of Bolivia, to receive the metals from her rich cven the unworthiest of Argentines, I shall proceed and inexhaustible mines.
upon mature reflection, and after having heard the I rely upon your aid, and that of the whole country, opinion of my natural advisers and of the acknowlfor thë realization of these projects within the time cdyed eminent authorities which the country happily specified, or sooner if possible ; nor will the works possesses. mentioned be at all extraordinary or superior to our Our relations with foreign powers will be zealously resources, if we can only live in peace.
maintained and fostered liy my Government, care beThe other branches of administration, such as im- ing taken to augment and strengthen the bonds of migration, public instruction, tho enlightenment of all union between this republic and the most advanced classes of society, thc fostering care due to religion, nations. It will be my especial endeavor to preserve commerce, arts, and industry—these have become nor harınony with our neighbors, while strictly abstaining mal duties which no Government can now neglect.
from interference in their internal concerns. I must, nevertheless, make special mention of the for those with whom, in relation to boundaries, we necessity of peopling the desert territories, but yester- have difficulties still pendiny, I shall seek to solve day the home of savage tribes and to-day the possible these in a manner worthy of all concerned, without seat of populous towns, as the most efficient means of yielding one iota where I understand the dignity, securing their possession.
rights, or integrity of the republic to be affected. I shall continue our military operations along the As a consequence of these views, our obligations present frontier lines, north and south, until the com
toward foreign commerce shall be regarded as sacred, plete subjection of the Patagonian and Chaco Indians, and I shall spare neither pains nor sacrifices to prein order to blot out the military frontiers for ever, and serve our credit, both at hoine and abroad, by scrupunot leave a single span of Argentine soil beyond the lous attention to the service of our debts ; for I regard jurisdiction of the laws of the land.
the national honor as dependent upon the faithful disLet us rid completely those broad and fertile regions charge of that duty. of their traditional enemies who, since the days of the conquest, have ever retarded the development of our
ARGYLL, Duke of, GEORGE Dorglas CAMPpastoral wealth ; let us offer absolute security of life
BELL, K. T., the Lord Privy Seal in the new and property to those who engage their capital and English Cabinet, was born April 30, 1823. He their hands in the labor of fertilizing them, and we is the only surviving son of the seventh Duke
of Argyll, and succeeded his father on April ARKANSAS. The correct pronunciation 26, 1847. He sits in the House of Lords as of the name of this State has been a subject Baron Sundridge and Ilamilton, in the peer- of investigation by a joint committee of the age of England. He held the office of Lord Eclectic and the Arkansas Historical Society. Privy Seal also in the Earl of Aberdeen's Cabi- According to the results of their research, it net from 1852 to 1855, and on the break-up of appears that the name was taken from that of that Ministry he retained the office under Lord a tribe of Indians inhabiting the country upon Palmerston's premiership. IIe afterward be- the northern bank of the river of the same came Postmaster-General in the same Cabinet, name. The early French explorers caught but resumed the Privy Seal in 1859, exchanging from them the sounds of the name, and enagain to the postmastership on Lord Elgin be- deavored to represent them by French modes ing sent to China in the following year. He of spelling. In other words, it belongs to the retired in 1866. In the last Liberal Cabinet of class of Gallicized Indian names, which, toMr. Gladstone, the Duke of Argyll held (from gether with those of purely French origin, 1868 to 1874) the position of Secretary of State make so important a part of the nomenclature for India. Ile has been a frequent speaker in of the rivers, mountains, and prairies of the the Ilouse of Peers on such subjects as Jewish territory purchased from the French under Emancipation, the Scottish Marriage Bill, the the name of Louisiana. In the old diaries, Corrupt Practices at Elections Bill, the Sugar notes, reports, and rude maps of the early Duties, Foreign Affairs, the Ecclesiastical Ti- French, the name is differently spelled. Each, tles Bill, the Scottish Law of Entail, the Re- having no guide, made his own phonetic effort peal of the Paper Duties, etc. During the ad to represent sounds heard upon the lips of ministration of Lord John Russell he generally the natives. In one point all agree, that the supported the Government, but he identified sounds represented by the letters and syllables himself with the Liberal Conservatives. Ile can, in the French language, be nothing differshowed a special interest in all questions affect- ent from that pronunciation which afterward ing Scottish interests brought before the House became common, namely, the pronunciation of of Lords, especially in the affairs of the Church those syllables with the final s silent, and the of Scotland. Even before he had succeeded his broad sound of a in each. This French profather, he took, as Marquis of Lorne, an active nunciation passed afterward to the Ameripart in the controversy in the Presbyterian cans, prior to and with their purchase of the Church of Scotland relating to patronage, and territory, and was used by all the people, as was regarded as the chief support of Dr. Chal- well as by statesmen in official transactions.
The first pamphlets published by him, This is illustrated by the American spelling, and entitled “A Letter to the Peers, from a which for a while was adopted, to indicate apPeer's ison” (1842), and "On the Duty and Ne- proximately the French sounds. The English cessity of Immediate Interposition in Behalf of not having the final silent &, the letters aw the Church of Scotland," related to this ques were introduced temporarily to avoid ccrruption. Though an admiring friend of Dr. Chal- tion in pronunciation. They nearly, but not mers, he condemned the Free-Church move- quite, represent the broad sound of a in the ment then in agitation among certain members French, with the silent s. This became the of the General Assembly. The fullest exposé spelling of Congress. It caught the pronunof his views on church matters is given in his ciation and transported it into the English work, “Presbytery Examined ” (1848), which at a critical period, when it might have been traces and critically reviews the history of the lost or corrupted, as many French names of Presbyterian Church of Scotland since the Ref- less importance have been, to the point of en. ormation. Ile was elected Chancellor of the tire disguise. When the pronunciation had University of St. Andrews in 1851, and Rec- become familiar, and the danger was thought tor of the Glasgow University in 1854. In ad to be past, the better taste of the more cultidition to the works already mentioned, he pub- rated people, among whom was Governor Izlished in 1866 “ The Reign of Law," which had zard, of the State, insisted upon a restoration a very large circulation; in 1869, “Primeval of the original orthography, which was easily Man: an Examination of some Recent Specula- effected, and now universally adopted. But tions"; and in 1870 a small work on the“ Ilis- for uniformity, however, it would still be partory and Antiquities of Iona,” of which island donable to use the orthography of Congress, he is proprietor. He is Hereditary Master of in the act establishing the Territory. the Queen's Ilousehold in Scotland and keep Through these changes in spelling the proer of the Great Seal of Scotland, Lord-Lieuten- nunciation remained unaltered, and was reant and Hereditary Sheriff of Argyllshire, and tained by all the people until a quite recent a Trustee of the British Museum. lle was mar- period, and is still used by a very large maried to Lady Elizabeth, (laughter of the second jority of the people of all classes. The origin Duke of Sutherland. Ilis wife died in 1878. of the other pronunciation, which is used by Of his children, five sons and seven daughters a small class of educated people and has obwere living in 1880. The eldest son, the Mar- tained recognition, to some extent, among quis of Lorne, married, in 1871, the Princess lexicographers, although quite recent, eludes Louisa, fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. all investigation. By it the accent is cast on
the middle syllable, the final s is sounded, Institution holds 500 $1000 bonds of the State and the Italian sound of a in the second of Arkansas issued in 1838, and, as no interest and third syllables changed to the sound of has ever been paid, the indebtedness now a in can instead of its sound in car. The stands at something like $2,000,000, and the committee say : “We are happy to state, how- United States has made this default on the ever, that we find this vicious habit less uni- State's part the occasion for withholding payversal and less firmly established than the ment of the five per cent. fund due the State honor given it by lexicographers led us to arising from the sale of public lands. fear. It has never obtained except among a Another complication arises from the issue small class of immigrants from more distant of patents to citizens for this land already States. It is almost unknown in those States granted to Arkansas, and the donation of anwhich have furnished the great mass of our other quarter million of acres to railroads as population, and entirely so among those born a subsidy. Efforts are being made to have and bred in the State, or who came here at an Congress reduce the price of public lands in early period. We are, therefore, unanimous, this State to 62 cents an acre, except the reand without hesitation in declaring it, as the served alternate railroad sections. The State result of our inquiries, that the true pronun- Land Commissioner, in the fifteen months ciation of our State is in three syllables, with before January 1, 1880, disposed of 146,664 the broad Italian sound of a in each, and acres of the public lands of the State by sale with the final s silent, with the accent on and 317,640 acres by free grant to actual setthe first and last. The spelling is correct, and tlers, against 127,415 acres sold and 183,743 indicates properly its French origin. The po acres donated to settlers in the twenty-four lite world will doubtless concede to our State months preceding. the privilege of fixing the pronunciation of its An amendment was proposed to the State
The pronunciation herein indi Constitution, which was designed to take from cated as proper, is now retained and coinmon the Legislature all authority to pay certain ly used by the Governor, heads of departments, State bonds. To become valid, it was requiand all the Judges of our Superior Courts. We site that it should have been agreed to by a beg leave to recommend that it continue to be majority of all the members elected to each used in all official viva voce proceedings." Ilouse of the Legislature, and adopted by a
The Ilot Springs adjustment was finally se- majority of the electors of the State. The cured by an act of Congress, passed on June amendment had passed the Legislature and was 16, 1880. The important features of the act submitted to the voters at the election in Sepmay be briefly stated. It provides that ev teinber. It was in these words: ery person, his heirs or legal representatives,
Article XX. The General Assembly shall have in whose favor the commissioners appointed no power to levy any tax or make any appropriations by Congress, relative to the Hot Springs of to pay either the principal or interest, or any part Arkansas, have adjudicated, shall havo the thereof, of any of the following bonds of the State, to sole right to enter and pay for the amount of wit; Bonds issued under an act of the General Asland the cornmissioners have adjudged liiin en
sembly of the State of Arkansas, entitled " An Act to
provide for the Funding of the Public Debt of the titled to purchase. This privilege continues State," approved April 6, A. v. 1869, and numbered for eighteen months after the expiration of from four hundred and ninety-one to eighteen hunthe notice required by the tenth section of red and sixty, inclusive, being the “ Funding Bonds” the act of Congress of March 3, 1877. The delivered to . W. Caper, and sometimes called “Ilol
ford Bonds," or bonds known as Railroad Aid Bonds, person so entering land must pay to the re issued under an act of the General Assembly of the ceiver at Little Rock forty per cent. of the as State of Arkansas, entitled “ An Act to aid in the sessed value of said land placed thereon by Construction of Railroads," approved July 21, A. D. the commissioners.
1868, or bonds called " Levec Bonds," being bonds
issued under an act of the General Assembly of the A large and unadjusted claim is held by the
State of Arkansas, entitled " An Act providing for State against the Government of the United the Building and Repairing of the Public Levees of States. Under an act of Congress of 1850, de the State, and for other Purposes," upproved March signed to aid in the construction of the neces
16, A. D. 1869, and the supplemental act thereto, ap
An Act sary levees and drains to reclaim the swampproved April 17, 1869, and the act entitled and overflowed lands, Congress gave to the
to amend an Act entitled, ' An Act providing for
the Buildiny and Repairing of the Public Lerces of State the whole of such overflowed lands not this State," approved March 23, A. 1). 1871, and any then fit for cultivation. The Interior Depart
law providing for any such tax or appropriation shall
be null and void. ment, by this authority, reported as due 8,652,432.93 acres, and of this amount 7,627,812:14 At the election in September, this amendhave been approved to the State, and 7,121,- ment was rejected by the people by a major953 acres actually patented. There still re- ity of nearly four thousand votes. main unapproved 1,024, 620·79 acres, and of A Republican State Convention was held at the approved lands no patent has been issued Little Rock, on May 2d, at_which John A. for 505,858.66 acres.
The matter is compli Williams was President. Delegates to the cated from the fact that Arkansas is largely Chicago National Convention were appointed, indebted to the Smithsonian Institution, which and instructed to support General C. S. Grant is under the charge of the Government. This for President. Presidential electors were also