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subscribed. The application for twice or the country, have given place in some quarters thrice as many shares as there were, when the to the assumption that belligerent designs were books were opened, shows a remarkable con entertained toward Chili, with which republic fidence throughout Europe in the judgment the Patagonian boundary question is still pendand ability of De Lesseps, its promoter. ing; while the more plausible explanation of
The year has been marked by events of the the armament is by many regarded as simply highest importance for some of the Spanish- a prudent desire on the part of the Argentine American states. If peaceful elections and Government to be prepared in case Chili, when the fact of a change of administration having finally at peace with Peru, should be tempted been effected in the midst of unexampled se to make a demonstration of her liberated renity ; the resumption of friendly relations forces in support of her claim to sovereign with foreign powers after a protracted period jurisdiction over the disputed territory. The of estrangernent; the construction (no longer material prosperity of the Argentine Republic projected, but actual) of railways; the exten- has, in the mean time, suffered no check. sion of inland telegraph lines, and the laying Political affairs in Uruguay have been in a of a submarine cable-if all these bespeak the very unsettled condition, and the national revinauguration of an era of prosperity, such an enue in the second half of the year proved era has assuredly begun for Mexico within the inadequate to meet the Government requirepast twelve months.
ments. In the Central American republics a season
In Brazil the discussion of the electoral bill of international quiet, if not of absolute inter was continued with but little interruption; national harmony, has been enjoyed, and inuch but no event has occurred throughout the has been accomplished in the direction of fa- year to retard commercial or industrial progcilitating foreign commerce.
ress; trade with foreign nations, on the conIn Colombia the reverse has, for the most trary, would seem to be rapidly increasing, a part, been the order of things; and General by no means unimportant proof of which is Nuñez's Government, inaugurated in April, the fact of arrangements having been made has chiefly attracted attention at home and for the establishment of a regular line of abroad by a marked increase of imposts on steamers between the ports of Halifax, Nora foreign products entering the republic: print- Scotia, and Rio Janeiro in October, 1881. ed books, including even text-books for the ANGLICAN CHURCII. The population use of schools, having been subjected to an on connected with the Anglican Church in the erous rate of duty. A bill for an international British Isles, in British North America, and copyright treaty with the principal European in Australia, is estimated as follows:* and American nations was laid before the Co
18,522,000 lombian Legislature, and the new administra
760,000 tion has manifested a desire to encourage the development of the mining industry of the
The following new sees of the Church of Little has been accomplished in the way of England were established in 1879 and 1880 : real progress in eitlier Venezuela or Ecuador; In England, Liverpool, 1880 (forming part of Peru has continued to resist, but has been pow- the province of York); in India, Travancore erless to repel, the Chilian invaders, and her and ('ochin, 1879 ; in China, Mid-China, 1880 ; very capital has been menaced with destruc- in America, New Westminster, 1879, and tion; while Bolivia, partly from inability and Caledonia, 1879. partly from apathy, has tendered little aid to
The Convocation of Canterbury met June her ally, but rather sullenly submits to the pro- 1st. Petitions were presented and considered spective forfeiture of an important portion of in favor of the act for closing the publicher territory, which must inevitably follow the houses on Sunday, against any alteration in the ultimate success of the Chilian arms in the Book of Common Prayer, and in favor of the present strife.
more complete representation of the clergy. In Chili, commerce, agriculture, and mining In the Lower IIouse, a resolution respecting the have of necessity suffered from the long drain « Burials Bill ” supported by the Government of forces to maintain the strength of the army; before Parliament was adopted, as follows: but the moral energy of the Government and "That the Lower lIouse of the Convocation of people has been sustained by uniform success; Canterbury are bound by their duty to the the interest on the foreign and home debts Church humbly to record the expression of their has been regularly paid, nor has the Executivo deep regret that it should be judged necessary required to be invested with any extraordinary on the part of her Majesty's advisers to propose powers to raise funds and organize elements to Parliament a measure which, if it shall bewith which to carry on the war.
come law, will, for the first time in the history The Argentine Republic has been the scene
of the country, save and except only the time of considerable disturbance during the electo- of the Commonwealth, take away from the ral campaign. The military policy announced by the new President in his message, and the
* For a more detailed statistical account, and for a comincrease of the military and naval resources of plate nisto dioceses existing at the beginning of 1879, 608
Church of England the exclusive control, ac The twelfth annual Conference of the Socicording to her own doctrines and discipline, of ety for the Liberation of Religion from State the use of her own churchyards; and that this Patronage and Control, was held in London, House desires, by this solemn protest, to deliver June 10th. Mr. II. Lee, V. P., presided. The itself of all responsibility as to any dishonor report stated that the receipts of the Society which may be done to Almighty God by the for the year had been £11,398, and the excharacter of the worship which, in the event penditures £10,818. Seven million copies of of the passage of this bill
, may hereafter be publications had been issued, and nearly two offered in her churchyards." A committee was thousand meetings had been held. Resoluappointed to consider the best method of pro- tions were adopted declaring that the Conferviding for Episcopal supervision over Anglican ence viewed with satisfaction the resulis of congregations in the North of Europe. The the recent elections in Scotland, and the indiArchbishop was deputed to confer with the cations that the question of disestablishment Government respecting an increase in the nuin was not to remain in abeyance till another ber of elected proctors, and a change in the election; that it approved of Mr. Roundell's mode of elections and the qualifications of elec- motion atfirming the inexpediency of retaining tors. The bishops agreed that they would use clerical restrictions in connection with any all their influence in Parliament to secure the headship or fellowship in any college of Oxford incorporation in the bill for taking the census or Cambridge, and also of Mr. Bryce's proin 1881 of a provision for taking a religious cen- posal for the abolition of such restrictions in sus in England.
connection with professorships of Hebrew and The second meeting of the Convocation was ecclesiastical history; that the Public Worship held July 13th. A committee of both Ilouses Regulation Act had failed to accomplish its was appointed to consider how best to provide professed object; expressing the belief that a for Episcopal supervision over Anglican con- remedy for the evils which aflict the Church gregations in the North of Europe. The com would be found, not in fresh legislation, but in mittee to whom the subject of the Burials Bill employing the spiritual forces of a free church; had been referred, made a report suggesting and expressing gratification at the early introthat, if the bill should not be passed, both the duction of the Burials Bill, and a hope that it Church and dissenters should give up the fu- might be satisfactorily amended. neral services at the grave, and hold them only The twentieth annual Church Congress was at their houses of worship. This clause was held in Leicester, beginning September 27th. struck out by vote of the Conrocation, and the The opening sermons were preached by the report was referred back to the committee. Archbishop of York and the Dean of Llandaff. The Convocation of York met at the saine The Bishop of Peterborough presided at the time, and took action in favor of securing pro- Congress. Papers were read and discussed on vision for a religious census of England in the subjects relating to the foreign missions of the bill for a general census which was about to Church, “The Church and the Poor ”; “The be presented to Parliament.
Religious Condition of the Nation”; 6. The The eighty-first annual meeting of the Church Church in relation to the Organization of LaMissionary Society was held in London, May bor”; Upper and Middle Class Education; its 4th. The Earl of Chichester presided. The Present Condition, and how to maintain and total amount of contributions given to the So- promote its Religious Character ”; “Sundayciety during the year had been £221,723, and Closing and Local Option"; "The Internal the expenditures had been £200,307. The Unity of the Church, and the Influence of the capital fund had been restored to its original Three Great Schools of Thought in the Church figure of £68,281. The committee had resolved of England upon each other, and upon tho to set apart £60,000 as the permanent work- Church ”; “The Existing Forms of Unbelief; ing capital of the Society, and to place the re their Social and Moral Tendencies”; · The mainder of the fund to a separate account, to Cathedral System; how to reform it so as to be called the contingency fund. Four hundred strengthen the Relations of the Cathedral to the and eighty clergymen, of whom 218 were Euro- Diocese, and to make cach Cathedral a more pean, were engaged in the work of the Society, Efficient Center of Religious Equality”; “ The with 2,686 native and country-born Christian Duty of the Church as regards Civil Laws recatechists. The number of communicants in lating to Marriage and Divorce”; “ The ('omthe mission churches was 28,510.
munion of Saints; how may it be strengthened The receipts of the Society for the Propaga- and manifested"; " Popular Recreations; how tion of the Gospel for 1879 were: from collec- to improve them; Light Literature and the tions and subscriptions to the general fund, £71,- Stage.” The Congress was visited by a depu099; from legacies, £10,93+; froin dividends, tation representing the nonconformist minis£4,753; total in the general fund, £86,787. ters of Leicester, bidding it welcome to the Other funds had been appropriated to the town. The Bishop of Peterborough responded amount of £9,943, and special funds amounted in a courteous address. to £34,943, making the entire income of all The Synod of the Episcopal Church in Ireclasses, £131,674. The Society had employed land met in Dublin, April 20th, and was opened 593 missionaries.
with an address from the Lord Primate. The VOL. XX.—2 A
financial reports showed that a steady decrease found exhibitions which might be held in New in the receipts from various sources had been Zealand or elsewhere. The arrangements for going on for several years past, the amount re the selection of hymns and the musical parts ceived under the head of assessment having of the service were declared to be under the fallen from £124,424 in 1876 to £108,272 in control of the clergymen, not of the vestry. 1879, and the receipts from all sources from Favorable accounts were given of religious work £212,095 to £165,007. The attention of the among the Maories, and in the islands. Synod was given to the discussion of the rela ANTIMONY-MINES IN MEXICO. The antions of the Divinity School in Trinity College timony of commerce has hitherto been derived with the Synod, of the status of proprietary almost exclusively from the sulphide-ore called churches, the formation of a General Church stibnite, or gray antimony. In this state the Committee, the claims of the minor ircum- metal is distributed very widely over the globe, bents and curates, the increasing expenditure though it is found nowhere in large deposits. of the representative body, the consecration It is mined in Hungary and different parts of of church-building, and primary education. Europe, and is found in California and Nevada;
The Provincial Synod of the Episcopal but the principal source of the supply is Borneo, Church in Canada was held in Montreal in whence it is shipped in ballast to the English September. The Synod decided that the name smelters. The cost of the purified metal is quite of the Church should hereafter be“ The Church high, being as great as that of tin and copper, of England in Canada”; that a Board of For- and about four times that of lead. Its high eign Missions should be formed for the collec- price is owing not only to the comparative intion of money for missions to the heathen frequency of the ores, but to the difficulty of abroad, and a Board of Domestic Missions for reducing the sulphide, in which the antimony work in British America, particularly in the is usually associated with various troublesome diocese of Algoma; and that persons might be mineral impurities, which impede and compliadmitted to the diaconate, but not to the priest- cate the process of extraction. The reduction hood, without surrendering their worldly call- of the sulphide is a long process. The sulphide ings.
is first separated from the gangue by fusion, The fifth Synod of the Diocese of Sydney met and then reduced to an oxide by roasting in a in Sydney, New South Wales, June 22d. Bish- reverberatory furnace; and from the oxide thé op Barker, in liis opening address, mentionedd metallic antimony is obtained by fusion with as important topics affecting the interests of charcoal saturated with a solution of carbonate the Church, the Public Instruction Act of 1880, of sodium. and the Church and school land revenues, Extensive mines of the oxide of antimony an act concerning which was pending before hare recently been discovered in Sonora, Mexthe Colonial Parliament. He urged the clergy ico, in the district of Altar. The attention of to avail themselves of the opportunities for metallurgists was called to these deposits in imparting religious instruction in the public 1879 by the discoverer, E. T. Cox, of Arizona. schools. Al resolution was proposed reciting A company of capitalists from Boston was soon that the Church had not the influence in the formed who secured nine claims of the dimencolony which it should, by its numbers and sions allowed in Mexico, 2,624 by 656 feet, inposition, be entitled, and advising the members cluding all the outcropping lodes. The geologito take a more active interest in politics. After cal character of the country where this valuable considerable debate, it received the vote of a discovery was made is identical with that of large majority of the clergy, but was defeat- southern Arizona. The mountains are in short, ed by the negative vote of the laity. The in narrow ranges, running mostly in a north-andcome of the Church Society for the year had south direction. Some of the summits are irbeen £14,000. The Society granted stipends regular and rugged, and some are smooth, round to thirty-eight clergymen and eight catechists. cones, owing to the different degrees of erosion
The triennial meeting of the General Synot in the different materials of their masses. Beof Nero Zealand, was held at Christchurch in tween the parallel ranges is table-land or mesa, April, and was attended by seven bishops, formed of the eroded material. The peaks are twenty clergy, and twenty-three lay represent- porphyry, quartzites, basalt, diorites, and traatives. The Primate suggested that a revision chytes, the principal mass of the mountainof the wording of the constitution of the Syn- chains granite, the sedimentary rock on their od was needed to adapt the instrument to the flanks a sub-carboniferous limestone, in which changes which had taken place in the circum- the fossil remains have been effaced by igneous stances of the colonies since it was framed, action. The débris which forms the mesa is so and a motion providing for a revision was loose that the rain sinks through it, leaving the made, but not acted upon. The principal sub- surface always dry and arid. In the immediate jects considered by the Synod were the con- neighborhood of the mines only the limestone solidation of the parochial system, and clerical and quartzite are found. The lodes are from education. The Board of Theological Studies four to twenty feet thick. The ore has been provided a uniform standard of education for removed to the depth of thirty feet, and the fisall the dioceses. It was resolved not to attempt sures are found to be filled from one wall to the to establish a central theological college, but to other with the solid ore. It is oxide of anti
Minister of Finance...
M. Juarez Celman,
S. de Iriondo.
mony, almost pure, and remarkably uniform. and Great Britain is Dr. Manuel R. García. The course of the lodes is north and south, par- The Argentine chargé d'affaires in the United allel with the axis of the mountains. The pitch States (during the Minister's absence in Engis high to the east. All the lodes are found land) is Señor Don Julio Carrié. The Consulwithin an area five or six miles long and one General (at New York) for the American Unhalf mile wide ; on three of them the ore crops ion is Señor Don Carlos Carranza. The Govout above the surface of the ground, and can be ernors of the several provinces, etc., were : seen bulging out for several hundred feet along Buenos Ayres.... Dr. Juan José Romero.* the lode. The ore is almost pure oxide, the only
Minister of the Interior. . Dr. Carlos A. D'Amico,! October,
Dr. Mariano Domaria, 5 1880. impurity being silica, which is present in very
M. J. Rodriguez. small quantities. The ore assayed 60 and 70'per Córdoba. cent. of pure metal, and is expected to average
Colonel J. Anteto. 50 per cent. There is no indication that the Jujuy..
Bustamante. oxide ceases and gives place to sulphide deeper
V. A. Alinonacid.
Mendoza down in the lodes. The mineral varies from a
Dr. M. Oliva. light color, almost white, to a dark brown. The
T, Mendoza. purest specimens have the specific gravity 5.07; in these there is 75 per cent. of antimony; they Santiago del Estero
D. Martinez de Muñecas. contain 5 per cent. of water. It corresponds in
Gran Chaco Territory
Colonel L. V. Mansilla. composition and specific gravity to the min- Patagonia...
Colonel A. Barros. eral called stibiconite. It is only slightly soluble in hydrochloric and nitric acids, and aquational Guard, comprises 7,175 men, as follows:
The Argentine army, exclusive of the Naregia. Fased with carbonate of soda in a cruci- 2,929 horse ; 3,332 foot ; artillery, 914. There ble of platinum, it decomposes readily. The ore
are 5 generals of brigade, 9 colonels-major, is reduced only with difficulty before the blow
30 colonels; 107 lieutenant-colonels; 166 serpipe, but yields readily in a crucible with pow. geants-major, and 735 officers of other grades. dered charcoal or cyanide of potassium, giving The National Guard was, at the time of last star antimony. This particular oxide of antimony has never before been met with except returns, 236,000 strong; and the reserve, 68,
000. as a slight coating on other minerals containing antimony. It has before been so rare that spe
The navy was composed of 27 vessels: 2
steam ironclads, 6 steam gunboats, 2 steam cimens containing only a few grains were diffi- torpedoes
, 12 steamers (transformed into warcult to procure.
Antimony is an exceedingly useful metal, and ships), 3 steam transports, and 2 sail of the if more abundant could be applied to additional line ; with an aggregate tonnage of 12,000, an uses. It is chiefly valuable for the alloys which chiefs of squadron, 5 colonels, 8 lieutenant
armament of 88 guns, and manned with 2 it gives in combination with other metals. The colonels, 6 majors, 7 captains, 26 lieutenants, chief of these are type-metal and britannia
22 students, 43 midship nen, 7 paymasters, 26 metal. Type-metal is composed of lead and antimony, the proportion of the latter varying 2,000 infantry and artillery (National Guard);
engineers; 900 seamen, including officers ; between 17 and 20 per cent. Britannia-ware is made of an alloy with tin, copper, and zinc, subaltern officers, and 80 men.
and 1 torpedo section, with 3 commandants, 8
There is a nacontaining 16 per cent. of antimony and 81 of val school and a school for cabin-boys; and an tin. The valuable pharmaceutical preparations
arsenal has been built at Zárate. of antimony, tartar-emetic, etc., must be freed absolutely from arsenic and other impurities the fiscal year 1879_80 were as shown in the
The estimated revenue and expenditure for which the antimony of commerce nearly always following tables: contains. ARGENTINE REPUBLIC (REPÚBLICA AR
$13,300,000 GENTINA).* The President of the Republic is Export duties..
2,500,000 Brigadier-General Don Julio A. Roca inaugu- Stamped paper, patents, etc..
650,000 rated on October 12, 1880); and the Vice Post-office and telegraphs..
450,000 President, Don Francisco B. Madero. The Lighthouses, ctc..
635,939 new Cabinet is composed of the following Min Interest, etc. (on national funds loaned to provisters: Interior, Señor Del Viso; Finance, Dr.
509,061 Cortinez (ad interim until May, 1881, when
800,000 the regular appointee, Dr. Don Juan José Romero, Governor of the province of Buenos
$19,250,000 Ayres until that date, will assume the portfolio); Justice, Public Worship, and Public In- Ministry of the Interior.
$2,582,891 struction, Señor Pizarro; War, and the Navy, Ministry of Finance....
9,413,130 Señor Victorica.
Ministry of Justice, Public Instruction, etc.. 1,286,969
5,078,745 The Argentine Envoy Extraordinary and Ministry of War and the Navy. Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States
$18.479,614 * See" Annual Cyclopædia" for 1972, 1877, and 1878, for * Ad interim until May, 1881, when he will assume the statistics concerning area, population, territorial divisions, etc. portfolio of Finance in the national Government.
WAR AND THE NAVY.
Collection of revenue.
The surplus observed on comparing the totals young nations to have the largest possible number of of these two tables is $770,386.
inhabitants educated, while it is perhaps the noblest Some of the more important items of expen- tributed to the Government. Finally comes the Min
manner of returning to the people what they have conditure in the several departments of the Gov- istry of War and the Navy with $82,720, of which $50,ernment, according to the estimate already re 000, are for the new powder-factory, a medical corps, ferred to, are exhibited in the subjoined table: and Board of Health, the placing in commission of
several ships at present lying up, the erection of marine workshops, etc. The taxes
all remain as they were in President of the Republic (salary, and expenses
1880, except some slight modification in the manner of of his household). .
$16,920 collecting them. Legislature..
530,578 Post-Office and telegraphs.
The financial condition of the Argentine Immigration,
246,036 Republic is, on the whole, and despite of many Subsidies to provincial governments.. Railways..
373,600 unfavorable circumstances, chief among which
are the devastating revolutions which attend Army.
electoral campaigns, extremely favorable, and Navy..
610,782 the country's credit is uniformly maintained
abroad, thanks to the unexceptional regularity JUSTICE, ETC.
$168,863 observed in the service of the national debt. Public Instruction
865,656 Between the years 1863 and 1870 the revenue
increased 120 per cent., and between 1870 and National debt.
$8,433,857 1878 a further advance of about 4 per cent. 718,410
was apparent. The returns for 1879 now show The customs receipts for each month of the an increase of rather less then 5 per cent. as year 1879, as given in the following table, compared with those for 1878; * but this is atthough in general but little below the standard tributed in part to the enhanced import tax on for the most favorable years, do not aggregate wool, for which Minister Plaza obtained peras high as the estimated receipts for 1879–80, mission from Congress in 1878. Notwithshown in the foregoing table of the revenno: standing that it is an express violation of the January
$1,199,187 25 Constitution to impose any export duties on February
native products, yet the tax on wool was raised March.
1,059,946 21 April.
to 6 per cent. ad valorem, a state of things reMay..
1,414,375 24 garded as prejudicial to the interests of the
1,011,146 07 July
republic, since it would be impossible for August.
929,997 22 Buenos Ayres, shackled with such an impost, September..
to compete with Australia, which exports its
1,152,853 93 November.
930,427 98 wool free of duty. Dr. Plaza's policy, how4,196,683 71 ever, was cordially supported by the people of $13,150,823 50
Buenos Ayres. As the inhabitants of the city
already paid forty-five dollars per capita to the Dr. Avellaneda, in his message to Congress, national Government, twenty dollars to the immediately before surrendering the executive provincial government, and about ten dollars to power to his successor, made the following the Municipal Council, it was deemed wise and statement concerning the budget:
more patriotic” that any new taxes should The total expenditure for the year 1881 is estimated be laid on the estancieros (farmers, etc., occuat $20,207,851, as follows: Interior, $3,452,995.08; For- pying the estancias in the rural districts). The eign Affairs, $140,840; Finance, 89,455,322.57; Justice, incidence of taxation was as follows: etc., $1,499,452 ; War and the Navy (army, $4,710,610; navy, $917,622=) $5,658,232; and showing an increase of $1,724,337 over tho present year (1880) as Buenos Ayres (city)...
$8,600,000 follows: Interior, $870,114; Foreign Affairs, $24,000 ;
Buenos Ayres (rural districts)..
4,500,000 Finance, $42,252 ; Justice, etc., $202,484; War and the Thirteen remaining provinces of the republic.... 2,100,000 Navy (army, $302,617 ; navy, $279,840=) $582,487. This increase is in a great measure merely nominal,
$15,500,000 as the whole amount appropriated is rarely spent, although it well might be in the present instance, anel City.
$3,250,000 particularly in the branches for which the increase is
1,500,000 intended. A few words will explain this: Ofthe $870,
$4,750,000 114 asked for the Interior, $650,000 are for the extension of the Central North and Andino Railways, and
$20,250,000 may be looked upon as the earnings of said lines. Conscquently, the real increase is only $220,114, which will llence, the taxes paid by the Argentine peobe chiefly devoted to immigration and colonization, and ple were as follows: subsidizing the municipal bodies to be created for those purposes; the founding of new colonies in Patagonia ; the improvement of roads, bridges, and public build
capita. ings; the canalization of the port of Santa Fé; the repairing of the dredging-machinery, and other urgent
Buenos Ayres (city)..
$11,850,000 $55.00 public items which reach in the aggregate $85,848 in
Buenos Ayres (rural districts),
6,300,000 15.00 the estimates of the other ministerial departments. The
Thirteen remaining provinces.
2,100,000 increase for Public Instruction is comparatively insig
20,250,000 nificant, if the appropriations made in former years tor this branch are considered, and how important it is for * Seo "Annual Cyclopædia" for 1879, p. 38.
REVENUE OF BI'EXOS AYRES.