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ning a war against the colony. Much discon- reform, but wholly incapable and unwilling to tent has been manifested in the Transvaal carry it out. (See Morocco.) against the annexation of that country to the AGRICULTURE. (See COMMERCE and British colony. In December, the Boers rose C'NITED STATES.) against English rule, proclaimed the restora- ALABAMA. The session of the Legislature tion of the Transvaal republic, and drove the of Alabama commenced on November 9th, and English troops out of a number of places. with a recess in December continued into the (See CAPE COLONY.)

ensuing year. Senator Rothen was chosen Affairs in Egypt have been unusunlly pros- President of the Senate, and, in the House, N. perous. The material condition of the people H. R. Dallas. was chosen Speaker. has improved, the financial exhibits have been The financial condition of the State has been more satisfactory, and the foreign relations of greatly improved within the last six years. A the country have been more pleasant. Hos- readjustment of the debt has been made, which tilities with Abyssinia have been suspended, is now wellnigh executed in its details; exand the conclusion of peace between the two penditures have been reduced, resources econcountries was reported in June; but another omized, outstanding warrants cleared off, payconcentration of troops on the Abyssinian bor- ment of interest resumed, expenses paid as der was mentioned in the fall. The slave. they were incurred, and a balance accumulated trade, notwithstanding the Government pro- in the Treasury, while the rate of taxation has fessed to be making great efforts to put it been reduced from eight mills to seven on the down, has been kept up in the southern prov- dollar. inces and on the coast of the Red Sea. (See The total interest-bearing bonded debt of EGYPT.)

the State is now $9,008,000, on which the inThe condition of the Jews in Morocco has terest for the current year will be $244,040, attracted serious attention. The numerous and for the year 1881-'82, owing to the increased complaints of ill treatment which came from rate on the A and the C classes of bonds, $319,them, led to the calling of a conference of 130. The amount of the bonded debt, and plenipotentiaries at Madrid, which was attend therefore of interest, will be increased from ed by a Moorish envoy. This body agreed time to time by further exchanges until the upen a paper, which was put into the hands settlement embodied in the act of February of the envoy, claiming liberty of conscience 23, 1876, is complete. and equality of rights for all the Christian On September 30, 1878, there remained in and Hebrew subjects of the Sultan. The the Alabama Insane Hospital at Tuscaloosa Sultan was believed to be willing to promise 401 patients. In the last two years 214 paTxU

tients have been admitted and 213 have been than fifty a year—the actual decrease in two discharged, leaving 402 under treatment on years being 114. the 30th of September last, of whom 213 On the subject of the payment of costs in are women and 189 inen. The percentage of criminal cases, the Governor, in his message to cures on admissions was 44.50, and the per- the Legislature, presents the following views : centage of deaths on the total number treated “I recommend such changes in the laws prewas 5.84. Of those under treatment at the scribing hard labor for the county for misdedate of the report, 71 were colored. The num- meanors as will forbid and prevent punishment ber of applications for treatment within the for non-payment of costs. In a recent case, two years beginning October 1, 1878, was 427, an offender convicted of two misdemeanors on of which 214

were received. In this time 142 the same day and in the same court, was senwere refused for want of room. The hospital tenced to three months' hard labor for each ofreceipts for 1878–79 were $85,095.95, of which fense, and, on default of payment of costs, to $68,659.50 was from the State, and the balance hard labor for an additional period of nearly from paying patients, sale of stock, borrowed three years in each case. This is an instance money, etc., and the expenditures for all pur- of unusual hardship; but many cases differing poses were $85,095.95. The receipts for 1879 from this in degree only have been brought to -'80 were $81,658.07, of which $67,203.50 was my attention. Inability to pay costs is not a from the State, and $3,288.15 was borrowed; crime, and should not be treated as such. the expenditures, including the payment of mon- Reasonable costs should be paid by the county ey borrowed the previous year, were the same. which has the service at hard labor of con

There is a Deaf and Dumb and Blind Asylum victs for misdemeanors, and the State should in the State, in which the number of pupils is pay reasonable costs where the sentence is to 75, of whom 19 are blind. All deaf-mutes in the Penitentiary. Adequate punishment should the State, and all blind children over eight years be inflicted for every offense committed, but of age, are entitled to the benefits of the insti- no punishment should ever be permitted for tation free of charge, save that all except the mere inability to pay what is in effect and fact, indigent bear the expense of travel from their whatever it may be in law, a debt to the State homes and pay for their clothing.

or to its officers." In the State Penitentiary there were on Sep- The receipts and expenditures of the State tember 30, 1878, 954 convicts, after which date Treasury for the fiscal year ending September 270 were received and five were recaptured, 30, 1830, were as follows: At the close of the making a total during the two years of 929. last fiscal year, on October 1, 1879, there was a Or these, 274 were discharged, 29 were par- balance in the Treasury of $267,061.75. Durdoned, 26 escaped, and 60 died, leaving in ing the ensuing year the total receipts amountprison on the 30th of September, 1880, only ed to $681,174.81, and the disbursements to 640 convicts—a decrease in two years of 114. $597,692.82, leaving a balance in the TreasAt the same date in 1878 there was due to the ury, September 30, 1880, of $350,533.74, or Penitentiary, and uncollected, from contract- $83,481.99 as the net accumulation of the year. ors $17,290.81, from the United States $626,50, This is attributable to the economy of the adand from other sources $35.11, and there was ministration for 1880, a comparison of disin the hands of the Warden in cash $5,313.37 bursements with those of the preceding year Gin all, $20,247.79. The gross earnings of showing a difference of more than $90,000 the prison for two years were $51,813.15, and in favor of 1880. The fact of there being no the expenses for provisions, clothing, wood, General Assembly to pay partly accounts for medicine, and transportation of convicts since this difference, but that expense being less than March 1, 1879, were $9,840.91, leaving as net $50,000, there remains a balance to the credit earnings $41,972.21.

of the administration of more than $40,000. There exists in Alabama a system of hard This statement, by comparison with those of labor as an alternative for imprisonment in the former years, discloses the fact that receipts Penitentiary. It is peculiar to the State, where from general taxes have decreased. For the it results in such diversity of punishment for fiscal year ending September, 1878, the State the sanno offense in different localities that in received from general taxes $593,499.34; the some cases felons practically escape with a fine next year $564,722.17; and for the year 1880, and in others are punished excessively and cru- $515,716.16. Receipts from the tax on license, elly; for a sentence to hard labor for the redemption of land, the Penitentiary, and other county is supplemented by a further condition

sources of revenue, were increased. al sentence, often for a longer period than that The following statement shows the valuafixed for the crime, for the payment of costs, tions and taxation of property in Alabama for thus bearing hardly and unequally on the evil- the last four years: doer whose inability to pay subjects him to longer confinement and service. The growing disposition to substitute hard_labor for the

$185,535,792 00 74 mills. $1,016,518 44 county for hard labor in the Penitentiary is

180), 799,138 57

915,598 07 depopulating the latter, in which the number 1878. 126,773,262 85 of convicts is decreasing at the rate of more


Valuation of property.

Tar rate.

Amount of taxes.



128,757,072 85

866,299 51


887,412 84



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With increasing prosperity and population the Congress for increasing the efficiency of the assessments continually diminish, and this con- National Board, as interfering with State and dition of affairs is attributed to some radical local quarantine. It argues that no uniform defect in the revenue laws.

system of quarantine regulations is suitable at The school statistics of 1879, compiled by all times and places; but that one which is apthe Superintendent, give the number of per- plicable to one place will often prove unsuited sons of school age as follows:

to another, and that in different seasons even 214,099 the same place will require different regula162,551 tions. It holds also that the circumstantial

376,639 details of quarantine present the important Those in attendance in public schools :

problems of quarantine administration, and

that only by experts, intimately acquainted 106,950 67,635

with the local conditions, can these be wisely

ordered and managed. The State Board also 174,585

objects to the rule established in 1879 by the The number of children at colleges and pri- National Board, to the effect that assistance vate schools is about equal to that in the free should be extended only to such State and muschools. Of colleges in the State there are the `nicipal boards as had first adopted the national State University, the Agricultural and Mechan- rules and regulations, and it contends that such ical College, the Normal (white) at Florence, State and municipal boards as desire the asand also one at Huntsville and the other at sistance of the National Board should be reMarion, both colored. Besides these, there quired to submit their local regulations to the are male colleges at Greensboro, at Mobile, at National Board for examination, and if these Marion, and at Oxford. There are female col- are found sufficient the needed assistance should leges at Tuskegee and Eufaula, at Montgom- be granted; that the National Board ought ery two, at Marion two, at Huntsville two, at properly to have the general direction and conAthens, Florence, and 'Tuscaloosa two, and trol of quarantines against foreign countries, in almost every city, town, and village in the but that even these international quarantines State are flourishing private schools. There could be most wisely administered through the has never been before such an interest in agency of State and municipal boards having schools and education generally in Alabama local jurisdiction in the seaport cities. The as now exists.

Alabama Board disclaims any antagonism to While comparatively little has been expend- the National Board; on the contrary, admits ed in schoolhouses, salaries, printing, and books, for it a wide and important field of usefulness a large proportion of the children are edu- within which State and municipal boards have cated in log structures built by neighbor- no jurisdiction, and that its existence should be hoods. The people have cheerfully paid the maintained by the appropriations for which it tax for free schools in sums relatively larger has made application, as necessary for the sucthan the amounts paid by the populations of cessful continuance of scientific investigations, richer States. The following statistics show sanitary surveys, and other works of sanitary the improvement in public schools within a administration and research that have been

auspiciously begun. In 1874–75, 145,797 pupils were taught in The commissioners representing the late cor3,898 schools an average of about sixty days, at poration of Mobile, in October, 1880, decided a cost of $562,437.50.

with the bondholders on a basis of adjustment In 1875–76, 126,891 pupils were taught in in the payment of three per cent. for five years, 3,632 schools an average of eighty days, at à four per cent. for fifteen years, and five per cost of $351,496.64.

cent. for five years. Under the terms of the In 1876–77, 143,571 pupils were taught in act annulling the charter of the late city, the 4,175 schools an average of eighty-one and one commissioners are required to report to the half days, at a cost of about $370,000.

Governor of the State the result of their comIn 1877–78, 160,713 pupils were taught in promise with the bondholders. The attorney 4,796 schools an average of eighty-four and of the commissioners will at the same time two-thirds days, at a cost of $377,634.38. submit to the Legislature a draft of such an

In 1878–79—not including Fayette and Win- act for their consideration as, in the judgment ston Counties, from which no reports have been of the commissioners, may be required to carry made, and not including the unreported negro into effect the scheme of adjustment agreed schools of Blount—172,540 pupils were taught upon. On the passage of such act the comin 4,582 schools an average of eighty-four days, missioners are to apply to the Chancery Court at a cost of $381,884.35.

at Mobile for such orders and decrees as may The Board of Health for the State differs with be necessary to secure the application of the the National Board of Health about the ex- assets under its jurisdiction to the uses and pediency of intrusting the administration of purposes agreed upon. quarantine to any other health authorities than A decision by the United States Supreme those of its own people and appointment. The Court in several cases arising from the repeal State Board objects to the several bills before of the Memphis charter follows the decision


few years :

in Barkeley vs. Levee Commissioners et al. It crosses the Alabama Great Southern, and at decides that a State has the power to abolish a Decatur it crosses the Memphis and Charlespublic corporation, even when it owes debts, ton, and taps the Tennessee River, with its line and that new corporations may be created over of boats to Ohattanooga, and thence by rail on the same territory which are not responsible to Nashville, Louisville, St. Louis and Cincinfor the debts of the defunct corporation; and, nati, etc. The Alabama Great Southern runs further, that the creditor has no remedy in east and west across the State, 295 miles, conthe courts whatever, but can only apply to the necting at Meridian, Mississippi, with the MoLegislature for relief.

bile and Ohio and the Vicksburg and Meridian. According to the sixth quarterly report The other lines traverse the State in all direcmade by the commissioners to the Chancery tions-such as the Mobile and Montgomery Court, and filed therein September 20, 1880, it (now a part of the Louisville and Great Southappears that the total outstanding coupons ern); the Western, from Montgomery to Selma, due down to May 1, 1890, amount to $86,504. and to Atlanta and Columbus, Georgia, and This, added to the bonded debt ($2,223,749), the Montgomery and Eufaula, við Eufaula to makes the total debt $2,310,253. Add to this Macon and Savannah, with cross and short the coupons that may be due when the adjust- lines to nearly everywhere and in all direcment goes into effect, and the judgments ob- tions. The only two projected roads needed tained against the late city, and the debt will in Alabama are the Georgia Western, from still be under two and one half millions. Atlanta, and the Grand Trunk, from Mobile

To pay three per cent. upon this debt will to Birmingham. With these two additional require $75,000 annually for five years, $100,- lines, especially the first mentioned, the sys000 annually therenfter for fifteen years, and tem will be complete, and equal to any emer$125,000 annually thereafter for five years. gency in the near future, notwithstanding the

The assessed value of property within the present and prospective industries and develold limits of the city in 1878 was $16,254,093.opments. The Alabama River is navigable all Assuming that the assessments under this ad- the year, five hundred miles, between Montjustment will amount to $16,000,000, it will gomery, Selma, and Mobile, as are also the require a tax of less than one half of one per Warrior, Bigbee, and Chattahoochee-all tapcent. to realize $75,000 annually. In five years ping a rich cotton belt and inaking rail conthe assessments may advance with renewed nections. prosperity, and po larger ratio of taxation be The purchase by the Louisville and Nashrequired to realize the $100,000 which will ville of the Selma and Pensacola Railroad will then be needed annually.

open a new timber and cotton market for PenThe annual statement of the commerce and sacola, Greenville, and Montgomery. There trade of Mobile, in September, 1880, does not are in operation forty miles of this new purexhibit a large increase—with New Orleans on chase, known as the Selma and Gulf, from one, and the Atlantic ports on the other side Selma in the direction of Pensacola. The of her, and with the extensive shipments of Louisville and Nashville company are working cotton from the interior by railway to the on its southern end, from its junction with the north, Mobile suffers serious disadvantages Mobile and Montgomery and the Pensacola, at as a cominercial seaport. But notwithstand- or near Pollard. ing these, new branches of trade and industry The Louisville and Nashville combination have sprung into existence. The popular en- and consolidation with the Georgia system is terprise is directed toward manufacturing; nothing more than an alliance, offensive and the increase of naval stores, and the lumber defensive, or division of territory, as to freights trade; and to the production of vegetables and rates. for the Western markets. Its dry-dock com- The route from Meridian to Tupelo touches petes successfully with similar establishments Lauderdale Junction, where the Alabama Cenelsewhere, and the proprietors have launched, tral Railroad diverges on its way to Selma and in addition to smaller craft, a new river Montgomery. From Mobile to Macon, a dissteamboat of about one thousand bales capaci- tance of one hundred and seventy-six' miles, ty. Two new manufacturing enterprises have the road traverses the long-leaved pine region been inaugurated, an ice company and a fur- of the South. Crowned with perpetual green, niture factory; while evidences of work in the stately monarchs of the Southern forests iron, tinware, vehicles, etc., are increasing. tower a hundred feet in the air, and at their In the vegetable trade alone, $175,000 worth feet, in tropical luxuriance, grow dwarf palof produce was shipped in 1880; and the fish mettoes with their fan-like leaves, magnolias and oyster traffic shows creditable results. with their gigantic buds and flowers, hollies,

The Alabama railroad system is very com- myrtles, and evergreen oaks, draped with plete, and is rapidly developing the State. The long gray moss. At Macon the prairie region South and North Alabama (a part of the Louis- begins, and thence to Okolona, a distance of ville and Great Southern)-the grand trunk, about sixty-five miles, the country is open and so to speak-runs from Montgomery to Deca- slightly rolling, with occasional skirts of woodtur, 183 miles.

At Calera it crosses the Sel- land dividing plains almost level. The soil is ma, Rome and Dalton; at Biriningham it of a fertility nearly equal to that of the Mississippi bottom, and a large portion of it is ernment to pay it as soon as it is able. We favor the under cultivation, though the area planted is retirement of the national-bank notes as soon as the less than before the war. Cotton is the lead- the country, and the issue of Treasury notes, common

same can be done without injury to the business of ing product, but corn, wheat, and other cere- ly called greenbacks, sufficient in volume to meet tho als may be as easily grown. West Point, an

commercial and business demands of the country, and important station on this division, near Oko- redeemable at the option of the holder, and that we lona, is the county-seat of Clay County. Its oppose any unnecessary restriction on the coinage of population is among the thousands, and the town is an important shipping point for cot- The Convention voted to strike out the resoton, and the various products of this agricul- lution, because it was deemed that the proper tural region. It is situated two hundred miles place to consider a national question was in from Mobile, and two hundred and thirty-nine the Democratic Convention at Cincinnati. from Columbus, Kentucky, making it the half- The platform adopted was as follows: way station of the road. A case between the Southern Express Com- declares its confidence in and unshaken adherence

1. The Democratic party in convention assembled pany and the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, to the great principles of democratic government; which organized an express company of its its devotion to the Union and Constitution, with tho own in opposition to the former, was decided amendments thereto; its unsterving maintenance of in the United States Circuit Court, at Nash

the following principles, viz.: strict subordination of

the military to the civil power; purity of elections, ville, against the latter. The rights of express and their absolute freedom from all interferences by companies, in their relations with railroads, the officers of the Federal Government, civil or milíwere very distinctly defined. The points set tary; profound respect for the popular will fairly and forth in the decision were " that the express legally expressed at the ballot-box; a fixed purpose

to business is separate and distinct in every way

expose and punish all political fraud and corruption;

the political cquality of all citizens; the largest rights from the railroad business, and that railroad of individual "liberty consistent with the rights of corporations desiring to embark in this pur- others, and general participation by the body of the suit must do so as expressmen, subject to all people in public affairs. the rules and restrictions imposed upon that

2. That our present tariff laws are an impediment

to American industry, devised in the interest of moclass of persons. If a railroad desires to have nopolics, and maintained in opposition to the dean express department, it must be a separate mands of the people. We therefore demand their reand distinct branch of its business, which must peal and substitution of a simple revenue which shall deal with the railroad proper upon the same

be productive without being oppressive. We demand

the restoration of the Federal Government to its conbasis with other express companies. The rail

stitutional limits, and a return of its administration to roads are prohibited from making discrimina- its original cconomy, simplicity, and impartiality. tions in favor of tbeir own express depart- 3. In the name of the Democracy of Alabama we ments as against other express companies. the bar of public opinion as the authors of all the

most solemnly, arraign the Republican party before The practical result of the decision, so far as the interest of the public is concerned, is that people ; protesting its friendship for the Federal

evils of government which threaten and oppress tho the great railroad corporations will be pre- Union, it sought to destroy it in centralization; devented from making the express business a claring its purpose to establish justice, it trampled it monopoly by the exclusion from their lines of proclaimed

mission, it preached the gospel of hate, and

under its feet; to insure domestic tranquillity,” its mere express companies.

filled the land with niisrule and anarchy and blood. The Democratic State Convention met June As the legitimate fruit of its administration it has par2, 1880, at Montgomery. Dennis M. Stone alyzed all our industrial pursuits; it has destroyed was elected President, and the following per

the value of our property; it has impoverished tho sons were nominated for office : R. W. Cobb for country, and it has filled the land with discontent and Governor;

agitation. For these crimes against humanity and W. W. Screws, Secretary of State; constitutional government, we denounce the Republi. H. C. Tompkins, Attorney-General; I. H. Vin- can party as unworthy the trust and confidence of an cent, Treasurer. For Chief Justice of the Su- intelligent and patriotic people. preme Court, Robert C. Brickell was nomi.

4. That the fraud, first triumphant in American polinated; George W. Stone and Amos R. Manning, of the freemen of the republic was defied and sub

tics and unparalleled in the world, whereby the will Associate Justices; J. M. Carmichael for Au. yerted, and a defeated candidate placed in the Presiditor, and H. O. Armstrong, Superintendent of dential chair, shall nover be ignored, and we call upon Education. E. A. O'Neal and Walter Bragg the Democracy and the people throughout the land to were nominated for Presidential Electors at right, and the condemnation and punishment of the

stand with us in demanding the vindication of tho large. The platform of the last Convention, wrong, to the end that fraud shall henceforth bo powwithout the resolution relating to paper money, erless and odious, and free government a reality in was adopted. The delegates to Cincinnati Ainerica. were instructed to adhere to the two-thirds alcoholic productions it has encournged violations of

5. By the levy of excessivo duties upon tobacco and rule.

the rovonuo laws, and, under pretense of protecting The committee upon resolutions reported a the revenue service, it has turned loose on our people platform, the concluding resolution of which irresponsible and reckless men, who maltrent and imwas as follows:

prison our citizens, and who destroy property at will,

yet refuse to allow these enemies to society to be tried That we favor the just payment of the public debt in the State courts for the violation of State laws. and a stable currency. We are opposed to the refund- 6. That we rely, to a great extent, upon the educning of the public debt beyond the reach of the Gov- tion of the masses of the people for the perpetuity and

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