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The merit system of appointment in the Civil Service was established in New-York by Chapter 354 of the Laws of 1883, which was amended from time to time in Various important respects until, finally, a new act (Chapter 370 of the

LaWS of 1899) was passed, codifying and uniting all previous acts and extending the area of their operation.

The original act followed closely the form of the federal act. It provided for the classification of all State offices and for the various departments of cities of 50,000 and over. The application of the system to cities, however, was permissive merely. In 1884 the latter provision was made mandatory and Was an ended to include all cities in the State. This, with various amendments— principal among which were the reactionary provisions of the so-called “Black Act” of 1897—remained in force until suspended by the act of 1899. The general Civil Service statutes of the State were reinforced very materially by an amend

ment to the State Constitution prepared by the Constitutional Convention of 1894 and adopted by the people.

This provision, which embodies in the concisest terms the essential principles of the reform, is as follows: “Appointments and promotions in the Civil Service of the State, and of all the civil divisions thereof, including towns and villages, shall be made according to merit and fitness to be ascertained so far as practi. cable by examinations which, so far as practicable, shall be competitive; provided, however, that soldiers and sailors of the late Civil War shall be entitled to preference in appointment and promotion, without regard to their standing on any list from which appointments or promotions shall be made.” The original rules and classification of New-York City were drawn under the permissive act of +883 and under the supervision of a commission of experts appointed by Mayor Edson in 1884. Rules were adopted in the same manner and at about the same time in Buffalo and Brooklyn. In 1896, through the action of the Commission appointed by Mayor Strong, the application of the rules was greatly extended, until, excepting heads of departments, not more than sixty positions were , omitted from the competitive classification. The System of labor registration was also adopted.

There were approximately 40,000 positions in the New-York municipal Civil Service on January 1, 1898, of , which number 9,000 in the , educational department were subject to a separate system. . The classifications included 7,000 in the police force, 6,000 in the labor service under the registration system, and the remainder, for the 'most part, in the general competitive, schedules. . . The competitive scheduses embraced positions of every character, both clerical, technical and professional.

- s were conducted by a board of nine examiners, chosen with so to their expert ability, and the examinations generally were of to most practical character. The rules, required that...the higher places should Sé failed by promotion, unless the appointing officer, certified to the Civil Serviee Commission that none in the lower grades were fit for the higher duties to be performed. Through careful work the system had been well developed and placed on a highly satisfactory basis. During the period from January, 1898, until the passage of the general act of 1899, these rules were Very much modified, under authority claimed to be derived from the greater. New-York charter. Much laxity Was permitted in the matter of temporary appointments in the bsence of eligible list3; Persons dismissed at any time, within the previous three *...*.e. oomfited to be appointed without examolatio; the floe of selection yea. the eligible list Was materially broadened. On July 11, 1899, tho charter from re superseded by rules framed in pursuance of the new law, which were .**ics by the state Board after the failure of the Mayor to promulgate the Isl. l the essential features of the genuine merit system *...*śrī, and are expected in future to keep the city service onni ; irty jompetitive basis, open to all citizens, Stringent inhibitions upon payO In a. * 'alaries to persons improperly appointed, reinforcing those previously in In ent O di j the effectiveness of the system. Since the adoption of the act of force, a. rules have been framed for Buffalo, Albany and other large cities, which 1899 ... 16 #300 through the action of the State Boardood. GQMonor Roosevelt, the On Jure these five counties were included: New-York, Kings, Queens, Richmond and o o, 1905 the system Was extended to the counties of Albany, Monroe, Onondaga

and Westchester.

THE STATE LIBRARY,

aro Ti , established by the Legislature in 1818, was made an integral

r"; jo. of the State of New-York in 1889. ... It include: general, sociolpar o onjica i. education and history, Isbraries, so field covers, besides the usual Ogy, o'a realt reference library, compilations of catalogues, bibliographies indexes, work O isoto and other aids and guides for readers of the State not having direct o, the library; lending books to students and the promotion of the general

library interests of the §ote. The total number of books, including travelling.

is 504,525. In its home education, department, which, is ooo:::::::::"ouis libraries and annotated book lists and the oo:: o maintenance of sree libraries, . the state expends about $60,000 yearly. € director of the State Library is Edwin H. Anderson.

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PAFTY COMMITTEES.–VOTE. 360

NEW-YQRE STATE COMMATTEES.

FEPUBLICAN.

Chairman, B. B. Odcl]. jr., Newburg; secretary, Reuben L. FCX, oneonta; ir urer, Louis Stern, New-York. - Iłeadquarters. Fifth Avenue Hotel.

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District. JDistrict. 1—Leander B. Faber, Jamaica, L. Y. 20—B. B. Odel I, jr., Newburg. 2—R. M. Johnson, Brooklyn. 21—L. F. Payn, Chatham. 3–L. M. Swazey, Brooklyn. 22—Cornelius V. Collins, Troy. 4–Jacob A. Livingston, Brooklyn. 23—Williann Earnes, jr., Albany. 5——F. J. H. Iracke, Brooklyn. 24—R. L. Fox, Oneonta. 6—George H. Roberts, jr., Brooklyn. 25—Cyrus Durey, Johnstown. 7—M. J. Dady, Brooklyn. 26—John F. O'Brien, West Chazy. 8—George Cromwell, New Brighton, S. I. 27—Thomas Wheeler, Utica. # 9–C. H. Murray, New—York. 28—J. T. Mott, Oswego. 10—J. P. Pegnann, New-York. 29—Francis Hendricks, Syracuse. 11—Williann Halpin, New-York. 30—G. W. Dunn. Binghamton. 12—Smith Pine New-York. 31—Charles H. Betts, Lyons. 13—Edward Lauterbach, New-York. 32—G. W. Aldridge, Rochester. I4—J. H. Gunner, New-York. 33—J. B. H. Mongin, Waterloo. 15—Abrahann Gruber, New—York. 34—J. A. Merritt, Lockport. 16—b"rank Raymond, New-York. 35—John Grimm, jr., Buffalo. 17—Samuel Strasbourger, New-York. 36—W. C. Warren, Buffalo. 18—W. H. Ten Eyck, New-York. 37—G. H. Witter, Wellsville.

19—W. L. Ward, Port Chester.

Additional member, C. W. Anderson, New—York. Executive Committee—William Barnes, jr., chairman; B. B. Ode]?, jr. : Reuben L. | Fox, secretary ; Louis Stern, George W. Aldridge. George W. Dunn, William C. War— || § ren, Francis Hendricks, John T. Mott, Michael J. Dady. Thomas Wheeler, Louis F. || I'ayn, John F. O'Brien, William L. Ward, Charles H. Murray and Edward Lauterbach.

IDEMOCRATIC. Chairman, Cord Meyer. Great Neck; secretary, John N. Carlisle, Watertown; treasurer, William F. Balkann, Rochester.

District. District. 1–Perry Belmont, Babylon. 26–Elliot Danforth, Bainbridge. 2—Joseph Cassidy, Long Island City. 27—J. H. Brown, Summit. 3—M. J. Cunnnings, Brookly f:. 28—J. H. Glavin, Waterford. 4–3. W. Webber, Brooklyn. 29–P. E. McCabe, Albany. 5—W. A. Doyle, Brooklyn. - 30—F. J. Molloy, Troy. 6—James Shevlin, Brooklyn. 31—G. R. Finch, GIens Fails. 7–P. H. McCarren, Brooklyn. 32—George Hall, Ogdensburg. 8—J. L. Shea, Brooklyn. 33—Clinton Heckwith, Herkimer. 9–Conrad Hasenflug, Brooklyn. 34—J. W. Potter, Marcy. | 10–D. E. Finn, New-York. 35—J. N. Carlisle. Watertown. 11–T. D. Sullivan, New-York. 36—M. Z. Haven, Syraeuse. | 12—A. T. Oakley, New-York. 37—C. N. Bulger, Oswego. : 13--P. H. Keahon, New-York. 38—H. G. Jackson, Binghamton. 14—C. F. Murphy. New-York. 39–C. F. Rattigan, Auburn. 15—F. B. Harrison, New-York. 40—Daniel Sheehan, Elimira. 16—William Dalton, New-York. 41—James A. Parsons, Borneilsville. —D. F. McMahon, New—York. 42—C. A. Lux, Lyons. 18—T. J. Dunn, New-York. 43—W. F. Balkam, Rochester. 19–H. C. Hart, New-York. 44–Jacob Gerling, Rochester. 20–T. F. McAvoy, New-York. 45—G. W. Batten, Lockport. | 21—L. F. Haffen, New-York. 46—F. W. Brown, Warsaw. # 22—M. J. Walsh, Yonkers. 47—J. J. Kennedy, Buffalo. 23—Arthur A. McLean, Newburg. 48—M. G. Merzig. Buffalo. 24–James Purcelj, Valatie. 49—Henry P. Burgard, Buffalo. 25–I. M. Black, Kingston. 50—James C. Bennett, Salamanca.

... . Executive Committee—P. H. McCarren. chairman; Hugh J. Grant, W. S. Rodie | Victor J. Dowling. William F. Sheehan, New-York; George Hall, Ogdensburg, j. j. || |o. Buffalo; Frederick Cook, Rochester; Cord Meyer and John N. &arjis.

| exi O111C 1 O. |

VOTE OF NEW-YORK STATE.

For vote of New-York State by counties for Presidential electors in 1900 and || | 1904, for vote of New-York by counties for State officers in 1900 and 1904, for vote| # of New-York by towns and cities for President and Governor in 1904, for vote by #districts of Representatives in Congress and State Senators in 1904, for members of Hithe State Assembly in 1905, and for vote of New-York by years from 1894 to 1904, #See under “Elections in States.”

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THE NEW-YORK CITY CHARTER. 361

which it shall construct, after there shall have first been retained by such company from such net profits a sum equal to 5 per centum upon the sum expended to construct such tunnel.”

The Mayor of the city, the charter revision provided, should be elected in Novem— ber, 1901, for a term of two years, and every two years thereafter for a Iike period. In 1905 the charter was amended so as to extent the mayoralty term Powers of the to four years. The salary of the or is $15,000 a year. The Mayor Mayor. may, whenever in his judgment e public interests shall so re~ quire, remove from office any public officer holding office by appointment from him, except members of the Board of Education, Aqueduct Commissioners, trustees of the College of the City of New-York, trustees of Bellevue and Allied Hospitals, “and except also judicial officers for Whose removal other provision is made by this constitution.’’

The administrative departments are as follows: Department of Finance, Law De— * partment, Police Department, Department of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity, De— partment of Street Cleaning, Department of Bridges, DepartAdministrative ment of Parks, Department of Public Charities, Department Departments. of Correction, Fire Department, Department of Docks and Ferries, Department of Taxes and Assessments, Department of Education, Department of Health, Tenement House Department. The head of the Department of Finance is the Controller, who is to be elected at the same time with the Mayor, and is to have like him a term of two—since 1905, four—years. All of the departments are single headed commissions, except the Park Department, which has three commissioners; the Department of Taxes and Assessments, which has five; the Department of . Education, forty-six members of a Board of Education, and the Department of Health, which has three commissioners (two ex—officio).

The Mayor, must at least once a year submit to the Board of Aldermen a general statement of the finances, government and improvements of the city, keep himself informed as to the doings of the several departments and Duties of the Mayor. be vigilant in enforcing the ordinances of the city and the laws of the State. The Mayor appoints besides those already named all members, of any board authorized to superintend the erection or repair of any building belonging to the city, inspectors of weights and measures, two commissioners of accounts and five Civil Service Commuissioners.

The Controller has control of the fiscal concerns of the corporation. The accounts of every department are subject to his inspection and Trevision. All claims, against the city, except certain specified ones, are Controller, Chamber- subject to his audit. The assent of the Controller is neces. lain, Sinking Fund. Sary to all agreements for the acquisition of real estate. He receives a salary of $15,000 a year. He has charge of the Wallabout Market. The Mayor appoints the Chamberiain Of the city, who receives all moneys paid into the treasury, of the city. His salary is $12,000 a year. The . Sinking Fund Commissioners consist of the Mayor, Controller, Chamberlain, president of the Board of . Aldermen, and chairman of the Finance Committee of the Board of Aldermen. This board administers the various sinking funds.

The Board of Estimate and Apportionment consists of the Mayor, the Controller, the president of the Board of Aldermen, and the presidents of the boroughs of Manhattan, Brooklyn, The Bronx, Queens and RichThe Board of Toond. Except as specifically, provided by the charter, every act Estimate and of the board must be adopted, if adopted, by “a rnajority of the Apportionment. whole number of votes authorized by this section to be Cast by said board. The Mayor, Controller and the president of the Board of Aldermen, shall each be entitled to cast three votes, the presidents of the boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn shall each be entitled to cast two Votes, and the presidents of the boroughs of The Bronx, Queens and Richmond shall each be entitled to cast one Vote: A quorum of said board shall consist of a sufficient-number of the members thereof , to cast nine votes, , of whom at least two of the members hereby authorized to cast three votes each shall be present.” It is provided that this borá shall annually “make a budget, of the amounts estimated to be required to pay the expenses of conducting the public business of the city of New-York, and of the counties of New-York, Kings, Queens and Richmond for the next ensuing year. Such budget shall be prepared in such detail as to the titles of appropriations, the terms and conditions, not inconsistent with law under which the same may be expended, the aggregate sum and the items thereof, allowed to each department, bureau, office, board or commission, as the said Board of Estimate and Apportionment shall deem advisable.” The budget is submitted to the Board of Aldermen. The act then says: “The Board of Aldermen may reduce the said several amounts fixed by the Board of Ekstimate and Apportionment, except such amounts as are now or may hereafter be fixed by law, and except, such amounts as may be inserted by the said Board of Hostimate and Apportion— ment for the payment of State taxes and payment of interest and principal of the city debt, but the Board of Aldermen may not increase such amounts nor Vary the terms and conditions thereof... nor insert any new items. Such action of the Board of Aijeri. men, on reducing any ítem, or amount fixed by the Board of Estimate and Apportion— ment shall be subject to the veto power of the Mayor, as elsewhere provided in this act, and unless such veto, is overridden by a three—fourths vote of the Éoard of Alder." men, the item or amount as fixed by the Board of Estimate and Apportionment shall o: *...*. i. to: #;";" #: o: of Estimate and Apportionment also is recte Il Cill estimate money for the 8 t of a mber ! charitable institutions, which are named. - 11pp.Or large nu of

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The Corporation Counsel, who is the head of the Law Department, receives | $15,000 a year. He has charge of all the law business of the corporation, all || legal proceedings in opening, widening and closing streets, in Law Department, acquiring property for the city by condemnation proceedings, i and the preparation of all leases and contracts. He is the legal adviser of the Mayor, the presidents of the boroughs, the Board of Aldermeni and every department. -.

The head of the. Police Department is the Police Commissioner, whose term of office is five years. The act then says: “The said commissioner may, when* ever in the judgment of the Mayor of said city or the . Police Department. Governor, the public interests shall so require, be removed || . . from Office by either, and shall be ineligible for reappoint- || ment thereto. The successor in office of the said commissioner shall also be appointed i by the Mayor of the city within ten days after any vacancy shall occur, and shall be removed by either the Mayor or Governor whenever the public interests so require. The salary of said Police Commissioner shall be $7,500 a year. The said commissioner shall have the power to appoint, from citizens of the United States and residents of the said city, and at pleasure remove, three deputies, to be known as first deputy || commissioner, second deputy commissioner and third deputy commissioner. The Police || Department consists also of fifteen inspectors, one captain to each fifty of the total || number of patrolmen, except in the rural part of the city, sergeants of police, not || exceeding four in number to each fifty of the total number of patrolmen; roundsmen || not exceeding four in number to each fifty patrolmen; detective sergeants to the num- ||

ber authorized by law; the members of the telegraph force as specified in Section 277 of this act; the superintendent and inspectors of boilers as specified in Section 342 of this act; doormen of police, not exceeding two in number to each fifty of the total || number of patrolmen; surgeons of police, not exceeding sorty in number, one of whom || shall be -chief surgeon, and patrolmen to the number of 6,382.'"

The president of each borough is elected for two years. He has the follow- || ing powers: “He may appoint and at pleasure remove a Commissioner of Public || Works for his borough, who may discharge all the administral- || Borough Officers. tive powers of the president of the borough relating to streets, sewers public buildings and supplies conferred upon him by this act; and who shall, in the absence or illness of such president, discharge all || the duties of such president. He shall, within the borough for which he shall have || been elected, have cognizance and control: (1) Of regulating, grading, curbing, flagging and guttering of streets and laying of crosswalks; (2) of constructing and repairing i. public roads; (3) of paving, repaving, resurfacing and repairing of all Streets, and of . the relaying of all pavements removed sor any cause; (4) . of the laying, or relaying of surface railroad tracks in any public street or road, of the form of rail used, or || character of foundation, and the method of construction, and of the restoration of the is | pavement or suface after such work; , (5) of , the filling of sunken lots, fencing (f vacant lots, digging down lots, and of licensing vaults under sidewalks; (6) - of the removal of encumbrances; (7) of the issue of permits to builders and others to use or open the streets; (8) of the construction and maintenance of all bridges and tunnels || which are within his borough and form a portion of the highways thereof, except such bridges as cross navigable streams; (9) of , all subjects relating, to , the public sewers and drainage of his borough. and shall, initiate the making of , all plans for the drainage of his borough, except as otherwise specifically provided in this act. He shall have charge of the construction of all sewers in accordance with said plans. He shall have in charge the management, care and maintenance of the sewer and, drainage || system of the borough of which he shall, be president and the licensing of all, cisterns and cesspools.” The presidents of the boroughs of Queens and Richmond also have | supervision of the street cleaning of their boroughs.

The act says in regard to the Bureau of Buildings: “There shall be in the office of each borough president a bureau to be known as “the Bureau of Build: fi s ings for the Borough of —.” . The presidents of the boroughs of Bureau of Manhattan, The Bronx and Brooklyn shall, each within the botBuildings. ough for which he is elected, , appoint a superintendent of buildings for the borough. The presidents of the boroughs of Queens and Richmond may, whenever appropriation is made therefor by the Board of Alder on upon the recommendation of the Board of Estimate and Apportionnaent; each. Within the borough for which he is elected, in like manner appoint a superintendent of buildings for the borough. Each superintendent of buildings shall, within the borough or boroughs in which he has jurisdiction, have charge of the administration of, and it ghajj be his duty, subject to and in accordance with the general rules and regulations established by the president of the borough, to enforce such rules and regulations and the provisions of this chapter and of , such ordinanees as oy be established by the Hoard of Aidermen and of the laws relating to the construgton, alteration or, removal of Buildings or other structures erected or to be erected within such borough.

eates twenty-five districts of local improvements, divided as fol- ||

}OW Th; *::::::::::: Borough. 2. Wards 1 and 2, Borough of Queens. .. 3. ...Wards OW S : . . 3.4 ang. Borough, of Quoc, *s, *.*.*.*.*.*, *:

-- y Senate District. 6. Wards 8, 30 an , Borough o

Local Boards. §s: 7. Wards 10 and 12, Borough §: Hoo. 1. § * . Seventh Senate District... 10. Eighth Senate rí C , Nilottfol lo

§::::: j. 1% Tenth senate District, 13, Eleyenth Senato Pistrict. 14. Twelfth. jen te išistrict 15. Thirteenth Senate District. 16. Fourteenth Senate, District. 17. § #onto §ote istrict is. Sixteenth, Senate Distrio too...o.o.drotoo Assembly districts of the county of New-York. 20. Eighteenth Senate District.

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