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\ constitution of THE UNITED STATES. 29

of two-thirds, expel a member, Each house shall keep a journal of its proceed

ings, and from time to time publish the 8am.9, excepting such parts as may in their

judgmant require secrecy, and the yeas and mays of the members of either house on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those on: be entered on the

| journal., Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent

of the other, adjourn for more than three day B, nor to 9-py other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. Sec. , 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by Haw, and paid out of the Treasury of the \ United States. They shall, in all caseo except treason, felony Compensations and and breach of the peace, be privileged from , arreşt. during their Privileges. attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in | going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either house they shall not be questioned in any other place. No Senato; or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed

to any civil office under the authority of the United States which shall have been

created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time;

and no person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of

either house during his continuance in othce.

Sec. 7, AI1 bills for raising revenue shall originate frt the House of Representatives, but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills. Every bill which shall have passed the House

Revenue Bills—Procedure— of > Representatives and the Senate shall, before it

President's Action, becomes a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approve he shall,” sign it, but it not he sha.[l return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have

originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed

to reconsider it. If aster such reconsidcration two-thirds of that house Shail agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house it shall become a law. But in all cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons Voting sor &nd against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each trouse respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Sarne shall be a law, in like roanner as if he had signed it, unless Congress by their adjournment prevents its return, it which case it shall not be a law. Every order, resolution or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shapi be presented to the President of the United States; and before the same shall take effect shall be approved by him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the Sonate and House * #esentatives. according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the C8,Sè Of & O AI i.

Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and generai welfare of the United States; but alii duties, imposts and General Powers of excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; to borCongress. row money on the credit of the United States; to regulate Commerce with foreign nations, and among the several Sta. tes arid with the Indian tribes; to establish a uniform rule of naturalization and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States: to coin nnoney, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and sly; the standard of weights and measures; to provide for the punishment of counterfetting the securities and current coin of the United States; to establish postoft.ces and postroalds; to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by secul ( ) g for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their rospective writings and discoveries; to constitute tribunals inferior to the Suprime Court, to define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the laws of nations; to declare war, grant, letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning ruptures on land and water; to raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years; to provide and maintain a navy, to make rules for , the government, and regulation of the land and naval forces; to provide for calling forth the militia to execute

, the laws of the Union, suppress insurrection and expel invasions; to provide for

organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively the appointment of the officers and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; to exercise exclusive : legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district, (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular, States, , and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, artd other needful buildings; and to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any department or

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| § {} CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.
* * N

o, Sec. 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now ; : xisting sha}} thin]: proper to admit Shall not be prohibited by the Congress' prior o! . ... -- to the year one, thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax § ; inaiotions of his or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten t Powers. ' dollars for each person. The privilege of the writ of habeas it 4. gorpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion, § r *T**śool the public Safety may require it. No bill of attalinder or ex post facto ; lso ol' be, passed. No capitation, or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in pro

})^rii on to the Census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken. No tax st oiluty shall bo laid on articles exported from any State, No preference shall be * Ven by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over to Ose of another; nor shall vessels bound to or from one State be obliged to enter, ! }^ar or pay duties in snother. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but * : * ~ Old Se (Tüello of appropriations inade by law; and a regular statement and & CCount of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published f : 93A, ii.111 e io time. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; a to no pe Y's on holding an office of profit or trust under them shall, without the ~ 0.1% Serl & Of the Congress, ince ept of any present, ermolument, Office Or title Of any and Whaito Yer, from any king, prince or foreign State. Sec. 10. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance or confederation; grant jo, t t Cos of ly, arq j to and reprišal ; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything - but go, J G and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any Flimitations of bill of attain der, ex post facto law, or law in pairing the obligation State Powers. of contracts, or grant any title of mobility. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, Iay any in posts or duties on impori; or crports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspect 1 or jaw s : and the net Arroduce of all duties and imposis laid by any State on inu ports or exports shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States; and al? such l; \vs shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress. No State six aii. without the consent of Congress, pay any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ships: , , , ovar in tirpo of peace, enter into any agreement or Compact- with a, ]] -other Stă to or with a foreign power, or en; gage in war, oylegs actually in Ya'ked, or . . p 3 u. ft iron in in en : , lange to as will not admit of delay.

ARTICLE \{.

The Presidient an ù Đio Pówers. F - , . . i. 3 's iv. o Xo Jiiv C power shall be vested in a President of the jnited States of A, Ill Crica. Hoo & !;all hold his office during the term of four years, and, - together with the Vice-President, chosen for the Eiectoral College—Ełigibility, same term, be elected as follows: Each State shall Stock-ession, Comperisatiosy. Appoint, in Soich manner as the slegislature thoreof . . - rnay direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole y \in\}, or of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entjtled in the 'ongress; but no. So nator or Representative or person holding an office of £ious : Or profit under the Uniiod States shall be appointed av, &lector. The electors sit all neet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom

oil e at least shall in of 15 e à H inhabiiant of in a sarno State with thermselves. And they shall Islalo to a list of all the persons voted for and of the number of votes for cach , which list they shall sign and certify, and transUnit, Senled, to the seat of Government of £3m to United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The Presidio-yı t of the Senate sha. [1, in the presen ce of the Seilate and House, of Representatives, Op.61, all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person ina, wing the greatest number of votes shall bo the President, if such number be a to 1:1jority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one wilo have such a 21&jority, and have an equal number of votes, then the House of Represen fati yes shall immediately choose by ballot Gne of then Presideni, and if no person have a raajority then from the sive highest on the list the said Honjse sh; all in like Thalji Iler Choose the Preside:) t. But in Cho O3ing ! {..} & 3 resident, tho vote:3 shall be taken i, y States, the representation from each Siai e laving one vote; a quorum for this piirpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a JYYajority of all the States sl) asl be | negoso to a choice. In every ease, after ific choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of vote.8 of the electors shall be the Vice-President: | But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose fro; in thern by bailot the Vice-President. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they Shall give their yokes; which day shali be the same throughout the United States. . No person except a natural porn citizen or a citizen of the United States at the time of the adoption of this constitution shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall, any person be pligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the age of thirtyfive years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States. In case of the removal of the President from office, U. of his death, resignation or inability to disco arge time powers, and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resigmation or inability both of the President and Mikoł resident, declaring what officer shal i' then act as President and such Officer shall, act accordingly Until is jigability be removed or a President shall be elected. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his Services & compensation, which shall be neither inJosed nor diminished during the period, for Which The shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United

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\ . CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATEs. * 31 |

- à - - * §tates, any of thern. Before he enters on the execution of his office he shałł take

| fully execute the office of President of the United States, and wiłł, to the best of ray ability, preserve, protect and de end the Constitution of the United States.” | Sec. The President shaol be Commander-in-Chief of , the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several States; when called into : r t the actual service of the United States, he may require the

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Military, Civil and opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the Treaty-making executive departments, upon any subject relating to the Powers. duties of their respective offices, and hc shall have power to - i grant, reprieves and pardons for offences against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. " He shall lave power, by and with the advice and consent of the Snate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators présent concur, and he shall norminate, and, . by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint airnbassadors, other public rainisters and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States whose appoihtments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law; but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law or in the heads of departments. The Fresident shałl have power to fill all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting comraisSions which shall expire at the end of their next session. # + : ec. 3. o shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the State of the Union, and recorminend to their consideration such Incasures as he - * shałł judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordiMessages and Extra nary occasions convene both houses, or either of them, and . . Sessions." in case of disagreement between thern, with respect to the - + - time of adjournment he may arijourn thern to sueh time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and the public ministers; he Shah take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all of the Officers of the United States. Sec. 4. The President. Vice-President and a {1 civil officers of the United

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7 : States shall be rera oved from office on irnpeach ment for and Removal by Im- conviction of treason, bribery or other high crines and peachment. Inisdemeanors. •

ARTICLE IHI. Supreme Courts and Judicial Powers. Section 1. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to tirne Ordain and establish. The judges, both of the Supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall at stated times receive for their services a compensation which shall not he diminished (iuring their continuance in office. *w r Sec. 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising i urider this Constitution. the Laws of the United States, and treaties made or which shall be made, under , their authority; to all cases affecting Limits of Judicial ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, to aid case; Hoovy er; of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to - - which the Gnited States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more. States; between a State and citizens of another state; between citizens of different States; between citizens of the same State claiming : Hands under grants of different States, and between a State, or the citizens thereof. and foreign Slates, citizens or subjects. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a State shall be a party, the Sutpreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with Such exceptions and under such regulations as the Congress shall make. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury, and such trial shall be held in the State, where the said crime shall have been committed, but when not Cornmitted with in any State, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress naay by law have directed. See. .3. Treason against the , limited States shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving thema aid and comfort. No - person shall be convicted of treason, untess on the testimony Treason and its of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in oro, Punishment. court. The . Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attain der of treason shall work corruption of biood Grforfeiture except during the life of the person attain:co. f ARTICLE IV. r Rights of States and {*itizens. Section 1. Full faith alud credit shall be given in each state to the potiołic acts, records and judicial prodings of every other State. And ti, a Congress may by general laws prescrib & the in anner in which such acts, records and proOeedings shall be proved, an U ille ('ffect thoreos. See, 2. , ‘The citizens, of each State shall be contii led to all privileges and intmünities of citizens in the several States. A person charged in any Staio with treason, felony, or other Crime, who sh;3.ll flee from justice &lrld Equal Fights of be , sound in another State, shall, Ön demand of the coui. {}itizens, authority of , t \e Suate from which he fled, be delive. red up to b (removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime. No per- | son held to service of labor tri oluo State, under the laws thereof, C.S.C.<\ping into

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