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trade-mark is ap-nromiated, and the manner in which the trade-mark has been applied to the goods. The declaration should be m the fc/rr> of an oath by the person, or by^ a member of the firm, or by as officer of the corporation, making the application, to the effect that the party has at the time ->£ filing his application a right to the use of the trade-mark described in the statement; .hat uo other person, Arm, or corporation has a right to .such use, either in the identical form or in such near resemblance thereto as might be caiculated tn decer'e; that such trade-mark is used in lawful commerce with foreign nations Oj Indian u ibes, one or more of which should be particularly named; and that it !s truly represented ^ th> fac-simile presented for registry. The oath may be taken within the United States before a notary public, justice 'of the peace, or the judge ox clerk ;f any c- urt of record. In any foreign country H may be taken before the secretary of a legation or consular officer of the United States, or before any person du)y qualified by the laws of the country to administer oaths, whose official character shall be certified by a rej resentative of the United States having an official seal. A fee of $25 is required on /.ling application, except in cases named in the following: Owners 01 tradf-manis for which protection has been sought by registering thei- in the Potent Office under tne act of July 8, 1870 (declared unconstitutional by the Sr pi erne Co* rt of the United States), may register the same "or the same goods, without f» e, on compl.*^f>ce with :.he foregoing requirements. With «?aeh application ci this cbai^cter a specific reference to the date and number ofNthc forme? certificate is required. Applicants whose cases were filed under tne act ol 1870, either prior to or since the decision of he Supreme Court declaring It unconstitutional, which are now ptnding beior*. the office are advised to prepare applications in conformity with the law and foregoing rules. On the receipt of such an application, referring to the date of the or>^ former!v filed, all fees tnereon will bo amy applied. Those who nave paid omy $10 as a nrst tee are advised that the law does not provide for a division of the legal fee of $25, and that the remainder of the entire fee is required before the application can be entertained

For details of Trade-Mart Registration Act, approved February 20 JOGS. «ee poges 8S—32 of this volume.


The Bankruptcy Law passed by both houses of the LYth Congress and approved

July 3, ItsOS, provides a complete system for the administration of the affairs of

bankrupts and the distribution of their property among their creditors, uniform

throughout the United States and administered by the United States courts, in

_ place of the different systems formerly in existence in the various States admin

}'istered by State courts. In bankruptcy proceedings a bankrupt debtor may turn

j'over all his property to the court to be administered for the benefit of his creditors,

land then get a complete discharge from his debts. A bankrupt may of his own

| motion offer to surrender his property to the administration oC the United Slates court

and ask for his discharge in voluntary bankruptcy, or creditors may apply to the

j court to compel a bankrupt to turn over his property to be administered under the

! act for the benefit of the creditors in \oluntary bankruptcy. The bankrupt who has

turned over all his property and conformed to the provisions of the act is entitled to

a judgment o-f court discharging him fi om any future liability to his creditors.

Extended powers are given for possession oC the assets, among others, to allow and disallow all claims against bankrupt estates, appoint receivers and take the necessary measures for the preservation and charge of the porperty of a bankrupt; to arraign, try and punish bankmpts, officers and other persons and the agents officers, members of the board of directors or trustees or other similar bodies of corporations for violation of Lhe act; to authorize the business of the bankrupt to be conducted for limited periods; to cause the assets to be collected and reduced to money and distributed, and substantially determine all controversies in relation thereto, to enforce obedience to lawful orders by fine or Imprisonmen;, and to extradite bankrupts from one district to another. The proceeding once inaugurated by the filing of a petition by the bankrupt and the adjudication in bankruptcy having been made, the Court proceeds to lake charge of the bankrupt's property, and administer the same for the benefit of the creditors, and determine all questions which may arise in regard to the rights of the bankrupt or the creditors, either as against the bankrupt or as between themselves in accordance with the above prescribed powers. A trustee is appointed, either selected by the creditors at a meeting called for that purpose or, in case they fail to select a trustee, one is appointed by the Court, i "llis duty is to collect the property, realize on it, in such manner as may be for Ifh^ best interests of all concerned, and ultimately distribute it among the creditors in such proportions as they may be adjudicated to be entitled thereto. Aa all 'nuestions both of law and fact, in relation to the property or the rights of the various' parties must be decided in the bankruptcy proceeding, it is provided that referees be appointed, who are charged with the duty of hearing the allegations and testimony of all parties and deciding all such questions that may arise. Each case, 'as 5t comes up is assigned to some referee, whose duty it is to adjudicate and pass Irnion ail such questions arising therein in the first instance, the right being reserved f'tn anv parties to apoeal from the decision of *he referee to the United States District '* Court The duties of the referee are substantially of a judicial character, and he Aoennies much the position of a judge of primary resort, subject to an appeal to tft* Court and is required to take the same oath of office as that prescribed for judges of the United States courts. By Section 38 of the act, the refereo is invested with 'Jurisdiction to consider all petitions referred to him by the clerks, make adjudications, or dismiss the petition; exercise the powers vested in courts of bankruptcy for thi.administering of oaths to and the examination of witnesses, and for requiring the

production of documents In proceedings before him, except the power of commitment, and, In the absence of the Judge, to exercise all his power* for taking possession and releasing the property of a bankrupt, and to perform such part of the duties of the courts ot bankruptcy as they may prescribe by rules and orders. excepting* only questions arising on applications of bankrupts for compositions or discharges.

AH questions in regard to the properly or assets or rights of the creditors and persons interested come before the referee for determination, subject to the right of appeal. After the rights of all parties have been ascertained and determined, and the property has been realized upon, it is distributed among the creditors. Provision Is made in the act for allowing bankrupts to compromise or settle with their creditors by a proceeding known as composition proceedings, whereby, it a bankrupt and a majority of his creditors agree upon some basis of settlement, the same, if approved by the Court, shall become binding upon all creditors. The decision of the question as to the approval of compositions and granting discharges to a bankrupt from his debts is specifically reserved by the act to the -Judges of the United States courts; but the Court, by virtue of its general powers, may refer such matters to the referee to take; testimony and report to the Court his opinion thereon, Tne aim of tRe act has been , to make the expense of the proceedings depend largely upon the amount of the property Involved, and the compensation of the referees is fixed substantially at 1 per cent on the amount distributed to the creditors in ordinary cases, where the assets are distributed by the Court, and one-half of 1 per cent in composition cases, and the trustees who have' charg:- of the actual management of the bankrupt's property receive as compensation such commissions on amounts paid out by them as dividends as the Court may allow, not to exceed, however, ^ per cent on live first $5,000, 2 per cent on the second $0,000, and i per cent on all sums in excess of $10,000. Detailed provisions are made In the act for giving notice to all creditors and other persons interested m the estate of the pendency of the proceedings, the payment and declaration of dividends and other matters, and providing methods whereby all parties interested may be heard on all subjects arising in the course of the proceedings.

Some minor modifications were made in the application of the* bankruptcy system by the act of February 5, 19(&. amending the act of July 1, 18£8,


The United States statutes at Large provide for a Bureau of Labc-i In the Department of* Commerce and Labor, said bureau to be in charge of an orELcer designated the Commissioner of Labor, The general design and duties of the Bureau ILftbor of Labor are to acquire and diffuse among tbc people of the United

CtommSs&ioner, States useful information on subjects connected with labor, in the most general and comprehensive sense of that word, and especially upon its relation to capital, hours of labor, the earnings, of laboring men and women, and the means of promoting their material, social intellectual and moral prosperity. The information collected by the Commissioner is given to the public through three vehicles—an annual report, special reports (when in the judgment of the Commissioner such reports are essential), and a bimonthly bulletin, Eighteen annual reports, tea* special reports and fifty-five bulletins have been published. It is the duty of the Commissioner to collect and present in annual reports statistical details relating to ali departments of labor in the Territory of Hawaii,

In an article entitled "Lmplo,>ef and Employe Under the Common La*," published in the U. S. Department of Labor Bulletin No./l, pages 98 and l»9. the common law on the subject of boycotting, as laid down by the courts, is Boycotting* stated as follows: • "iSvery^ one has the right to work or to refuse to work for whom and on what terms he pleases, or to refuse to deal with whom -he pleases; and a number of persons, if they have no unlawful object in view, have the right to agree that they will not work for or deal with certain persons, or that they will not work under a fixed price or without certain conditions The right of employes to re-use to work, either singly or in combination, except upon terms and conditions satisfactory to themselves, is balanced by the right of employer.* to refuse to engage the services of any one for any reason they deem proper. The master coy fix the wages, and other conditions not unlawful, upon which he will employ workmen, and has the right to refuse to employ them upon any other terms. In short, both emploj'ers and employes are entitled to exercise the fullest liberty in entering h'to contracts of service, and neither party can hold the other responsible for refusing to enter into such contracts. It has been held, however, that employers in separate, Independent establishments have no right to combine for the purpose of preventing workmen who have incurred thB hostility of one of them from securing employment upon any terms and by the method commonly known as blacklisting debarring such workmen from exercising their vocation, such a combination being regarded as a criminal conspiracy. On the other hand, a combination of employes having for its purpose the accomplishment of an illegal object is unlawful; for instance, a conspiracy to extort money from an employer by inducing his workmen to leave him and deterring others from entering his service is illegal; and an association which undertakes to coerce workmen to become members thereof or to dictate to em- „ ployers as to the methods or terms upon which their business shall be conducted by means of force, threats or intimidation, interfering with their traffic or lawful employment of other persona is, as to such purposes, an illegal combination. Unlawful interference by employes, or former employes, or persons acting In sympatny with them, with the business of a railroad company in the hands of a xecelrer renders ike persons interfering liable to punishment for contempt of court.'**

The U. S. Statutes at Large provide * hat*-the service «tnd employment of all

laborere and mechanics employed by the Government of the United States, by the '« * ~ , District of Columbia, or . by any contractor or eub-contractoj

Hoturs of ILatoor, upon any of the public works of the United States,' or of the District ' of Columbia, shall be limited and . restricted to eight hours in any one calendar day. Also, that it shall be unlawful for any officer of the United States, or,of the District of Columbia, oi' lor any contractor or subcontractor as above described, to require or permit any such laborer or mechanic to work snore than eight hours In any calendar day, except' In caseB of extraordinary emergency. (Cbap. 352, acts of Congress, 1891-92.) In 1887 Congress provided by act that eight hours should constitute a day's work for letter carriers in cities or postal districts connected therewith, and if any Iftter carrier should be employed a greater number of hours per day he should De paid rxtra Jor the same, {Chap. a€8 acts of Congress, 1887-*88») Chap. 47, acts of Congress, 1887-'8S, directs the Public Printer to enforce the eight-hour law in the department under fiis charge.

All persons of the Government service a« per diem employes are allowed the folm ,,, _ lowing holidays, for which they shall receive pay the same as

JtfloUday Fay. on other days: January 1 February 22, May 30 (Memorial Day) July 4, first Monday in September. Labor Day (to employees of the Government Printing Office only), December 25, and such days as the President may appoint as days for national thanksgiving. (Resolution No. 5, acts of Congress, 1884-'85, and ^Resolution No. G, acts of Congress, 1886-'87.) An act of January 12, -JSQ5, Chap. 23, :See,' 4G, 28 Stat. 607; provides that- Inauguration Day shall be a holiday, with pay, for employes of the Government Printing Office.

'Chap. 370, acts of Congress, 1807-'98, provides that when a controversy arises between a common carrier, engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and its employes, which interrupts or threatens to interrupt its business, Arbitration of the chairman of the Interstate Commerce Commission and the Labor Disputes. Commissioner of Labor shall, upon the request of either party, communicate with the parties and try by mediation and conciliation to settle the controversy, and if their efforts are unsuccessful they shall then try to bring about an arbitration of said controversy; that if th? effort at mediation as above does not succeed the controversy may, by the consent of the parties, be submitted to the arbitration oi a board of three persons, one to be named by the employing carrier, one to be named by the employes, and the third to be chosen by the two first named, or, if they cannot agree on any one, then by the chairman of the Interstate Commerce Commission and the Commission<r of I>abor; that a majority of said arbitrators may make a valid and binding award, which must be found and filed in the clerk's office of the Circuit Court of the United States" for the district wherein the controversy arose or the arbitration was entered into, within thirty days from the date of the appointment of the third arbitrator; that the submission of the controversy shall be in writing and signed by both parties, and must be filed with the award and with a transcript of all the testimony; that these papers so filed in court with the award shall have the force and effect of a bill of exceptions; that the award shall be final and conclusive upon both parties unless set aside by the court for error of law apparent on the record; that the award shall go into practical operation and judgment shall be entered thereon at the expiration of ten days from the filing unless, within said ten days, either party shall file exceptions thereto for matter of law apparent upon the record; that at the expiration of ten days from the judgment of the Circuit Court upon exceptions taken as above, judgment shall be entered in accordance with the decision of the court unless, within said ten days, either party shall appeal to the Circuit Court of Appeals; the decision of the Circuit Court of Appeals shall be final; that employes, dissatisfied. with the award must not quit the employer before the expiration of three months from and after the making of the award without giving thirty days' notice in writing of their intention, and that an employer so dissatisfied must not, on account of said dissatisfaction, dismiss an employe before the expiration of said three months without giving the same notice; that during the pendency of such arbitration it shall not be lawful for the employer party to such arbitration to discharge employes parties thereto, except for inefficiency, violation of law or neglect of duty, nor for the employes to unite in, aid or abet strikes against said employer, and that for a period of three months after an award under such an arbitration it shall not be lawful for an employer to discharge employes, except for the causes aforesaid, without giving thirty days' notice in writing of his intention so to do, nor for any employes, during a like period, to quit the service of the employer without just cause without giving a like notice; that each member of such board of arbitration shall receive a compensation of $10 per day for the time he is 'actually employed and also his travelling, and other necessary expenses.

COPYHIGHT EST THE UNITED STATES. Under the International Copyright act (approved March 8, 1891; took effect July 1, 1891) any United States citizen, or any citizen or subject of a foreign nation which grants copyrignt to "United States citizens on substantially the same basis with Its own citizens, may secure for twenty-eight years the sole liberty of printing, reprinting, publishing, completing, copying, executing, finishing and vending his, work; and, in case of a dramatic composition, of publicly performing or representing St, or causing it to be performed or represented by others. This term of security Is renewable for fourteen years more, The right of citizens or subjects of a foreign nation to copyright in the United States, on January 1. 1896, had been extended by Presidential proclamations to Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Belgium, Denmark and Switzerland On February 27, 18SG, copyright benefits were extended to citizens of Mexico ~bv proclamation of the President; on May 25, 1896, to citizens of Chili; on October 19 1899 to those of Costa Rica, and on November 20, 1899, to those of the Netherlands

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itftoHanO) and pomessiotus. A bill of Congress signed by the President January 6, 1897, makes an injunction against the unlawful production of a ©lay obtained fn a United •States District Court operative in all districts, Instead of only in the one in wh^ch it is eranted as formerly. It also makes the unlawful production of a play punishable by 'imprisonment, under certain conditions. To aid in having the law strictly complied with, so that no question can arise as to the validity of th« entry recorded, and tlrat the application shall be in such a form that th« Copyright Office can, upon its receipt, promptly make the entries desired, and thus avoid delay through the necessity for correspondence an application form has been prepared, which can be obtained by -addressing '.'Register of Copyrights, Library of Congress. Washington, D. C."

By application to tho same office a pamphlet giving directions for securing copyrights, 'etc., may be obtained. The law Imposes a penalty of $100 upon any person who-shall insert the'notice of copyright, or words of the same purport, upon any book or other at tick irhich has not been copyrighted, v^fetber such article be subject to copyright or other'/rise; or who shall knowingly issue or sell any article bearing a notice of United* Rtates copyright which has not been copyrighted in the United States: or who shaW import any book, photograph, chrorao or lithograph, or other article bearing such notice of copyright .or words of the same purport, which is .not copyrighted in thiacountry Tha president of the American Copyright League is Edmund Clarence, Sted-. man> and the secretary is R. U. Johnson, No. 3S East 17th-st., New York City, N. Y.'


The Weather. Bureau furnishes, when practicable, fot the benefit of all interests dependent upon weather conditions, the "Forecasts" which are prepared daily at the Central Office in Washington, D. £., and certain designated stations. These forecasts are telegraphed to stations of-the ^Veathei Bureau, railway officials, postmasters, and, many others, to be communicated to the public by means of flags or steam whistles., !The flags adopted for this purpose are five in number, and of the forms and color*; indicated bzlowi *

EXPLANATION OF WEATHER FLAGS. : No. t. No. 2. No. 3. No. 4. No. 5. ■-'

White Flag, Blue Flag, White and Blue Black Triangular White Flag with'

Flag. _ Flag. bl'k sq. In centre.1'


Clear or fair - Rain or Local Rain Temperature, Coid Wave.

weather. Snow. < or Snow.

When No. 4 is placed above No. 1, 2, or 3, 'it indicates warmer; when below, coJd«r; when not displayed, the temperature is expected to remain about stationary. During the late spring and. early fall the cold wave flag is also used to indicate anticipated frosts.

EXPLANATION OF WHISTLE SIGNALS, A warning blast of from fifteen to twenty seconds' duration is sounded to attract attention. After this warning the longer blasts (of from four to six .seconds' duration) refer to weather, and shorter blasts (from ■ one to three seconds* duration) refer to temperature; those for weather are sound-ed first. Blasts. Indicate. Blasts. Indicate.

One long.........Fair weather. One short". ,. .Lower temperature

Two long Rain or snow. Two short Higher teraperaturo

Three long ...Local rain or snow. Three short Cold wave.

By repeating each combination a few times, with intervals of ten. seconds liability to error In reading the signals may be avoided, As far as practicable, the forecast messages will be telegraphed at the expense of the Weather Bureau; but if this is impracticable, they will be furnished at the regular commercial rates and sent "collect." In no case will the forecasts be sent to a second address in any place, except at the expense of the applicant. Persons desiring to display the flags or sound the whistle signals for the benefit of the public should communicate, with the Weather Bureau officials in charge of the climate and crop service of their respective States the central stations of which are as follows: Montgomery. Ala., Phoenix, Ariz.; Little Rock, Ark • -San Francisco, Cal.; Denver. Col.; Jacksonville, Fla,; Atlanta, Ga. • Boise, IdahoSpringfield, III.; Indianapolis, Ind.; Dcs Moines, Iowa; Topeka, Kan.; Louisville, F"y; i New-Orleans, La.; Baltimore, Md. (for Delaware and Maryland); Boston, Mass. "(for New-England); Grand Rapids, Mich.; Minneapolis, Minn.; Vicksburg, Miss.- Columbia Mo.; Helena,- Mont.; Lincoln, Neb.; Carson City, Nev.; Atlantic City, N. J.: Santa Fo N. M.; Ithaca. N. Y.; Raleigh. N. C.; Bismarck, N. D.; Columbus, Ohio;'Oklahoma' Okla. (for Oklahoma and Indian Territories); Portland, Ore.; Philadelphia, Penn. * Co^. iumbia, S. C.; Huron, S. D.; Nashville, Tenn.; Galveston, Tex.; Salt Lake City, UtahRichmond, -Va..; ' Seattw, Wash.; Parkersburg, W. Vsu; Milwaukee, Wis.; Chfcy,©nne, Wyo. " .

There ar© also storm and hurricane warnings, the combinations being mad© with a white triangular flag, a red triangular flag and a square red flag with a black square in the centre, The combinations follow:

Storm warnings. Hurricane warning.


(Flags with light lines red, squares in the centre black.) Storm warning-^A red flag with a black centre indicates that a storm of marked violence is expected. The pennants displayed with the flags indicate the direction of the wind—red, easterly (from northeast to south); white, westerly (from southwest to north). The pennant above the flag indicates that the wind is expected to blow from the northerly quadrants; below, from the southerly quadrants. By night a red light indicates easterly winds, and a white above a red light, westerly winds.

Hurricane warning—Two red flags with black centres displayed one above the other indicate the expected approach of a tropical hurricane, or one of those extremely severe and dangerous storms which occasionally move across the lakes and Northern Atlantic Coast. No night hurricane warnings are displayed.


2Prepared by United States Weather Bureau, The letters at the head of each column indicate as follows: "M. A, R.," mean annual rainfall (including snow melted), in inches, "M. A. T.," mean annual temperature. "H. R. T.," highest recorded temperature at the station, "L.. R, T.," lowest recorded temperature at the station.

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-Indicates temperature below zero. 2Figures corrected to December 31, 1904.


Different objects appropriated for in the Indian acts of 1903-'04 and 39O4-'05.

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