AMERICAN TREATIES WITH THE UNITED STATES.
Treaty, or General Convention, of Peace, Commerce and Navigation, between the
United States of America and his Majesty the Emperor of Brazil concluded
and signed at Rio de Janeiro, on the 12th day of December, 1828, on the
part of the United States, by W. Tudor; on the part of Brazil, by Marquez
de Aracaty, and Miguel de Souza Mello e Alvim,
Negotiators appointed to conclude a treaty. Art. 1. Firm and inviolable peace, &c. 66
Art. 2. Favors of commerce to be common to both parties
4. Each party
3. Mutual benefits in trade and residence to be equally enjoyed.
may carry its own produce to the republic of the other equalization of duties
established, and to be the basis of all trade . .
. . 67
5. Importations and exportations to be on a reciprocal footing. No partial prohibitions
to be established. 6. Merchant, commanders of ships, and other citizens of
both countries, &c. to manage their own business; to be treated as citizens of the
most favored nation. 7. Citizens of neither of the contracting parties shall be
liable to any embargo, &c. 8. Whenever the citizens of either party seek re-
fuge, in the dominions, &c. of the other, they are to be treated as friends, &c. . . 68
9. All ships, &c. belonging to the citizens of either party captured by pirates, and
found within the dominions of either, to be delivered up to the owners.
Assistance and protection to be rendered in case of wrecks, &c. within the domin
ions of each other. 11. Citizens of each party shall have power to dispose of their
goods and effects within the jurisdiction of the other by sale, testament, or otherwise.
Alien heirs allowed 3 years to dispose of their property. 12. Complete protec-
tection in persons and property in the territories of both nations, legal redress, etc.. 69
13. Liberty of conscience and rites of burial secured. 14. Both parties at liberty to
trade with those at enmity with either, ete. Free ships to make free goods. All
persons on board, except those in the actual service of an enemy to be free...
Flag covering the property to be applied to those powers, only, who acknowledge
the principle. 15. Enemy's property, to be protected by a neutral flag, must be
shipped two months before declaration of war, etc. 16. Contraband specified. 71
Definition of blockade. 18. Contraband only, liable to confiscation. 19. In
cases of blockade, vessels to be notified but not detained, etc. Vessels entering be-
fore blockade, may quit unmolested, etc.
20. During a visit at sea, armed vessels to remain out of reach of cannon shot,-Neutrals
not to go on board the examining vessel. 21. In case of war, sea-letters, certificates
of cargo, etc. to be furnished, expressing to whom the property belongs,
22. Visiting regulations to apply only vessels without convoy,
23. Established courts only to try prize causes-Motives of condemnation to be stated, 74
24. The neutral party not to accept a commission to cruise against the other,
25. In case of war, six months allowed to those on the coast, and 12 for those in the
interior, to remove effects, etc. 26. No sequestration of money in banks, etc, 74
27. Official intercourse in relation to public ministers, etc., to be on a reciprocal footing, 75
28. Each party permitted to have consuls in each other's ports,
29. Commissions to be exhibited before exequatur is obtained,.
50. Consuls exempt from public service-their archives inviolate,
31. Consuls may call in the public authorities to aid in securing deserters, who are not
to be detained more than 2 months in prison. 32 Consular convention to be formed, 76
33. The following points agreed to:-1st. Treaty to be in force 12 years-Peace, etc.
2ndly. Citizens responsible for infringing this article. 3dly. War not to be
declared, until remonstrance is made, and satisfaction is refused,
4thly. Other treaties not to be contravened by this-Ratifications within 8 months,