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quent in the politics of this Stato, is a change the wisdom of which will! be appreciated by all.

The object of the Normal School is to prepare thorough teachers for the public scbools of this coast; not experts in some one branch, but persons familiar with all the branches taught. Teachers should be thoroughly and perfectly balanced men and women. Some advise us to give special attention to arithmetic; some say let grammar be the important study; others recommend object lessons as the sine qua non; and so on, through the wbole range of studies. We believe the well qualified teacher must study all these branches. The experienced dentist is not necessarily a competent physician; the most scientific oculist may know. nothing of the science of medicine; so a man may be thoroughly versed in one branch, arithmetic, grammar, penmanship or any other, and be a very poor teacher of an ungraded school. As it is patriotism, and not the mere knowledge of tactics, that makes the true and fearless soldier, so it is the conscientious conviction of duty and earnest enthusiasm, and not a mere knowledge of methods of instruction, that will make the live, the successful teacber.

The prospective importance of this coast should impress teachers with a sense of the responsibilities resting upon them. Nature has done much for us. We have the finest climate, the richest mines, the loftiest mountains, the most varied scenery, the most wonderful waterfall and the grandest development of vegetable life to be found in this country. Shall the coming generation of men and women be suited to the works of nature around them ? Shall they be fitted for the wonderful era in which they are to become actors ? Let the teachers of California con. sider these questions. Let them think of their responsibility to their pupils, to their patrons, to their country and to their God. Let them go into their schools to be living examples to those who are soon to be the sovereigns of this western empire. Let them feel tbat they have a bigber mission tban simply to impart the information contained in text books. Let them go forth trusting in the promised aid of the Great Teacher above. Then will the places where they labor blossom as the rose, and noble men and women will rise up and call them blessed. May the graduates of the Normal School always be of this class.

In conclusion, I ask, in the name of my associates. the encouragement and generous support of teachers throughout the State. You can do much to aid us in our earnest efforts to send forth good teachers. Our interests are inseparable from yours. If we fail to meet your reasonable expectations, or become indifferent to the great trust committed to us, ask the Trustees to remove as and give our places to those better fitted to fill them.

The doctor closed by returning thanks for the attention givon to his remarks.

STATE EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY.

ADDRESS OF BERNHARD MARKS, PRESIDENT.

Members of the California Educational Society-Ladies and Gentlemen : Although this society is a close corporation, and in accordance with the usages of all strictly professional associations bas beretofore always held its meetings with closed doors, it has been deemed proper, for reasons which will appear bereafter, to hold one open meeting in the presence of our fellow teachers assembled in convention.

OBJECTS OF THE SOCIETY.

The name assumed by the society is a fair index of the comprehensiveness of its purposes. It embraces objects which would not be cognizable by a mere teachers' society. Whatever pertains to the subject of education, however remotely connected with it, becomes a legitimate object for its consideration. It takes' cognizance of every branch of each science, and of every art to which each science gives rise, whenever they are known to have the least perceptible connection with or influence upon educational matters. It deals alike with the instrument in the teacher's hand and with the most remote principles tbat contributed to its construction. This feature gave rise to that section of the Constitution that admits to honorary membership any person eminent for lite. rary attainments or for successful service in the cause of education.

Althongh this feature ranks as the noblest of which the society can boast, and although it is the capital circumstance upon which the society must depend to attract the attention and acquire the respect of the tbinking public, yet it must be confessed that its more immediate value is to be attributed to aims of a much more restricted nature, and to results of a much less lofty cbaracter. To take the arbitrament in mat. ters educational out of the bands of outsiders, and make the teacher the sole judge and arbiter of his own affairs; to compel pretenders to leave the ranks, and set the seal of capability upon those whose brows are broad enough to wear it; to furnish a head to the body of teachers, that it may cause itself to be respected as a living thing and to be no longer contemned as a lifeless carcass incapable of effectually helping itself; to so surround itself by a circumvallation of requirements and tests as to greatly

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lessen competition and thereby enhance the pecuniary value of the ser. . vices of teachers, and at the same time to render their positions more per. manent; to accomplish all this, and much more now in process of devel. opment, must the principal efforts of this society be at first directed. What it has done towards effecting its purposes may be best shown. by a brief exhibit of

ITS HISTORY.

Until about six years ago the professional standing of teachers depended upon the capricious, incongruous, generally inefficient and too often unjust action of lawyers, physicians, divines and business men. Teachers of both sexes, of the highest order of education and of undoubted ability, teachers who had undergone examination after examination, and regularly destroyed accumulating and useless certificates, were subjected year after year to nonsensical and bumiliating examinations by those who had no reason to be, and very frequently were not, in sympathy with them. At tbat time, a certain headstrong little man declared that teachers have as good a right to be examined and pronounced upon by teachers as lawyers by lawyers, physicians by physicians, or divines by divines. He ridiculed the idea of yearly and biennial examinations, and declared that a teacher, like a lawyer, once competent, remains competent while sane. He did not have the hearty co-operation of the class he was serving, but tbrough his charactéristic energy and tomabawk logic the key of the professional gate was wrenched from the hand of the outsider and placed within that of the teacher. Examinations by teachers became the order of the day and life diplomas an institution. Tbat headstrong little man was John Swett.

In an Institute circular, issued by State Superintendent Swett, in Feb. ruary, eighteen bundred and sixty-three, he says, among many other good things that every teacher ought to be familiar with, tbat "educational conventions in every part of our country express a general desire for a distinct and definite recognition of the occupation of teaching, by forms equivalent to those now existing in law, medicine and theology. Why should not the pioneer teachers of this State, in the next Institute, take measures of self-organization, self-recognition and self-examination, and raise themselves above the humiliating necessity of submitting to an examination by members of other professions or of no profession at all? A State Educational Society could be organized by those who pass the next examination by the State Board, those who hold diplomas of graduation from Normal Schools and the professors of the various colleges and collegiate schools of the State. This society could become legally incorporated by the next Legislature. Some such steps we are called upon to take by the large number of accomplished men and women who are enterivg upon our vocation. We are called upon to act, not only in justice to scholarship and talent, but in self-defence against impostors and pretenders; and we may honestly avow a desire to exclude all who unworthily or unfitly intrude themselves into the noble office of teaching. A State Society would unite the teachers of our State in the bonds of fraternal sympathy; a certificate of membership would entitle the holder to the aid of members in all parts of the State ; it would be a passport of employment when he should change bis residence; it would entitle him to tbe substantial benefit of an honorable reception among all teachers; and a small annual membership fee would soon constitute a fund for the establishment of a teachers' journal as the organ of the society."

And he quotes that eminent man, Professor William Russell, as saying to the teachers of Massachusetts that “it is unreasonable to expect that any revolution will take place in favor of those who do not stir in favor of their own interests. Neither the community around us, nor the State Legislature, nor that of the Union, can constitute our existing corps of teachers a properly organized professional body. Teachers themselves must make the move; they only can do it. Nothing is needed but that every one of our existing state or county associations should of its own motion, as the law phrases it, resolve itself from its present condition of an open to that of a close body, self-constituting, self.perpetuating, selfexamining, self-licensing. To constitute tbe occupation of teaching a regularly organized profession, any existing body of teachers bas but to adopt the same course of voluntary procedure which is exemplified in the practice of those professional bodies which have already taken their appropriate vantage ground and are respected accordingly."

"It is merely the fact tbat other associated bodies do act on this civic privilege, wbich constitutes medicine, law and theology, professions, strictly and properly so called, as distinguished from other callings or pursuits. The three are sometimes denominated liberal professions, as implying a liberal preparatory course, although the fact does not in all cases or necessarily verify the application of the term. Still they are professions, because those who practise them profess, previous to entering upon their duties, to be qualified to perform them, are examined to that effect by professional men, and if found worthy are admitted accordingly as members of the given professional body. In all such cases the procedure is that of a self-examining, self-licensing, self-perpetuating body, giving a right to the individual admitted to membership to receive the countenance and co-operation of his professional brethren, and affording to the community in general the satisfactory assurance that the candidate for professional employment is duly qualified to perform his duties. Whatever social, professional or personal advantage, therefore, is derived from such arrangements by the members of the liberal professions, may reasonably be expected to be reaped by individuals who follow any other vocation requiring peculiar intellectual qualifications, when these individuals associate themselves for corresponding purposes of interest and general benefit.”

It is worthy of note tbat even in this first foreshadowing of the California Educational Society, the prominent view was broad enough to design the publication of a professional organ; to admit to bonorary membership members of other professions whose studies have some bearing, however remote, upon education, and to admit to full membership, with all attendant rights and honors, the women teachers of our State. It is true that at the first organization the society neither attempted the publication of a journal nor admitted women to membership, but in both cases expediency alone, and not ultimate design, was allowed to govern for the time. Means were found to establish a journal under other and more practicable auspices, and at the right moment the society assumed its publication. As to the admission of women, the way was not so clear. At the first formation of the society, a large majority of the members were decidedly in favor of the immediate admission of women, if any chose to enter. It was argued in opposition, that although the necessarily moderate standard of admission might admit some men undesirably low in the educational scale, yet they would be likely to regard themselves as permanent members of this profession, and would be incited to devote their lives to study its theory and practice, while the same class of women would, from the nature of their surroundings, be not at all likely to make desirable material for a professional society; that this society could not for a few years be independent of the favorable opinion and good will of the three professions, and that to secure these it would be desirable to organize as nearly as possible on the same basis and in the same manner; and that to organize with women would be to give this association an appearance altogether too unlike utber professions-would provoke unfavorable comment and detract from its appearance of stability. Tbat altbough the time might come when women would desire to enter in numbers, yet it was not worth while to depart violently from the custom of the older professions for the sake of the very few who would be likely to apply for admission at the beginning.

On the otber hand, it was claimed that this profession differs from every otber, in the fact that it already bas a majority of its members of that sex' which is slowly finding its may into two of those other profes. sions. That altbough it might be true that only a very few women regard themselves as permanent members of this profession, yet we have no moral right to exclude them because they are few. Tbat the indifference of the many ought not to affect the right of the few wbo might desire to become members. Other arguments were used on both sides, but I cannot now call them to mind. Finally, on the suggestion that the matter of admitting women was merely a matter of theory, and bad no practical significance, inasmuch as not a single woman teacher had so far spoken about it to those who were engaged in the organization of the society, and that the Constitution could be amended whenever the time should seem to be ripe, that clause of the first Constitution which restricted membership to men was passed.

This first Constitution was adopted in June, eighteen hundred and sixty-three. In April, eighteen hundred and sixty-seven, the Constitution was amended to admit women, although not one bad so far applied for admission, and the entrance fee was reduced from ten dollars to five. It was afterwards proposed to remit tbe fee altogether in the case of the women members, but this was objected to by some of the first women admitted. This new Constitution was hurried up and publisbed in the California Teacher, in the same number which announced the meeting of the State Institute in May. At that Institute, the several meetings of the society were announced to the whole body of teachers, the change in the Constitution adverted to and the usual invitation for applications for membership extended, but not one woman teacher applied, although many were eligible.

THE LADIES PARTICIPATE.

In June, eighteen hundred and sixty-eight, a State Institute convened, and the society held several meetings, which were duly announced with the customary invitations, but still, although many men teachers joined the society, the women teachers held coquettisbly aloof, and not one applied to be admitted.

In May, eighteen hundred and sixty-nine, at the meeting of the last State Institute, our persistent courting was rewarded with a fair measure of success. Ten of our fair sisters fell into our arms. In the enthusiasm of the honeymoon, we immediately elected nearly balf of them to office. They have done their duty like men, and we love them and are proud of them.

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