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sition of a higher astronomical cycle, and this again in a similar manner gives rise to a higber and this a higher, until the imagination sinks exbausted in the vain attempt to follow. The existence of the universe itself-how can we avoid the conclusion ?-must be determined by the same inexorable law. Mathematicians have attempted to prove the stability of the solar system, but absolute stability is inconsistent with the law of cyclical movement. In the time of Laplace, faith in the stability of the system of worlds was possible, but it is no longer possible now that geology has introduced the idea of development ihrough infinite time. Some of the higher astronomical cycles close so nearly, leave so small a residuum, that in the few thousands of years contemplated by astronomy, it may be rejected from the equation as an ipfin. itesimal, without sensible error, but infinitesimals accumulating through infinite time become finite and even large quantities. It is these infinitesimal residua which, accumulating through the countless ages of geology, constitute the gradual development of the universe through all time. The idea of development involves the idea of maturity, and this that of decay; in other words, it involves the idea of cyclical movement. There is no such thing as stability in things material. The universe itself is passing through its cycle of changes which must finally close—the universe itself is en wrapped within the complex coils of a law which must eventually strangle it to death.
Thus the cycle of the individual closes in death, but. the race progresses; the cycle of the race closes in death, but the earth abides; the cycle of the earth closes, but the universe remains; finally, the cycle of the universe itself must close. The law is absolutely universal among things material. Where, then, shall we look for true, rectilinear, ever onward progress? Where, but in that world where the soaring spirit of man is freed from the trammels of material laws-the world of immortal spirits !
OPEN THE GATES.
BY CLARA G. DOLLIVER.
Flood-gates of labor, open wide!
Pale women kneel by its precious brink,
Ye coward hands! the mighty flood
'Tis not for man our lips would plead ;
Here, take your pittance! we give to you
This the reply the whole world gives,
Teachers by thousands throng the way,
Teachers, as well as gardeners, know
Women are cowards, yet are strangely brave;
The name you give us is right, yet wrong-
Not man alone must bear the blame;
Oh, sisters! lest our cause be crushed,
The mainspring in these troubled wheels
By Dr. W. T. LUCKY, PRINCIPAL STATE NORMAL School.
[As Dr. Lucky's address was entirely extemporaneous, and as he has not found time to write it out for this report, we select from the Alta the following meagre report:] .
Dr. Lucky commenced by saying that he did not, on account of the pressing business before the Institute, propose to deliver an address upon “Normal Schools," as announced, but would present a few thoughts in reference to our own Normal School. He briefly referred to its early history, paying merited compliments to its founders and former teacbers. Wben it was established, the standard for admission and for graduation was necessarily low, in order to meet the urgent demand for teachers. Gradually the standard has been raised, until now the school will compare favorably with other State Normal Schools.
The last Legislature bad changed the location of the school from San Francisco to San José. While the question of location was under discussion, the friends of the school might reasonably entertain diverse opinions, but, as that question is now settled, let all true friends of education, forgetting past differences of opinion, unite in a generous and whcle-souled support of the institution. He complimented the City Board of Education for its fostering care of the school during its infancy. .
The new Normal School law contained some important changes that would be of great advantage. The annual examination of applicants for admission in the counties in which they reside will secure a better class of pupils, and will improve the country schools by awakening a generous emulation among teachers whose pupils will attend this competitive examination. The success of this plan will depend very much upon the interest manifested by County Superintendents. The successful candi. dates in these county examinations will acquire a reputation that will enable them, when their normal course is completed, to secure situations at home; thus avoiding the evil of those frequent changes that are necessarily connected with the employment of strangers.
The provision for the admission of pupils from the adjoining States and Territories, it is hoped, will be attended with the happiest results.
Lastly, the appointment of a Board of Trustees, whose members hold office for ten years, thus saving the school from the fluctuations so fre