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sition of a higher astronomical cycle, and this again in a similar manner gives rise to a higber and this a higher, until the imagination sinks exbausted in the vain attempt to follow. The existence of the universe itself-how can we avoid the conclusion ?-must be determined by the same inexorable law. Mathematicians have attempted to prove the stability of the solar system, but absolute stability is inconsistent with the law of cyclical movement. In the time of Laplace, faith in the stability of the system of worlds was possible, but it is no longer possible now that geology has introduced the idea of development ihrough infinite time. Some of the higher astronomical cycles close so nearly, leave so small a residuum, that in the few thousands of years contemplated by astronomy, it may be rejected from the equation as an ipfin. itesimal, without sensible error, but infinitesimals accumulating through infinite time become finite and even large quantities. It is these infinitesimal residua which, accumulating through the countless ages of geology, constitute the gradual development of the universe through all time. The idea of development involves the idea of maturity, and this that of decay; in other words, it involves the idea of cyclical movement. There is no such thing as stability in things material. The universe itself is passing through its cycle of changes which must finally close—the universe itself is en wrapped within the complex coils of a law which must eventually strangle it to death.

Thus the cycle of the individual closes in death, but. the race progresses; the cycle of the race closes in death, but the earth abides; the cycle of the earth closes, but the universe remains; finally, the cycle of the universe itself must close. The law is absolutely universal among things material. Where, then, shall we look for true, rectilinear, ever onward progress? Where, but in that world where the soaring spirit of man is freed from the trammels of material laws-the world of immortal spirits !

OPEN THE GATES.

BY CLARA G. DOLLIVER.

Flood-gates of labor, open wide!
For there comes a rushing, crushing tide,
To fill to its brink the channel broad;
To fill to its brink the channel long;
Till it flows to the restful Sea of God,
No weakling rill, but steady and strong-
A stream that gives bonor, glory and fame
To its mighty purpose and mighty name.

Pale women kneel by its precious brink,
And beg the master to let them drink;
Not drop by drop, as they taste it now,
But freely, to quench their fearful thirst,
For Fever bends with bis terrible brow,
And quarrels witb Hunger for them first.
Tbis river is labor! ob, lockman, go-
Open the gates, let the waters flow!

Ye coward hands! the mighty flood
Is a creeping rill thro' slime and mud,
Where sink the feet of the bapless poor.
What feared ye? the spring is in God's hand;
Wbat feared ye? He made its fountain sure,
And it cannot fail till they who stand
To-day, in crowds upon its brink,
Have need po longer there to drink.

'Tis not for man our lips would plead ;
Great are his powers, if great his need ;
One hour's play, and be may fling
All tbat an earnest woman's might,
Witb ceaseless toil, in a week could bring-
Her days oft touching the depths of night.
He works, is tired--but is paid its wortb;
She works, is weary, and-wbat says earth?

Here, take your pittance! we give to you
One-half the wage to your brother due;
Your work's as well, yes! better done,
But we scorn your prayer for equal pay,
For penniless women daily come,
Eager for labor; they beg and pray,
With cbildren to clothe, and bread to buy,
'Tis a question of work, work hard or die.

This the reply the whole world gives,
No reck who suffers, dies or lives;
How firmly clenched Starvation's band !
“Right” has no power with them. They cry,
We all deal justly by you; “ The demand
Will more than equal the supply.”
Woman, wash, sew or teach! these for you;
All else of earthly labor man will do.

Teachers by thousands throng the way,
Asking, not more, but equal pay;
If women now are paid so well, 'tis right
Most strange to still pay women least.
(Blush ye to wbisper of the shameful mite
Flung unto her sister in the East.
Blush ye to see Injustice stalk, not lurk !)
We challenge man to show his better work.

Teachers, as well as gardeners, know
How long it takes good seed to grow.
Tbis seed of equal pay, tho' crushed
And trodden on, springs up again,
And yet in time will bear its fruit; for just,
Indeed, it seems to all just men,
Labor should have no pets; its wage should tell.
Not who bas done the work, but done how well.

Women are cowards, yet are strangely brave;
Fainting at shadows, they will face the grave.
They face the world, so fearful bard to fight!
Oft conquered, yet again they come.
We ask no favors ; give us but our right;
The right to be well paid for work well done;
The right to toil at all that we can do,
And with no asking leave, ob World ! of you.

The name you give us is right, yet wrong-
A name of honor bestowed in scorn.
“ Woman's rights’ women !”—a monstrous thing;
“ Strong.minded women !”—we hide the face;
For still as the vine to the oak we cling,
Weak-minded still! our sore disgrace.
But sad to say, what we sometimes call
An oak—is a bean-stalk, after all !

Not man alone must bear the blame;
Woman berself takes half the shame.
Weak-minded? Yes! content to be
To father, busband, but a crooked vine-
A mistletoe upon his sturdy tree;
No wish to grow, and be, but twine.
'Tis such who laugh, Aling all tbeir little slights,
And point their feeble sneers at “ Woman's rights."

Oh, sisters! lest our cause be crushed,
Asking for justice, be more just
Call man not tyrant-brotber! For we rail
Too much of tyrants, and a wrong
Is hardly worth the righting, if we fail
To blame where blamo does most belong.
Among them we our bravest champions know;
Among them, can we find our fiercest foe?

The mainspring in these troubled wheels
Of life, is One who knows all woman feels,
And feels with her. We sorely toil
To raise fair grain among the cruel tares,
And see our good seed perish in the soil,
Our own feet stumble in the snares.
We faint, we turn and cry, " ()h, Father! throw
The gates wide open; let the waters flow.”

NORMAL SCHOOLS.

By Dr. W. T. LUCKY, PRINCIPAL STATE NORMAL School.

[As Dr. Lucky's address was entirely extemporaneous, and as he has not found time to write it out for this report, we select from the Alta the following meagre report:] .

Dr. Lucky commenced by saying that he did not, on account of the pressing business before the Institute, propose to deliver an address upon “Normal Schools," as announced, but would present a few thoughts in reference to our own Normal School. He briefly referred to its early history, paying merited compliments to its founders and former teacbers. Wben it was established, the standard for admission and for graduation was necessarily low, in order to meet the urgent demand for teachers. Gradually the standard has been raised, until now the school will compare favorably with other State Normal Schools.

The last Legislature bad changed the location of the school from San Francisco to San José. While the question of location was under discussion, the friends of the school might reasonably entertain diverse opinions, but, as that question is now settled, let all true friends of education, forgetting past differences of opinion, unite in a generous and whcle-souled support of the institution. He complimented the City Board of Education for its fostering care of the school during its infancy. .

The new Normal School law contained some important changes that would be of great advantage. The annual examination of applicants for admission in the counties in which they reside will secure a better class of pupils, and will improve the country schools by awakening a generous emulation among teachers whose pupils will attend this competitive examination. The success of this plan will depend very much upon the interest manifested by County Superintendents. The successful candi. dates in these county examinations will acquire a reputation that will enable them, when their normal course is completed, to secure situations at home; thus avoiding the evil of those frequent changes that are necessarily connected with the employment of strangers.

The provision for the admission of pupils from the adjoining States and Territories, it is hoped, will be attended with the happiest results.

Lastly, the appointment of a Board of Trustees, whose members hold office for ten years, thus saving the school from the fluctuations so fre

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