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tance of the elements combined. I need not refer you to the cataract, with its rushing, mighty power, or to the battle field, with its thundering cannon and rattling firearms, or to the clashing of the sabres when the deadly charge is made, or to the groans, screams or yells of the combatants. These are only a part of the machinery put in play when the fiendish spirit of man attempts the work of destruction upon his fellow men. This is the music of the battle field. Not concordant, but discordant. The dark storm cloud, wbile discharging its electric fluid, causing the heavenly artillery to be heard in all their terrible power, forms but one species of the grand music of nature. The column of air in many cases vibrates so slowly that the human ear cannot detect its pitch, length or power. Other sounds are so acute that their vibrations cannot be determined or fixed to any department of music. All nature is vocal. The whale has the power of communicating to its fellow asso. ciates at a great distance; which is evident when one is struck by the barpoon, for all others in the immediate vicinity and those for miles around seem to take warning:
Some of the smaller finny tribes, while in their aqueous element, give forth sounds that are distinctly heard by the human ear. Every fish, from the leviathan to the most diminutive, has its power of conversation, each species speaking in its peculiar dialect. So upon the land, from the elephant to the smallest insect that moves on the face of the earth, although not visible to the naked eye, each of these sing their song of life. Even the very air wo breathe is vocal with life's happy songs from its inhabitants. Each of these grades bave special organisms, that make them capable of comprehending in the particular sphere in which they move. Everything is vocal, and gives its songs as it rushes past in the great struggle of making the most of life. The mes. senger of death sings its terrible song as it goes upon its course creating sorrow. Cannon balls sing their songs of death as they speed upon their errand of destruction. The modern shell' gives its dismal scream as it flies through the air. The rifle, carbine and tbe pistol each send their leaden messengers with an acute whistling, as they are propelled with almost lightning speed. The powerful eagle comes down upon its prey with a rushing sound. And you of this city are familiar with the groans, when violence is being done to the laws of nature, and in her terrible struggles sbe causes the earth to quake. The roar of the flames, as they are destroying your most loved objects, gives forth a sound that sends a thrill of anguish to your souls. Tbey that go down in ships upon the great deep bear music while scudding under bare poles. But when the cry comes that the breakers are giving warning immediately upon their track, then it is tbat fear fills every breast, for the ominous song of the breakers tells with terror unspeakable. What we say with regard to the various tones of nature applies with equal force to those of the animated races.
The harsh, grating voices usually come from those whose natures keep them in antagonism with other species of animals. The lion, tiger and all carnivorous, fierce, antagonistic beings give their barsh guttural tones. The same may be said of birds of prey. Their tones are not soft and mellow, but are given in coarse, screeching accents. Man, who, of all others, claims to be so near the Divine, shows his natural instincts and education in bis tone of voice. Those of low ideas, with. out education, usually give utterance in coarse vulgar growls; their vocabulary of words is quite limited, and those only of a class that speaks of their depravity. They resemble the carnivora in tone. I speak of those who have not been improved by association and education. The educated man often shows by the tone of his voice the peculiar qualities of his mind. I was forcibly impressed with this idea many years since, wbile listening to Massacbusetts' noble orators, Daniel Webster and Rufus Choate. The logic of Webster was borne upon the air so as to be heard by the thousands there assembled, in a deep, grave, full, sonorous tone. He seemed to utter sentences with an irresistible power-just such a power as one would expect from the great constitutional expounder. Mr. Choate's thoughts were uttered in full, flowing and acute tones. These gave the proper expression to those beautiful rhetorical sentences wbicb fell in rapid succession upon the ears of his immense audiences; his articulation clear and distinct. But he bad not those ringing, silvery, melodic tones wbich came from Mr. Clay's vocal organization, telling of the rich, beautiful thoughts that acted with a magnetic influence upon all who heard bim. Neither bad be the sbrill piercing tone of Randolph, which gave to an audience a knowledge of bis peculiar character, but he seemed to float in an atmosphere of acquired grammatical phrases properly arranged; while Mr. Webster showed that depth of thought which nature only can give, and could not be expressed in different tones without spoiling its effects. Each made the music that nature had adapted to their peculiar circumstances. Tones tbat send a thrill of pleasure to our souls are usually expected to come from the beautiful and lovely. We anticipate delight in the company of the educated and refined. Those voices that float with sweet melody usually come from genial, nappy thougbts, for the voice in most cases is the index from wbicb we judge of the indwelling soul, wbile it gives utterance to those thoughts which are supposed to be the natural production of the mind, assisted by the powers of education and association. Such a one's voice gives music that fills all with pleasure; these form the beautiful sopranos, and when they trill their loved tones we ask for no siren's song to fascinate, for we seem like those in a blissful realm. The tension of the nerves is relaxed, care is gone, the mind is absorbed. When under such influences a thrill runs through us which responds to the sweet melody or concord of harmonic sounds. The air seems filled with ministering spirits, each whispering of some loved object dear to us as life itself. Most of us have heard the viol, flute and guitar during the short hours of night. At such times their tones will arise with peculiar eloquence, and while in a somnolent state they will seem to be the whispering of some fairy dell wbere those nymphs flit past in their midnigbt dances. You then had golden dreams pictured upon the mind more glistening than brilliant diamonds, for sparkling gems were being showered upon you, while rippling streams, with their silvery tones, seemed to bear you gently along. I have felt at such times as though the heavens were hung with wreaths of roses, while fairy torms, sylph-like, floated in ethereal space, and I was reclining upon Flora's rich velvety couch, where a fragrant perfume pervaded that seraphs would love to breathe.
I tell you there is no charm like music at the right time and place. You will say that this is imagination. I will then ask you whether the majority of objects sought for in this life are not imaginary. Can the glistening diamond give health to its possessor? Is there any real hap. piness in being owner of the brilliant gem? I think it is in imagination only that such find pleasure. So with gold, pearls and precious stones. They only tell upon the visual organs, and vanish wben the rays of light are gone. These, witb all their brilliancy, can form but a faint comparison with the gilded rays of tbe sun, which illumes the western sky at an evening hour, which we all have an equal sbare in. Not so with music. It dazzles the mind and enters into the soul. It becomes a part and parcel of the intellectual being, and can be reproduced at all times and under all circumstances. But the voice, which is the vebicle for convey. ance to the external world of those thoughts which originate in each peculiarity of the mind, telling of joys and sorrows, at the same time modulating itself and giving force to each expression by its peculiar tone, is left as nature gave it. All are influenced by its ricb combinations, which are only to be acquired by diligent study. But very few try to improve its quality or volume. Those rich cadences are not tbe gift of nature witbout cultivation, but are acquired by diligent study of proper rules, which will improve every species of tone, from the grave to the acute. To make it subservient to the will, we have to study combina: tions. The vocal chord, by its vibrations as the column of air passes over it, creates the pitch and power of tone. ibis alone would give a harsh, reedy quality, but by giving a proper position to each part of the tongue, with ihe right separation of the teeth and peculiar form of the lips, tbe tones are modified and give those desirable qualities that we love to hear. We must study combinations, to give expression to each grade of thought. What I say with reference to the voice in speaking, applics with equal force to tones wbile singing. Every word should be articu. lated distinctly, the lips, teeth and tongue doing the same labor during tbe singing as in the speaking tones. There is no rule that is applicable to all, for there are no two mouths formed alike internally ; tbe roof or sounding board to some will form a deep arch, while others will be flat and low Some will be flat and long, while otbers will be broad and short. There is as much difference in the internal form of mouths, as there is in the external appearance of the face, of different individuals; therefore each mouth must necessarily conform to its natural peculiari. ties. when speaking or singing. It is only by studying tbese differences of form, and judging from the vibratory power of the vocal cbord, that proper instruction can be given for the vocal organs. The natural qualities are often improved by trying to imitate others who bave the desirable qualities. Tell me of the magnificent vocalization of a Lablacbe or a Malibran, and I will try to imitate them; wbile doing so, I feel that I am educating myself for a higher sphere tban the most of mankind aspire after. I can assure the ladies bere present, that their musical organization is inimitable, for no feathered warbler can produce as beautiful tones as you. There is not an instrument in existence, under the hand of the most skilful performer, that can give tbe thrill of pleasure to the soul that you can, with the instrument that your Creator bas given as a free gift. Show your thankfulness by improvement; let it not be dormant, but use it for your own and others' satisfaction. Make it manifest to the world that you are grateful to your Benefactor, by improving it by combinations of its different parts, tbereby developing its full beauty and proportions.
Whenever the voice is beard, it sball act as a stimulant for others, because of your superior skill in those tones wbicb give that beautiful expression when conveying ideas to others. Other rewards await you, one of which shall be in the improvement of your appreciative talents, wben you come in contact with the beautiful. Your vision of happiness will then be in accordance with tbe lovely and sublime, more than they have been in times past.
Cultivate your vocal organs for singing and they will give their desirable qualities when used in usual conversation. I ask you not to study the simple rules of music, because they are too plain to require any special effort; but when you take up a piece of music, look at its theme, see what the composer's ideas were from which he drew bis inspiration, and from that study to carry tbem out. If a song, you bave to comprehend the music and the poetry, and then you will be successful in its performance. Equalize the tones of the voice, and never sing above your register; that is, above where you can preserve the tone pure in quality and quantity. At all times have the lungs well inflated. Don't let them get empty. Never make a sound, while singing, witbout the proper combinations. Learn to speak all your words within the prescribed limits for vocal sounds. A perseverance in these rules will soon place many of you in tbe first ranks as vocalists.
I will close by admonishing all here present, that they are culpable if they do not improve the talents intrusted to their care; and tbat this, the power of creating inusical tones, is one of the most beautiful gifts of the Divine Being to mankind.
ABSTRACT OF A LECTURE BEFORE THE STATE TEACHERS' INSTITUTE.
By Ezra S. CARR, M. D.
Mr. President and Teachers: During the past few weeks the world has been watching the sudden, and to the unobservant eye, almost miraculous transfer of power and prestige from one of the great leading European States to another. À quiet, home-loving, practical people have suddenly developed a vast amount of latent force, which it puzzles us to name. Is it brains versus bullets, science versus sentiment, that awaits the arbitrament of war, or a territorial question only? Somebow or other, ideas and education have gone up in the scale as they never did before in any ten weeks of human history.
We are all foolish enough to fix our eyes upon the two central figures of the strife; but neither Teuton fox nor Gallic wolf bave bad very much to do with the results which so astonish and appal the world.
If Prussia, so far victorious, bas been busy rearing a nation of soldiers, she has done it openly, in the face of the world. She has made every soldier a fortification by the completeness of an educational system which makes the most of whatever a man is born with. Tbat system is on exhibition, not only of its value for defence, but its moral power, its temperance and self-control. Whatever the final political result may be, it is certain that not one Prussian who has fallen has felt himself a tool or a dupe, played upon by superior cunning and selfishness.
There is not a soldier of that grand army who has had less than ten years' schooling (most of them have had from fifteen to eighteen years); their bodies bave been as carefully trained as their minds, and by teachers who make this their life business.
Wbat would you expect from a country tbat has an army of three million children at school, wbetber they wish to go or not, and whether their parents wish them to go or not, and for a Government tbat provides for this largely by devoting to it the heaviest outlay of its resources ?
Would you expect Prussia to be beaten, when you know that until the year eighteen hundred and thirty-one, France had made no provision for the instruction of her millions, had no public elementary schools when Guizot sent Victor Cousin to study the school system of Prussia, with a view to its adoption ?