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The patent upon the east side of the river was given to Thomas Lewis and Richard Bonighton, and recites that it was made “in consideration that said Thomas Lewis Gent, hath already been at the charge to transport himself and others to take a view of New England for the bettering his experience in the advancing of a plantation, and doth now wholly intend by God's assistance, with his associates to plant there,” &c'. The patentees undertook to transport fifty persons there in seven years at their own expense. Livery of seisin was given June 28, 1631, and the proprietors in person successfully prosecuted the interests of their patent. Such were the beginnings of the towns of Biddeford and Saco, and the lands continue to be held under those patents at this day. Oldham never appears to have entered upon his grant?; Vines occupied it fifteen years, and sold it in 1645, in which year or early the next, he went to Barbadoes, where he probably died. Lewis 'died on his estate previous to 1640, without male issue, but Bonighton continued to enjoy his proportion of the patent to a ripe old age, when he was gathered to his fathers, leaving a large estate to his children.3
In 1630, the colony of Plymouth procured a new charter from the council, for a tract of land fifteen miles on each side of Kennebec river, extending as far up as Cobbisecontee. Under this grant, they carried on a trade with the natives upon the river for a number of years, and in 1660, sold the title for four hundred pounds sterling, to Tyng, Brattle, Boies, and Winslow.
1 The original patent was accidently found by Mr. Folsom, when he was collecting materials for his history of Saco, and has been deposited by him in the Archives of the Maine Historical Society.
2 Oldham was killed by the Indians off Block Island July 20, 1636. Winthrop, vol. i.
3 For further particulars relative to these grants and the early history of Saco and Biddeford, we take pleasure to refer to Mr. Folsom's history of those places, in which is collected all the information of value that is to be obtained on the subject.
4 Hazard, vol. i. p. 298. Prince vol. i: p. 196. Sullivan p. 303.
The same year, March 13th, the grant to John Beauchamp, of London and Thomas Leverett of Boston, in England, was made. It was ten leagues square, and was situated between Muscongus and Broad bay, and Penobscot bay. Large preparations were immediately made for carrying on trade there, and agents were employed for conducting it. This was originally called the Lincoln grant, and afterward the Waldo patent, a large part of it having been held by Brigadier Waldo, to whose heirs it descended. It now forms part of the counties of Waldo and Knox.
In the course of the same year (1630) the council of Plymouth granted to John Dy and others, forty miles square, lying between Cape Porpus and Cape Elizabeth. This was named the province of Lygonia, though commonly known in early times as the plough patent. The latter term is supposed to have been applied either from the ship, named the Plough, which brought over the first company, or from the circumstance that the adventurers were generally husbandmen, while the usual employment of others upon the coast was commercial.
The first company arrived at Winter Harbor in the summer of 1631, in the ship Plough, but not being satisfied with the appearance of the country and their future prospects, the principal part of them continued on to Boston and Watertown, where they were soon broken up and scattered?. No further effective measures seem to have been taken for the occupation
1 Douglas, vol. i. p. 384. Prince, vol. i. p. 203.
2 Sullivan, pp. 114, 304, 310. I never have been able to discover this patent, nor ascertain its date, nor who were the patentees. I do not know that there is a copy of it in the country; the original was sent over to Richard Dummer of Newbury, in 1638, as agent, but was afterward ordered home. Hubbard mentions as patentees, John Dy, Thomas Luke, Grace Harding, and John Roach of London. Sullivan says they were John Dye, Jolin Smith, Brian Brinks, and others.
3 Winthrop, vol i. p. 58.
of this grant until 1643, when it fell into the hands of Alexander Rigby, under whom a government was established. This subject will be adverted to hereafter more particularly; the. claim to soil and sovereignty in that province, occupies a considerable space in our affairs, and gave birth to a conflict with Gorges, which was only quieted by a submission of all parties to the jurisdiction of Massachusetts.
This year (1630) Richard Tucker established himself at the mouth of Spurwink river in Cape Elizabeth, where he was joined the same year by George Cleeves, and they unitedly carried on business there between two and three years. In 1632, they were ejected by John Winter, who acted as agent for Robert Trelawny and Moses Goodyeare, of Plymouth, England who had procured a patent of a tract including all Cape Elizabeth. Driven from their residence on the Spurwink, they sought refuge on the north side of Casco or Fore river, and laid the foundation of the first settlement upon the Neck, now Portland, in 1632.
The same year a settlement was commenced at Agamenticus, now York, by Edward Godfrey. This was on York river, and probably near the mouth; the inhabitants subsequently extended up the river for the purpose of erecting mills. Godfrey states in a petition to the General Court of Massachusetts in 1654, “that he had been a well willer, encourager, and furderer of this colony of New England, for forty-five years past, and above thirty-two years an adventurer on that design, twentyfour years an inhabitant of this place (York) the first that ever bylt or settled ther.” In 1634, he procured of the council of Plymouth, a grant to himself and associates, Samuel Maverick, Wm. Hooke, and others, of twelve thousand acres of land on the north side of the river Agamenticus. The same
1 York Records.
2 Godfrey was for several years an agent of the Laconia company at Piscataqua; after he established himself in Maine, his activity and intelligence soon
year another grant of twelve thousand acres on the west side of the river was made to Gorges' grandson, Ferdinando.*
The next grant we meet with of land upon this coast, was of Black Point, now a part of Scarborough, to Thomas Cammock, dated Nov. 1, 1631. This was by the council of Plymouth, and extended from Black Point river to the Spurwink, and back one mile from the sea. Cammock is said to have been a relative of the Earl of Warwick; he was one of the company sent to Piscataqua, and was there as early as 1631. Possession of his grant, which included Stratton's Islands, lying about a mile from the point, was given to him by Capt. Walter Neale, May 23, 16331. The patent was confirmed to him by Gorges in 1640; the same year he gave a deed of it to Henry Jocelyn, to take effect after the death of himself and his wife. He died in the West Indies, in 1643, and Jocelyn immediately entered upon possession and married Margaret,
*[Sainsbury, vol. i. p. 266 says, "Grant to Edward Godfrey and others of Dec. 2, 1631 to be renewed, March 2, 1638."]
1 York Records.
brought him into notice. Sir F. Gorges appointed him a counselor of his province in 1640; and in 1642, he was Mayor of Gorgiana. He was chosen Governor by the people in the western part of the State in 1649, and was the first in Maine who exercised that office by the election of the people. He is said by a committee on the Mason title in England in 1660, "to have discharged this office with much reputation of integrity and justice.” He died about 1664, at an advanced age, leaving a son, Oliver. In a report to the king, 1661, signed by Robert Mason and others, it is said "That Edward Godfrey hath lived there many years, and discharged the office of Governor with the utmost integrity." Winthrop says (vol. i. p. 137) that Sir F. Gorges and Capt. Mason sent a person in 1634, to Agamenticus and Piscataqua, with two saw-mills to be erected, one at each place.- Mass. files, 1654.
[Agamenticus was the Indian name for the river now called York, and was also applied to the adjoining hills and territory. The composition of the word, as the Rev. Mr. Ballard informs me, is Anghemak-ti-koos, means snow shoes river, from the pond at its source in that shape.]
his widow. The tract is now held under this title by conveyance from Jocelyn to Joshua Scottow, dated July 6, 1666.*
December 1, 1631, the council of Plymouth granted to Robert Trelawny and Moses Goodyeare, merchants of Plymouth, the tract lying between Cammock's patent "and the bay and river of Casco, and extending northwards into the main lands so far as the limits and bounds of the lands granted to the said Capt. Thomas Cammock, do and ought to extend toward the north." The reason given for making this grant was, “the having expended great sums in the discovery of those parts, and their encouragement in settling a plantation there.” This included Cape Elizabeth, but Winter, the agent of the patentees contended for a larger extent north, than seemed to be within the just construction of the grant. A contest was maintained many years on this subject, and although in praetice, the patent never extended north of Fore river, yet the proprietors affirmed that the Presumpscot river was the northern boundary; and this was asserted by the Jordan proprietors, as late as the year 1769, when they became incorporated under the statute. They then described the bounds of the grant to extend from the sea near the east side of Cammock's patent into the country north-westerly fifteen miles, and then north-easterly to a river called Casco or Presumpscot river, then down said river to the sea, then along the sea-shore to the first mentioned bounds by Cammock's patent. These limits included nearly
[At the same time and included in the same minute of council, as copied by Sainsbury, a patent was granted to Richard Bradshaw, of 1500 acres. The memorandum does not define its locality, but its being included in the same paragraph with Cammock’s grant, and being mentioned by Cleeves, in his declaration against Winter, (see appendix No 1,) as lying at Spurwink, I infer that it was adjacent to Cammock's grant. Cleeves and Tucker claim it by purchase of Bradshaw, but it clearly conflicts with the right of Trelawny and Goodyeare, next mentioned, and so the court of Gorges in 1640 decided. Appendix No. 1, annexed to this article in the volume, gives the pleadings and the result of the trial.]
1 York Records.