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Waldo, had preceded him. But troubles occurring the next year in the college, he, with several others, left the halls of the university; and he never took a degree. Bowdoin College, however, not unmindful of his merits, bestowed upon him, in 1821, the honorary degree of A. M. On leaving college, he entered the office of his brother Levi, at Worcester, and was admitted to the bar of that county in 1811. He tried his fortunes as a practitioner first at Salem, but the next year he moved to Fryeburg, in this state. His brother, Daniel Waldo, a man of brilliant genius and attainments, had previously established himself at Portland. While at Fryeburg, he mingled with the duties of his profession the more graceful pursuits of literature, and engaged in the studies of nature, visiting the retired haunts of the aborigines and making acquaintance with the lingering remnants of the large and powerful tribe that once occupied that beautiful region of country. His romantic genius was enamored with the history of that wild, brave, and enduring race; and he pursued his researches into their habits, their language, their receding and perishing record, with the ardor which stirred all his conduct. Although this seducing subject was subsidiary to his profession, he gave to it much of the leisure which always remains on the hands of a country attorney. But he did not sacrifice his professional engagements even to a theme so attractive. The charms of the varied scenery in which his residence was cast, aroused his poetic talents, and in 1816 he published a poem entitled “The Village,” descriptive of the beautiful scenery of Fryeburg and its vicinity, and of the social condition of that community. At a later period, at the centennial celebration in Fryeburg of the battle of Lovewell's Pond, he delivered a poem commemorative of the event; his friend Charles 8. Daveis delivering the oration. All these attractions did not hinder him from engaging in the game of politics; and he enlisted with zeal in support of the principles and advancement of the Democratic party, which was then largely in the ascendant both in Oxford County and the State; and he had become so prominent in this and his many-sided pursuits, that on the resignation of Judge Parris of his seat in Congress, in 1818, to accept the appointment of District Judge of the United States Court, Mr. Lincoln was chosen his successor. Soon after, in 1819, he changed his residence to Paris, and became the successor of Judge Parris in that town, in the practice of law, who, after his appointment as Judge, established himself in Portland. He was re-elected to Congress the two succeeding terms, in the latter of which, 1826, he was chosen with great unanimity Governor of Maine, and this, before he had arrived at the age of thirty-eight years.
He was the third Governor of the State chosen by the people ; William King, the first Governor, was succeeded by Mr. Parris, who in his turn was followed by Mr. Lincoln. In the last two cases, the coincidence is striking; Mr. Lincoln succeeded Mr. Parris as member of Congress from Oxford, took his place in the town of Paris when he left it, and was his successor in the Gubernatorial chair --shadow never followed closer, and both were of the same age, having been born in 1788.
He was re-elected Governor the two succeeding years, 1827 and 1828, and died while filling his third term, October 8, 1829. During his administration, which was quite popular, the subject of most interest which engaged public attention was that relating to the north-eastern boundary, which was acquiring serious and alarming dimensions. He earnestly defended the rights of, the State to the whole territory, boldly and decidedly denying the right of the National Government to cede any portion of it without consent of the State. His correspondence with the governments at Washington and New Brunswick was copious and energetic, standing firmly on the ground of State sovereignty in regard to its soil. He appointed Mr. Daveis a commissioner to New Brunswick, on the subject of encroachments by the provincials on the territory of Maine, and on the arrest and imprisonment of John Baker, a citizen of the State. "This mission resulted in an able report by Mr. Daveis, in January, 1828, and a change in the practice of the Provincial government. At the same session of the Legislature, the whole subject of the rights of Maine, the pretensions of Great Britain, and the entire history of the case, was exhaustively exhibited in a report of a large committee drawn up by John G. Deane, accompanied by documents to substantiate his statements and arguments. This session of the Legislature, 1828, under the guiding influences of Governor Lincoln, placed Maine upon an impregnable ground of justice and right, upon this vexed and exciting question.
The subjects of internal improvements and of education, were also particularly pressed by him upon the attention of the Legislature, and valuable reports relating to them were made in 1827 and 1828. Those by the Hon. George Evans on a road to Canada and other intercommunications, and by Judge Goodenow on internal improvements generally, are particularly worthy of notice. It was also in the administration of Governor Lincoln, that Capitol Hill, in Augusta, was determined on as the future site of the Capitol, at a session of the Governor and Council held at Augusta in June, 1827.
Governor Lincoln was a popular as well as an upright and honest chiefmagistrate; he had a high sense of honor, and would not stoop for party purposes, or any purpose, to lower the dignity of his high station as a public officer, or his self-respect as a man. His heart glowed with generous impulses, and his conduct was guided by upright intentions. His communications to the Legislature were filled with appropriate suggestions and recommendations, without declamation or popular appeals; and his proclamations were peculiar for their point and brevity; one of them, for Thanksgiving, was so brief and comprehensive, and was so popular, as to be printed by his admirers on satin for general circulation.
Governor Lincoln died at Augusta, whither he had gone to deliver an oration, on occasion of laying the corner stone of the Capitol, and an address at the establishment of a female seminary in that place, on the 8th of October, 1829. He had previously been ill, and this exertion was too great for his physical strength. He died at the age of forty years, having never been
married, and without having completed the chosen labor of his leisure hours, a history of Maine, its resources and policy, and on the language and history of the aboriginal inhabitants of the State, for which he had gathered many materials, and a specimen only of which is contained in this volume. He was buried with public honors on the grounds fronting the Capitol, where still repose his remains. He is the only one of our Governors who has died in office. Of the twenty persons who have held that office, twelve survive.
I had hoped to have a memoir of this distinguished man from a source better qualified than myself to prepare it. I wrote to his brother Levi, more renowned than himself, for this purpose ; and I cannot better close this brief and imperfect memoir than by presenting an extract of his reply. He says, January 30, 1864: “It is with inexpressible regret that I find myself unable to engage in the grateful task of preparing a memoir of 'my late brother, Governor Enoch Lincoln. It should be no party portraiture of his noble character, but should present in distinct relief the features of his gifted and well endowed mind, and the genial qualities of a universally benevolent and fervently affectionate heart. Unfortunately, for the purpose of your request, I had not those opportunities for personal intercourse with him, which furnish the materials for historic notice. By many years his senior, I was in college when he was a school-boy, and when he was in college, I was occupied by the pressure of professional business, having a family of my own, and seeing him only occasionally at the home of our father. Immediately on his admission to practice, he opened an office in Salem. Soon afterward he removed to Éryeburg, and subsequently to Paris. His public and private engagements became so multiplied, that only at long intervals and in brief visits did his friends see him in Worcester. I knew him and tenderly loved him indeed, as a brother, remembering the beautiful promise of his childhood, and cherishing the fraternal relation by occasional correspondence and never ceasing regard.”
REMARKS ON THE INDIAN LANGUAGES.
[The learned and valuable corrections and annotations in the following papers of Governor Lincoln, were prepared by the Rev. Edward Ballard, of Brunswick, whose knowledge of the dialects and the history of the aboriginal inhabitants of our State, gives authority to his statements and opinions.)- Ed.
OF THE ABENAQUIS.1
Tue materials necessary for the illustration of the Abenaquis tongue are principally in the manuscripts of the Jesuit and Catholic missionaries. On the suppression of Jesuitism, which had been in some respects a valuable variety of enthusiasm, the manuscripts were carried from Quebec to France, and the efforts I have made have not enabled me, through favor or reward, to obtain copies. It will not, however, meet my view of my obligations to omit exhibiting the little share of information I have gathered concerning a language, once the oral currency of what is now our State, and undoubtedly drawn from a rich and copious source.
The Abenaquis language is a dialect of that general one called by the French writers the Algonquin, by Carver the Chippeway, and by Heckewelder and others the Lenni-Lenape.
[In the title of these “ Papers," and through the first part, Governor Lincoln writes Abenaquis (p. 412). In the second part he writes Abenakis (pp. 433, 434). Ràle wrote it Abnaki (Pickering's Preface, p. 372). I prefer Ràle's mode.
And how shall the name of Ràle be printed ? There are six modes, and Governor Lincoln uses two (p. 331), and two ways of accenting. Mr. Vetromile and Mr. Shea say that in the only instances where his sign manual is preserved, it is Ràle, pronounced Rahl. In the Jaques family, by whose ancestor he was killed, it is preserved as Rål.)
The analogy is very obvious to the philological critic who can discover resemblances as easily on this subject as Polonius could the likeness between the whale and cloud in Hamlet. Probably there is a remote affinity and possibly a common root.*
As language is necessarily the production of numerous assemblages of men, of many circumstances and of long time, and as the nomenclature of tribes shows what qualities, substances, and acts have engaged their attention, it demands a research as serious as any part of their history.
La Hontan said of the Algonquin : "It is of as much esteem in New-France as the Greek and Latin are in Europe. It is the finest and most universal language on the continent."
M. Manach, a French priest, once resident among the Micmacs, the ancient friends and allies of the Abenaquis, declares that if the beauties of their language were known in Europe, seminaries would be erected to teach it.
M. Duponceau exclaims : "Alas, if the beauties of the LenniLenape language were found in the ancient Coptic, or an ancient Babylonish dialect, how would the learned of Europe be at work to display them in a variety of shapes, and raise a thousand fanciful theories on that foundation. What superior wisdom, talents, and knowledge would they not ascribe to nations, whose idioms were formed with so much skill and method.”
These expressions of admiration may at first excite a smile from their singularity and the apparent want of importance in the subject, yet they were certainly uttered in sincerity from the most respectable authority.
*[The structural similarity of the various Indian dialects, and of numerous words in the tribes of the British Provinces, and the North American States, excepting the Six Nations, known as the Iroquois, and the Hurons, show that one wide spread language extended over them all. By separation, hostilities, and lapse of time, changes were introduced ; 'not sufficient to destroy the proof of a common origin, but to increase dialectic differences to such an extent as to make the several tribes appear to speak a different tongue. The entire diversity of the language of the Six Nations, the Esquimaux, and the tribes of the southern part of our country, as well as in Mexico and South America, may be accounted for in part on the theory of distinct emigrations from the eastern continent, where a diversity of languages had already prevailed, to undergo the mutations incident to all human speech, and especially the unwritten.)