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REPORT ON INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE.

CONTENTS.

Page. Letter of transmittal....

8 Preliminary statement Plan of international exchange adopted by the Paris convention, January 29, 1876

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CORRESPONDENCE.

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May 2, 1876.-Letter of the Hon. B. H. Bristow, Secretary of the Treasury, communicating to Professor Henry the proposed plan of international exchange promulgated by the Paris commission, January 25, 1876, and transmitted to him by the Hon. Hamilton Fish, Secretary of State, under date 25th April, 1876... May 4, 1876.–Letter from Professor Henry to Hon. B. H. Bristow, Secretary of

the Treasury, in reply to the Secretary's letter of 2d of May, 1876. May 29, 1876.-Letter from the Hon. Hamilton Fish to Professor Joseph Henry,

inclosing note from Sir E. Thornton, British ambassador, of May 22, 1876, rela-
tive to the exchange of official publications between the governments of the

United States and Great Britain
Inclosure : Sir E. Thornton, British ambassador, to Hon. Hamilton Fish, Secre-

tary of State, relative to the exchange of official publications between the

governments of the United States and Great Britain.. June 2, 1876.–Letter from Professor Joseph Henry to Hon. Hamilton Fish, Sec

retary of State, “the Smithsonian Institution as agent of the United States Government” March 1, 1877,-Letter of the Portugese commissioners to the President of the

Belgium commission, announcing the appointment of a commission of inter

national exchange for Portugal
Circular of the Belgium commission to the learned societies of Belgium.
March 23, 1877.-Letter from Hon. F. W. Seward, Assistant Secretary of State,

to Professor Henry, regarding the subject of exchanges with the Government
of Great Britain.
Inclosure: Letter from Edwards Pierrepoint, United States minister at London,

to the Hon. H. Fish, Secretary of State, transmitting reply of Lord Derby
relative to exchange of documents with Government of Great Britain, March

7, 1877. Inclosure: Letter from Lord Derby to Hou. Edwards Pierrepoint, respecting the

exchange of publications between the governments of Great Britain and the

United States, March 1, 1877..
June 3, 1878.-Letter from Prof. S. F. Baird to State Department in relation to

the international exchange of works of science to be transnitted to Dr. Joliu

8on, Paris August 28, 1878.-Letter from F. W. Seward, acting Secretary of State, to Pro

fessor Baird sending a partial report of Dr. Johnston as to the proceedings of the Paris congress in relation to the subject of international exchange Inclusure: Letter from Dr. Johnston to Hon. W. M. Evarts, Paris, August 5, 1878,

reporting on the proceedings of the Paris congress . September 17, 1878.-Letter from S. F. Baird to Hon. W. M. Evarts, Secretary

of State, explaining efficiency of the system of exchange carried on by the Smithsonian Institution, offering, however, should the Department of State desire to assume the establishment of a government system, to lay the subject

before the board of regents
September 26, 1878–. Letter from W.M. Evarts, Secretary of State, to Professor

Baird, recognizing the Smithsonian Institution as the agent of the United
States Government for international exchange....

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Page. October 30, 1878.—Letter from F. W. Seward, Assistant Secretary of State, to

Professor Baird, transmitting copy of note received from minister of Portugal. 19 Inclosure: Letter from Viscount Das Nogueiras, minister of Portugal, at Wash

ington, dated October 19, 1878, announcing the appointment of a committee of exchanges Lisbon

20 Inclosure: Declaration of the Portuguese Government relative to the establish

ment of a provisional commission of international exchanges, dated October

28, 1876. November 7, 1878.—Letter from Professor Baird to Hon. W. M. Evarts, Secre

tary of State, expressing willingness on the part of the Smithsonian Institu

tion to enter into any relation under a system of international exchange..... 21 November 14, 1878.-Letter from W. M. Evarts, Secretary of State, to Professor

Baird, expressing gratification at the willingness on the part of the Smithsonian Institution to enter into any practicable arrangement which may be made in furtherance of an extended international scheme of exchanges..

21 January 10, 1879.-Letter from W. M. Evarts to Professor Baird, requesting a

careful review of the subject of exchanges and the preparation of a detailed memorandum setting forth the basis on which the co-operation of the Smith

sonian Institution could be effected Inclosure: Mr. Noyes, the minister at Paris, to Mr. Evarts, Secretary of State,

dispatch No. 170, December 13, 1878.. Inclosure: “Projet de Reglement,” referred to Paris, January, 1876 February 5, 1879.—Letter from Professor Baird to Hon. W. M. Evarts, Secretary

of State, explaining method adopted by the Smithsonian Institution in ex

changing with the French commission February 8, 1879.-Letter from Professor Baird to Baron R. de Vatteville, com

missioner of exchanges in Paris, respecting international exchanges between

the Smithsonian Institution and the French commission
February 8, 1879.-Letter from F. W. Seward, Assistant Secretary of State, to

Professor Baird, transmitting
Inclosure: Letter from Edward A. Bond, principal librarian of the British

Museum, dated January 25, to the Secretary of State, for the Government of
the United States, thanking for donations of official publications sent through

the Smithsonian Institution.. March 13, 1879.—Letter from Professor Baird to Mons. L. Alvin, president of

the Belgium commission of exchanges, giving information respecting system of exchanges carried on by the Sunithsonian Institution, inquired into by the

commissioner in bis letter of January 24, 1879.. May 16, 1880.—Letter of Dr. J. J. De Compos Da Costa de Medeiros y Albu

querque, announcing the formation, by the Emperor of Brazil, of a commis. sion of international exchanges at Rio Janeiro, and sending the programme of organization and the instructions to the said commission....

30 June 17, 1880.-Letter from Hon. John Hay, acting Secretary of State, trans

mitting the following inclosures Inclosure : Letter from Hon. G. Willamov, Russian charge d'affaires in Wash

ington, announcing the appointment by the Emperor of Russia of a commis

sion of exchanges in St. Petersburg and sending the.. Inclosure : Regulations of the Russian commission for international exchange

of works of science and arts October 23, 1880.—Letter from Prof. Baird to Hon. W. M. Evarts, Secretary of

State, requesting the recommendation to Congress of an appropriation to enable the Smithsonian Institution to carry on the system of exchanges in which it has been recognized as the agent of the United States Government.

33 October 30, 1880.-Letter from W. M. Evarts, Secretary of State, to Professor

Baird, expressing his willingness to apply to Congress for an appropriation for the purpose of carrying on a system of international exchanges..

34 January 31, 1881.-Letter from Hon. W.M. Evarts to Hon. Henry G. Davis, chairman of the Senate Appropriation Committee, asking for an appropriation to enable the Smithsonian Institution to carry out a system of international ex

changes undertaken at the request of the Secretary of State..... December 27, 1881.-Letter from Hon. J. C. Bancroft Davis, acting Secretary

of State, to Professor Baird, proposing an extension of the system of international exchange and requesting to be furnished with memorandum to serve as the basis of a communication to Congress, urging the appropriation of an amount sufficient to defray the expenses of international exchange......

APPENDIX.

Report on the International Exchanges of the Smithsonian Institution.

Page. Introductory.

37 Sketch of early reports of international exch age.

37 In 1694, between France and Germany.

37 In 1697, between France and China...

37 In 1800, the American Philosophical Society

37 the American Academy of Arts and Sciences..

37 In 1832, M. Vattermare, of Paris...

37 In 1841, the National Institution of Washington.

40 Smithsonian exchanges...

41 Exchanges suggested in the original programme of organization.

41 Operations commenced in 1850..

42 Remission of duties and free eutry of Smithsonian exchanges in all parts of the world....

42 Co-operation of Royal Society of London with the Smithsonian Institution in the system of exchanges...

43 Different branches of the system of exchanges.

45 Foreign excbanges

45 Offers by the Smithsonian Institution to learned societies to act as agents of exchange..

45 Request made from foreign countries for certain works of education, &c. 45 Co-operation of government bureaus.

45 Acknowledgments for favors in connection with foreign exchanges.

45 Liberality of transportation companies...

46 Consuls forwarding Smithsonian exchanges.

47 Centers of distribntion abroad.

49 Extent and cost of exchanges..

50 Tabular statement of shipments.

51 Domestic exchanges

52 Assistance by publishing and book-houses

52 Tabular statements of the receipts for domestic exchanges for the Smithsonian Institution and other institutions in the United States..

53 Government exchanges

53 Acts of Congress, July 20, 1840, authorizing an exchange of public documents

53 Exchange of government documents urged by the Smithsonian Institution in 1852..

54 Act of March 2, 1867, providing for an exchange of official publications.. 54 To be carried on through the agency of the Smithsonian Institution... 54 Circular sent by the Smithsonian Institution relative to exchanges of government documents..

54 Governments responding favorably to the proposed exchanges of official documents..

55 First transmission of government exchanges..

55 Companies granting free freight......

57 Shipping agents of government exchanges..

57 Governments in exchange with the United States Government

57 Tabular statement of transmission...

58 List of official publications received under the system from the Public Printer between the years 1868–1881....

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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, EXCHANGE OFFICE,

Washington, D. C., February 28, 1882. SIR: Agreeably to your request, I have the honor herewith to submit a report on a system of international literary and scientific exchanges organized in various countries as one of the results of the geographical congress which met at Paris, France, during the months of August and September, 1875.

To this paper is appended a report on the history and development of the system of literary and scientific exchanges established by the Smithsonian Institution in the year 1850, together with a sketch of early experiments at international exchange, which will tend to show the originality of the Smithsonian system. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. H. BOEHMER. Prof. SPENCER F. BAIRD,

Secretary Smithsonian Institution.

PRELIMINARY STATEMENT.

The Smithsonian Institution, which has for the third of a century un. dertaken, as one of its fields of activity, a system of free international exchanges of the scientific and literary productions of all countries, has now achieved a magnitude of operations beyond which it finds a further extension impossible with its present limited resources. A full account of the growth of this beneficent system, now favorably recog. nized in all parts of the world, is herewith respectfully submitted, gether with an introductory account of the proceedings which have taken place in late years among various governments, directed to the establishment of such a system upon a truly international basis.

During the months of August and September, in 1875, an international congress of geographical science was held at Paris, consisting of several hundred delegates from all parts of the globe, and representing the following national governments: Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Chili, Dominican Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Hungary, Norway, Portugal, Roumania, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Swiss Confederation, Turkey, and the United States of America. A prominent result of this conference was a unanimous resolution to enlist the co-operation of the respective goverments there represented in securing the free interchange of official and other publications, in accordance with the following: PROPOSED PLAN FOR THE INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE OF SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS TO

BE SUBMITTED TO THE CONTRACTING POWERS. The undersigned delegates propose to request their respective governments to organize in each country a central bureau whose duty it shall be to collect such carto

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graphic, geographic, and other publications as inay be issued at the expense of the state, and to distribute the same among the various nations which adopt the present prograinme.

These bureaus, which shall correspond directly with each other, shall serve to transmit the international scientific communications of learned societies.

They shall serve as the intermediate agents for the procurement, on the best possible terms, of books, maps, instrulients, &c., published or manufactured in each country, aud desired by any of the contracting countries.

Each country shall transmit at least one copy of its national publications to the other contracting countries.

In order to accomplish this project, the Baron de Vatteville, who was charged by his colleagues with the formation, at Paris, of a central commission of exchanges, convoked a meeting of those signers of the convention of August 12, 1875, who reside at Paris, at the ministry of public instruction.

The commission thus formed, desirous of securing the exchange of publications and official documents relating to the sciences which tend to promote a knowledge of the globe, such as, first, astronomy, geodesy, cartography, geography, topography, geology, mineralogy, botany, anthropology, hygiene, zoology, entomology, explorations and travels, history, archæology, linguistics, numismatics, &c.; and secondly, statistical information of all kinds, has prepared, discussed, and adopted the regulations mentioned below, which its members will submit to their. respective governments for approval.

SECTION 1.—General arrangements.

ARTICLE 1. Each high contracting party shall designate in its country a bureau as the center for international exchanges and shall communicate its exact title and address to the other governments.

Art. 2. Each bureau shall prepare a bibliography of the official works published within late years and which they are inclined to exchange. It shall transmit at least one copy of this list to the foreign bureaus, and shall engage to notify these same bureaus of all new official publications as they may appear.

Art. 3. The bureau of each country may (subject to the ratification of its government) make use of the opportunity to include in the list of proposed exchanges such publications as are not, strictly speaking, comprised in the category of the sciences above mentioned.

SECTION II.- Exchanges between governments and departments. Art. 4. All official documents, that is to say publications issued at the expense of the state, sball be exchanged gratuitously. With regard to these each high contracting party engages to transinit to the foreign bureaus at least one copy of each of its publications, excepting, however, those which relate to the national defense.

Art. 5. If any country shall desire for any purpose to receive more than one copy of the official publications of any other country, the number thereof shall be fixed by a previous arrangement through means of the bureaus of exchange, on the basis of an equitable reciprocity.

SECTION 1II.- Exchanges between gorernments and learned societies.

Art. fi. If any scientific society or institution, whether receiving a subsidy from the state or not, sball desire to receive directly official publications from any foreign country, it shall address the bureau of its country, which shall serve as agent for obtaining the most favorable conditions.

ART. 7. Any modifications of these conditions of the exchanges, agreed upon by two countries relative to the suppression of a document or the transmission of additional copies, must pass through the bureaus of the countries interested.

Section IV.-Exchanges between learned societies. ART. 8. The bureau will serve as intermediary between scientific societies, whether snbsidized or not, which may desire to make exchanges between themselves, by giving all the information at their disposal. It will also act officially in regard to anthors, publishers, or manufacturers of instruments, whose publications or produc

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