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existence of the system (closing with 1860) the total weight of matter sent abroad during that period amounted to 145,979 pounds, and that the cost of the same to the Institution was $22,929.29; the weight sent during the second decade (closing with 1870) was 221,713 pounds, at a cost of $32,398.84; and that the weight sent during the third decade (closing with 1880) was 570,571 pounds, at a cost of $78,453.01.
Notwithstanding the remarkable liberality with which the exertions of the Institution have been aided by the great transportation companies at home and abroad, the co-operation of learned societies, and the remission of duties and custom-house espenses by all nations, the actual cost of these international exchanges to the Smithsonian fund has reached for the last five or six years to fully one-fourth of its entire income. And this annual expenditure the Regents of the Institution do not feel justified in increasing or even continuing in the future.
* The apparent reduction of expense for the last year (1881) is due to an appropriation of $3,000 allowed by Congress in aid of the government exchanges. It thus lappears that the average expense of the International Exchanges for the last six years has exceeded $10,000 per annum.
10 56 82
83 113 104 112 121 108 179 196 149 208 323 406 309 311 268 407
Shipments made by the Smithsonian Institution under the system of foreign exchanges, 1850
The system of domestic exchanges embraces not only the distribution of Smithsonian and other American contributions to kuowledge throughout our country, but that of the publications received from foreign countries as well, intended for societies and individuals here. By the liberal courtesy of many well-established houses in the book business in different parts of the country, these domestic transmissions were effected with a very satisfactory dispatch and fidelity. The gentlemen to whom the Institution was mainly indebted in 1851 and immediately following years for this valuable service were Messrs. J. P. Jewett & Co., of Boston ; George P. Putnam, of New York; Lippincott, Grambo & Co., of Philadelphia ; John Russell, of Charleston; and H. W. Derby, of Cincinnati. To these names should be added in 1852 and following years those of Messrs. Jewett, Proctor, and Worthington, of Cleveland ; Dr. George Englemann and John Halsall, of Saint Louis; and B. M. Norman, of New Orleans.
As an incidental but striking illustration of the interest awakened in the international exchange at that early day, may be mentioned, among the numerous literary gifts to the Institution, a rare and curious collection of manuscripts of very varied character, sufficiently described in the following letter of presentation : AVENUE LODGE, BRIXTON HILLS, NEAR LONDON,
October 28, 1852. SIR: I have the pleasure of offering for your acceptance for the use of the Smithsonian Institution a collection of documents formed for the purpose of illustrating the history of prices between the years 1650 and 1750. The collection, regarded as a collection, is, I believe, unique in its kind, although many manuscripts of the same description are to be found dispersed amongst the vast stores of the British Museum and other libraries in this country. It consists of about seven thousand original papers bound in fifty-four volumes, including bills, accounts, and inventories, respecting commercial and domestic articles of nearly every description.
It will afford me great pleasure if the allocation of these papers at Washington prove of use at any time to the literary inquiries of your great nation. Without incurring the imputation of falling into the ordinary error made by collectors in attaching a fictitious value to relics which have necess
essarily required the expenditure of consid
erable time and exertion to bring together, it may, perhaps, be allowed me to entertain a hope that these fragments of an earlier age, now confided to your care, may be hereafter regarded of importance in the list of materials which will some day assist in producing a history of social progress.
Mr. Henry Stevens, F. S. A., the agent to the Smithsonian Institution in England, has kindly undertaken to forward the collection to you on an early opportunity.
I feel sure you will excuse the liberty I am taking in addressing you on this subject; and I have the honor to be, sir, Your obedient faithful servant,
J. O. HALLIWELL. Prof. JOSEPH HENRY.
The history and condition of domestic exchanges, from their commencement to the present time, are exhibited in the following table :
1846 to 1850 1851. 1852 1853 1854 1855. 1856. 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865. 1866 1867 1868. 1869 1870. 1871 1872. 1873 1874 1875 1876. 1877 1878 1879. 1880 1881
637 1, 052
987 1, 445 1, 245 1, 273 1, 539 1, 933 1.908 1, 406 2, 111 1, 522 2, 482 2, 368 2, 703
971 2, 394
130 3, 705 3,952 4, 635 4, 782 4, 326 4, 661 4, 853 4, 962 5, 292 6, 971 5, 587 8, 433
GOVERNMENT EXCHANGES. Although Congress, by act of July 20, 1840, authorized the printing and binding of fifty copies of all volumes published by the two houses, which volumes were to be reserved for the purpose of exchange with foreign powers, yet from the omission to provide for the extra printing, or from other cause, this liberal arrangement failed to go into operation.
An act of March 4, 1846, directed the Librarian of Congress to procure a complete series of reports of the United States courts and of the laws of the United States, and transmit them to the Minister of Justice of France, in Exchange for works of French law presented to the United States Supreme Court.
June 26, 1848, the Joint Committee on the Library was authorized to appoint agents for exchange of books and public documents. All books iransmitted through these agents of exchange, for use of the United States, for any single State, or for the Acadeniy at West Point, or the National Institute, to be admitted free.
A resolution of June 30, 1848, ordered that the Joint Committee on the Library be furnished with twenty-five copies of the Revolutionary Archives, twenty-five copies of Little & Brown's edition of the Laws of the United States, seven copies of the Ex
ploring Expedition then published, and an equal number of subsequent publications on the same subject, for the purpose of international exchange.
A joint resolution of March 2, 1849, directed that two copies of certain volumes of the Exploring Expedition be sent to the goverument of Russia, in lieu of those which were lost at sea on their passage to that country. The Secretary of State was also directed to present a copy of the Exploring Expedition, as soon as completed, to the government of Ecuador.
By the act of August 31, 1852, the act of 1818 regulating exchanges was repealed.
In 1852 the Smithsonian Institution urged that Congress should make some systematic and permanent arrangement for distributing complete series of its works to European libraries, to at least thirty of which they might be judiciously supplied. It was also suggested that particular works of scientific interest, as reports of patents, coast survey operations, government explorations in geography and geology, and others of a similar character, might be assigned in larger numbers of from one hundred to three hundred, as had already been done in some instances by the Senate. These might be distributed by the Smithsonian Institutiou at moderate cost to the government, and direct returns or exchanges obtained for the Library of Congress, if desired.
The distribution of Congressional documents in the United States also might have been considerably modified. The copies given to the State Department for domestie distribution could only be sent to colleges or lyceums, not to regular public libraries, even of the largest class. The rule in force with the Smithsonian Institution might well be applied in this case, of making as equable a distinction as possible throughout the country, supplying all larger public libraries, and giving to smaller ones only where a large district would otherwise be destitute. It had always been matter of complaint with men pursuing special objects of research, that public documents relating to their investigations were frequently inaccessible. In order to remedy this, some departinent could be directed to keep full lists of all persons prominently engaged in the various branches of science, and to supply the names ou such list regularly with extra copies of documents to be furnished by Congress.
August 18, 1856, the Secretary of State was authorized to purchase one hundred copies each of Audubon's Birds of America and Quadrupeds of North America, for exchange with foreign governments for valuable works.
The matter of government exchanges received, however, no further definite action until the thirty-ninth session of Cougress, wh the following act was passed :
A RESOLUTION to provide for the exchange of certain public documents. Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States in Congress assembled, That fifty copies of all documents hereafter printed by order of either House of Congress, and fifty copies additional of all documents printed in excess of the usual number, together with fifty copies of each publication issued by any department or bureau of the government be placed at the disposal of the Joint Committee on the Library, who shall exchange the same, through the agency of the Smithsonian Iostitution, for such works published in foreigu countries, and especially by foreign govern, ments, as may be deemed by said committee an equivalent; said works to be deposited in the Library of Congress.
Approved March 2, 1867.
A primary object of this movement was to secure as regularly and economically as possible all reports and other documents relative to the legislation, jurisprudence, statistics, internal economy, technology, &c., of all pations, so as to place the material at the command of the committees and members of Congress, heads of bureaus, &c.
No appropriation was made for meeting the necessary expenses, which could not conveniently be borne by the Smithsonian fund. But as a year would necessarily elapse before any documents would be ready for distribution, the following circular was issued by the institution with a view of ascertaining what governments would enter into the proposed arrangement.
CIRCULAR RELATIVE TO EXCHANGES OF GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS.
Washington, C. S. A., May 16, 1867. A law has just been passed by the Congress of the l'nited States authorizing the exchange, under direction of the Smithsonian Institution, of a certain number of all United States official documents for the corresponding publications of other documents throughout the world, the returns to be placed in the national library at Wasbington. The works to be distributed under this law will consist of reports and proceedings of Congress, messages of the President, annual reports and occasional publications of departments and bureaus, &c., the whole relating to the legislation, jurisprudence, foreign relations, commerce, statistics, arts, manufactures, agriculture,