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recognized and appreciated abroad, that in his report for the year 1854 the secretaryProfessor Henry-annonnced : “There is no port to which the Sınithsonian parcels are shipped where duties are charged ou them, a certified invoice of contents by the sucretary being sufficient to.pass them through the custom-honse free of duty. On the other hand, all packages addressed to the Institution arriving at the ports of the United States, are admitted, without detention, duty free. This system of exchange is therefore the most extensive and efficient which has ever been established in any country.” And in the following year, 13.55, the secretary remarked in continuation of the subject: "The Smithsonian agency is not confined to the transmission of works from the United States, but is extended to those from Canada, South and Central America, and in its foreign relations embraces every part of the civilized world. It is a ground of just congratulations to the regents that the Institution, by ineans of this part of the plan of its organization, is able to do so much towards the advance of knowledge."
The system of international exchange of literary and scientific productions thus established, naturally developed into two distinct branches :
The foreign exchange, or the distribution abroad of publications by the Smithsonian and by oth-r American institutions.
The domestic exchange, or the distribution within the United States of publications by foreign establishments.
To this might be added, as a third branch, the introduction in 1867 of a separate system of government exchange.
FOREIGN EXCHANGES. The Smithsonian Institution, in undertaking to extend the system of international exchange of literary and scientitic publications, commnnicated its purpose to the chief learned societies throughout the country, with a proffer of its services to the end in view. The principal bodies responding to its invitation were the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston; the Boston Natural History Society, the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, the United States Coast Survey, the Naval Observatory at Washington, and a few ot bers. The Hon. Luke Lea, Commissioner of Indian Asfairs, at the instance of the Institution (seconded by the authors), embraced the opportunity of presenting to about one hundred and fifty establishments in Europe (selected from the Smithsonian list) copies of Schoolcraft's history of the Indian tribes. In this case the Institution requested the recipients to return a special acknowledgement to the Commissioner of the Indian Bureau. Numerous docunents of scientific interest published by Congress were, through the personal liberality of members in distributing their copies, received from the Senate Document Room for transmission abroad. The Senate also assigned to the Institution three hundred copies of Foster and Whitney's report on the copper lands of Lake Superior; one hundred copies of Owen's report on the geology of Iowa, Wisconsin, and Minnesota; and one hundred copies of Stansbury's report on the exploration of Utah, for foreign distribution.
In the Smithsonian report for 1854, the secretary states: “During the past year the number of societies availing themselves of the facilities thus offered has largely increased, including among others nearly all the State agricultural societies of America pnblishing transactions. This result has been produced by a circular which was issued by the Institution early in the spring of last year, to make known more generally the system of exchange. Copions returns are being constantly received for ihe societies, and an intercourse is thus established which cannot fail to produce important results, both in an intellectual and moral point of view."
As an indication of some of the incidental benefits conferred by this extensive system of exchange, a few special transmissions may be cited.
In 1867, at the suggestion of Hon. John Bigelow, late American minister to France, a request was made by the Institution that some of the principal publishers of schoolbooks in this country would furnish copies of their elementary text-books, in order that these might be presented to Professor E. Laboulaye, of the College of France, for examination, with a view to the application of some of their peculiar features to the parposes of instruction in bis own country. The character of this distinguished professor, and his known admiration of American institutions, secured for this request the prompt and liberal response of several publishers, a list of whom, with the number of works contributed, is as follows:
Volumee. Harper & Brothers, New York.
62 A.S. Barnes & Co., New York..
26 Oakley & Mason, New York
10 C. Scribner, New York..
3 H. Cowperthwaite & Co., Philadelphia
10 1. Hunt & Son, Pbiladelphia
12 E.C. & J. Biddle, Philadelphia..
12 A.S. Davis & Co., Boston....
6 Sargent, Wilson & Hinckle, Cinciunati..
Professor Laboulaye, in acknowledging the receipt of these 174 volumes, saçs: 4. These books form the admiration of all who take an interest in education, and I hope that France will profit by this example. We have excellent things at home by which you in turn might profit, but we bave seeu nothing comparable to your readers, your object lessons, your graphics, and your geographical series.".
The Institution in like manner frequently received applications from foreign goveroments and societies for official publications of the States, of general government, relative to certain branches of political economy, statistics, education, &c. During the year 1868 a request of this kind was received from the Belgian Government desiriug us to procure all the publications of the States in regard to public schools.
In answer to our circular asking for these documents, a large and valuable collection was received, for which thanks of the Institution were returned to the following persons, namely: To A. Rogers, second anditor of Virginia; T. Jordan, secretary of state, Pennsylvania; S. C. Jackson, assistant secretary board of education, Massachusetts; J. A. Morris, school commissioner, Ohio ; N. Bateman, superintendent of education. Illinois; C. J. Hoadley, state librarian, Connecticut; F. Rodman, secretary of state, Missouri ; R. A. Barker, secretary of state, Kansas ; Ed. Wright, secretary of state, Iowa; C. W. Wright, secretary of state, Delaware; J. E. Tenney, secretary of state, Michigan, and the secretary of state, Wisconsin.
Another application of a similar character was received from the Guvernment of Norway for the publications of the United States relative to military affairs, which, on being referred to the heads of departments and bureans, secured a large number of the desired publications. Acknowledgments for these favors are due to General E. D. Townsend, Adjutant-General; General A. A. Humphreys, Chief Engineer, L'nited States Army ; Surgeon-General Barnes; Paymaster-General Brice; General Dyer, Chief of Ordnance; Commodore Jenkins, Chief of Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography, Navy Department; General Meyer, Chief Signal Officer.
For official co-operation with the Institution in its plans for the promotion of knowledge and important assistance rendered, besides the foregoing, we may mention Hou. William H. Seward, Secretary of State; Hon. Hugli McCullough, Secretary of the Treasnry; Hon. Horace Capron, Commissioner of Agriculture; General Meigs, Quartermaster-General; Mr Spofford, Librarian of Congress; Professor J. H. C. Coffin, Superintendent of the Nautical Almanac, and Commodore Sands, of the National Observa. tory.
Acknowledgments are also due for favors rendered in connection with foreign ex. changes to E. J. Davison, esq., Argentine consul; José I. Sanchez, esq., consul of Venezuela; Señor B. Blanco, consul-general of Guatemala; L. H. J. D'Aguir, consul-general of Brazil; R. C. Burlage, consul-general of Netherlands; Hon. E. Juteirez, minister from Costa Rica ; to the American Board of Commissioners of Foreign Missions ; Real Sociedad Economica, Havana ; Board of Foreign Missions, New York ; American Colonization Society, Washington; Society of Geography and Statistics, Mexico; University of Chili; Bataviaasche Genootschap, Java, Institute of History, Geography, and Ethnology, of Rio Janeiro.
It is not alone from societies or public bodies that works are received by the Institution for gratuitous distribution at home and abroad among libraries or establishments of learning where they may obtain appreciation. Copies of works produced bs private enterprise are not infrequently sent to the Institution by individuals who cannot afford the additional expense attendant upon their desired transmission to distant and scattered points.
In most cases the list of distribution is made out by the parties sending the copies, but soinetimes the selection of recipients is left to th: Institution.
Among the articles distributed in this way was the narrative of an exploration to Musardo, the capital of the western Mandigoes, through the country east of Liberia, by Benjamin Anderson, a young man of pure negro blood. The narrative was printed without correction from the original manuscript, at the expense of Mr. H. M. Shieffelin, of New York, and nearly the whole of the edition was presented to the Institution for distribution.
LIBERALITY OF TRANSPORTATION COMPANIES. The rapidl extension of the Smithsonian exchanges soon became a heavy tax upon the resources of the Institution; and the conduct of its principal function (“the increase of knowledge among men” by the promotion of original research and discovery) was threatened with being crippled and overridden by the demands of a service really held as incidental and subordinate thereto. With a view to diminish, if possible, the expenses involved, the Institution, in 1855, addressed several of the leading transatlantic steamship companies, unfolding its methods, and asking, in consideration of the great public benefit of the system, the favor of reduced rates of freight upon this particular service.
With a liberality and public spirit which cannot be too highly admired, the transportation companies, as addressed, agreed to carry the freights of the Smithsonian
Institution not merely at an abatement, but without charge ; and thus generously enabled the Institution to maintain the growing nagnitude of the operations, when otherwise the system must have broken down by its own weight. At a meeting of the board of regents, on the 8th of March, 1856, it was
Resolred, That the secretary on the part of the regents of the Smithsonian Iustitution, return thanks to the United States Mail Steamship Company, M. O. Roberts, presi: dent; Pacific Mail Steamship Company, W. H. Aspinwall, president; South American Mail Steamship Company, Don Juan Matteson, president; Mexican Gulf Steamship Comp ny, Harris & Morgan, agents; and the Panama Railroad Company, David Hoadley, president, for their liberality and generous offices in relation to the transportation without charge of articles connected with the operations of the Institution.
In the secretary's report for 1867, he says: “The system has now attained a great development and increases measurably every year. The expenses hitherto have been principally borne by the Institution, but their amount has now become so great as seriously to interfere with other operations.
The 'expenses of the Smithsonian exchanges would be considerably greater than they are, but for the liberality of various transportation companies in carrying packages free of cost.”
The line of sailing vessels between New York and the west coast of South America, belonging to Mr. Bartlett, 110 Wall street, also engaged to carry all the Chiliau exchanges free of charge.
In the course of the year 1858, Hon. Mr. R. Schleiden, the minister resident of Bremen, offered his service in trying to procure for the Smithsonian the advantage of free or reduced freight on excbanges for the port of Bremen. His success is announced in the following letter:
BREMEN LEGATION, Washington, January 25, 1859. Sir: Agreeably to your verbal request I have proposed to the president and directors of the North German Lloyd of Breinen to manifest their interest in the cause of science by facilitating literary intercourse between the United States and Germany, by means of their steamers plying between Bremen and New York.
It affords me great pleasure now to inform you that, according to a letter of the president of the Lloyd, dated the 5th instant, and just received, the said Bremen Steamship Company have resolved, henceforth and until further notice, to forward by their steamers all the pack of books and specimens of natural histor which the Smithsonian Institution may be pleased to send to Germany, or which may be sent from Germany to the Smithsonian Institution, free of charges between New York and Bremer Haven.
I beg leave to add that Messrs Gelpcke, Keutgen, and Reichelt, 84 Broadway, New York, are the agents of the North German Lloyd at that place, and that the next Bremen steamer sailing for Europe will leave New York on the 19th of February next.
I avail myself of this occasion to offer you renewed assurances of my high consideration.
Minister Resident of Bremen. Prof. JOSEPH HENRY,
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. The following resolution was adopted by the Board of Regents February 15, 1859 :
Resolved, That the thanks of this board be returned to bis excellency R. Schleiden, minister resident of Bremen, for his intervention with the “North German Lloyd of Bremen,” to facilitate and advance the cause of science by transporting, free of charge, &c., packages of books and specimens of natural history from Germany to the Smithsonian Institution, and from the Institutiou to Germany, and the like thanks to the president and directors of the North German Lloyd of Bremen for their generous liberality in the instance above referred to.
On the 16th of February, 1860, Professor Henry addressed a letter to Mr. Edward Cunard, of the steamship line running between New York and Liverpool, in reply to which the following letter was received, which was laid before the Board of Regents at their meeting on March 17, 1060 :
NEW YORK, February 25, 1860. DEAR SIR: I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 16th Mistant, and, in reply, I beg to inform you that I shall have much pleasure in conveying in our steamers from New York to Liverpool, every fortnight, one or more cases from the Smithsonian Institution to the extent of half a ton or 20 cubic feet measurement. The cases to be addressed to your agent in Liverpool, or to his care. The arrangement of free cases is intended only to apply to those shipped by you from this side of the water. Your obedient servant,
E. CUNARD. Prof. JOSEPH HENRY,
Secretary Smithsonian Institution.
At the same meeting of the regents it was
Resolved, That the thanks of the Board of Regents are hereby given to the rarions companies aud individuals who have generously aided in advancing the objects of the Smithsonian Institution and the pro:notion of science, by the facilities they hare afforded in the transportation of books, specimens, &c., free of charge.
In the next year, 1851, in response to an application by Professor Henry, another concession of free freight was granted by the Hamburg American Packet Company, in the following communication :
HAMBURG AMERICAN PACKET COMPANY,
New York, October 21, 1561. DEAR SIR: In reply to your favor of October 18, we beg to state that we shall be most happy to accommodate the Smithsonian Institution in furthering the wishes you express, and take on freight, free of charge, any packages which you desire to ship, be they specimens of natural history, books, or other articles desire to be forwarded to Germany or the continent of Europe, irrespective of bulk. Very respectfully, yours,
KUNHARDT & CO. Prof. J. HENRY,
Secretary Smithsonian Institution.
At a meeting of the Board of Regents held May 1, 1862, it was
Resolved, that the thanks of the Board of Regents be presented to the Hamburg American Packet Company for their liberal co-operation in assisting to advance the objects of this Institution.
Without detailing the successive acquiescence of different companies in this liberal and most praiseworthy movement, it is sufficient to mention that the following great transportation lines now grant free freight to the Smithsonian packages.
Anchor Steamship Compauv (Hendersou & Bros., agents), New York.
North German Lloyd Steamship Company (agents, Oolrichs & C., New York, Schumacher & Co., Baltimore).
Pacific Mail Steamship Company, New York.
In addition to these companies, the consuls for their respective countries have consented to forward the Smithsonian exchanges as follows:
Argentine Republic.-Consul-General Carlos Carranza, Now York.
In the special work of foreign distribution of memoirs and packages sent abroad, the establishment of various agencies in the principal capitals, of course, became necessary. The sam4 agencies were also employed as centers for the collection of returned p:nblications designed to be sent to the Institution. In the Sanithsonian report for 1878 it wts announced that
“Of late years in certain countries these labors have been materially lightened by a portion of the exchinge being undertaken by some learned society, or by the goverament. These, being constituted S nith sonian agents in their respective countries,
receive whatever may be sent them for distribution, collect the returns and transmit them, thus giving to the Institution the benefit of an intelligent superintendence of the work. The first of these organizations was that established some years ago by the University of Christiania, Norway, and by Holland in the patronage of the Scientific Bureau at Harlem under the efficient supervision of Dr. E. H. Von Baumhauer. During the past year a similar organization has been effected for Belgium, and it is hoped that their number will continue to increase. Even now, without any formal arrangement to that effect, the Academies of Science of Stockholm, of Copenhagen, of Madrid, and of Milan, discharge the services of agents of the Institution for their respective countries."
CENTERS OF DISTRIBUTION.
William Wesley, London, England.
H. Ex. 172 -4