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tions may be desired by either a state or a foreign scientific society, in order to procura the advantage of the greatest possible reductions in favor of the applicants.
Art. 9. The bureau is not to take any part in exchanges between clubs or associations which do not have a well-defined scientific literary character, nor in exchanges between inanufacturers, publishers, or authors.
SECTION V.-Transmissions and payment of carriage.
This section remains to be prepared in accordance with the reply which shall be received from the postal union, in reference to the request for free transport whieh has been addressed to the same on behalf of the commission by the Baron de Vatteville. This is also the case with regard to the protocol, the terms of which can only be de termined upon by the different governments in pursuance of a previous arrangement.
Done at Paris, January 29, 1876, council chamber of the ministry of public instruction, &c., division of science and letters, first bureau, under the authority of the min. ister of public instruction, by the assistant secretary and director of the bureau of sciences and letters.
BARON DE VATTEVILLE, President of the Commission for International Exchanges.
The following communications relative to international exchanges will sufficiently explain themselves.
On the 25th of April, 1876, the Hon. Hamilton Fish, Secretary of State, communicated to the Hon. Benjamin H. Bristow, the Secretary of the Treasury, the “proposed plan of international exchange” proinulgated by the Paris commission January 25, 1876.
Copies of these communications were transinitted by the honorable Secretary of the Treasury to Professor Henry, the President of the National Academy of Sciences, and Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, with the following letter:
TREASURY DEPARTMENT, May 2, 1876. SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith for the consideration of the National Academy of Sciences a copy of a letter of the 25th ultimo, from the honorable the Secretary of State, inclosing a copy of a communication dated Paris, the 15th of March, 1876, addressed to that department by Dr. W. E. Johnston, in relation to the establishment of a bureau of international exchanges of works of science, together with copies of a letter of February 23, 1876, from Baron de Vatteville, president of the Commission of International Exchanges at Paris, and a plan adopted by the commission, which it is proposed to submit to the contracting powers.
The department would be pleased to be favored with the views of the Academy of Sciences upon this subjeet, and any recommendations it may see fit to make. I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,
B. H. BRISTOW,
Secretary. Prof. Joseph HENRY, LL.D.,
President National Academy of Sciences.
Washington, D. C., May 4, 1876. SIR: Your letter of the 2d instant, relative to the establishment of an international bureau for the exchange of works of science, &c., with the accompanying documents, has been received, and in behalf of the National Academy of Sciences, and also of this Institution, I respectfully submit the following as an answer :
From the earliest period of the establishment of scientific societies in America, it has been customary to exchange their publications for those of similar institutions in all parts of the world.
About thirty years ago, as stated by Dr. Johnston, Alex. Vattemare attempted to establish a system of international literary and scientific exchange between France and the United States, and succeeded in in. teresting in his project several of the States of the Union. The enterprise, however, was an individual one, and fell into disuse principally on account of want of adequate means for carrying it on.
In 1846 the Smithsonian Institution was organized by the bequest of an English gentleman for the “increase and diffusion of knowledge
among men." To realize the ideas of the founder it was resolved by the directors of the establishment to institute various scientific investiga. tions, and to send a copy of the published results of these to each of the principal libraries of the world. To carry out this idea it was necessary to appoint paid agents in various parts of the Old World through whom the publications of the Institution might be distributed, and those of foreign institutions received in return. This system was soon afterwards extended so as to include the publications of all the learned societies of the United States, Canada, and South America, with those of the Old World. This has now been successfully carried ou for upwards of a quarter of a century, and has been so enlarged as to embrace the institutions of almost every part of the civilized world, as exhibited in the following table.*
The expense of this system of exchange which has enriched all the principal libraries of the United States and of foreign nations has been borne entirely by the Smithsonian Institution, and now amounts to nearly seven thousand dollars annually. This expense, however, would be much greater were it not for the generous co-operation of various American, British, French, and German steamship companies, which carry the packages without charge for transportation. As a further extension of the systein, Congress has directed that fifty copies of each of its annual publications be given to the Institution for exchange with foreign governments.
In view of the foregoing statements, I do not think it in the least degree probable that the Governinent of the United States would think it advisable at present to establish a special bureau for co-operating in the plan proposed by the congress of geographical sciences.
I inay say, however, in behalf of the Smithsonian Institution, that it will cbeerfully co-operate with the system proposed as soon as it has succeeded in establishing its organization, and also that if, at any time, the Government of the United States chooses to assume the expense of a purely national establishment, the Institution would devote the money it wow expends in this direction to other objects connected with the “increase and diffusion of knowledge among men." I have the honor to be, yours, respectfully,
JOSEPH HENRY, President National Academy and Secretary Smithsonian Institution. Hon. B. H. BRISTOW,
Secretary of the Treasury.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, D. C., May 29, 1876. SIR: I herewith inclose a copy of a note, dated the 22d instant, which has been received from Sir Edward Thornton, the British minister at this capital, respecting the interchange of official documents between this country and Great Britain, wherein, referring to certain circulars on this subject received by him from you in November last, he inquires whether the Smithsonian Institution is acting in behalf of the Government of the United States in this matter. I am, sir, your obedient servant,
HAMILTON FISH. Prof. JOSEPH HENRY, &c., &c., &c.
* This tablo omitted, as not here important.
Sir E. Thornton to Mr. Fish.
WASHINGTON, May 22, 1876. Sir: I have the honor to inclose copies of two circulars which I received in November last from Professor Henry, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, relative to the exchange of official documents between the Governments of the United States and of Her Majesty. I forwarded copies of the circulars to Lord Derby, but as it does not appear that any formal arrangement has yet been made between the two governments for the general exchange of official documents, his lordship has directed me to inquire whether the Smithsonian Institution is acting on behalf of the Government of the United States. I shall have much pleasure in conferring with you upon this subject during my next visit to the State Department with a view to ascertain more precisely what would be the British official documents which the United States Government would desire to receive in exchange for those of this country. I have the honor to be, with the highest consideration, sir, your obedient servant,
EDWARD THORNTON. Hon. HAMILTON FISH, fc. fc.
Washington, June 2, 1876. DEAR SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 29th ultimo, and the accompanying letter from Sir Edward Thornton, relative to the question whether the Smithsonian Institution is acting in behalf of the Government of the United States as agent in the exchange of public documents between the goverument of this country and that of Great Britain.
As a reply to this question I beg leave to refer you to the acts of Congress approved by the President of the United States, March 2, 1867 (Stat., vol. xiv, p. 573) ; July 25, 1868 (Stat., vol. xv, p. 260); sec. 3796 Rev. Stat.
As to the question what official documents the United States Gov. ernment desires to receive from Great Britain, I would say that as the United States Government intends to send a full set of everything that is printed at the government expense, a similar return would be expected of all documents published by the British Government. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Secretary Smithsonian Institution. Hon. HAMILTON FISH,
Secretary of State.
The Portuguese commissioners to the president of the Belgian commission.
LISBON, March 1, 1877. SIR : The agreement signed August 12, 1875, by yourself and the Portuguese commissioners on the occasion of the geographical congress at Paris, is without doubt the most valuable result of that scientific and truly international reunion which has contributed in so efficacious a manner in drawing closer the intellectual relations already established between the nations there represented.
The scientific library and art exchanges organized, in a sure and permanent manner, in aiding unquestionably in the rapid and thorough diffusion of science, ought to create indissoluble bonds of union between
the different groups of the human family-bonds which cannot fail to be most profitable to the great cause of civilization.
True to its agreement, and convinced of the immense advantages which must spring up for all nations from the realization of so generous a thought, the Portuguese Government has appointed a commission provisionally charged with the organization of the service of scientific, literary, and art exchanges on such a basis which should not sensibly deviate from that which we have the honor to communicate to you herewith, and which has been accepted by the commissioners residing at Paris, who constitute an international committee.
Our commission, however, composed of the undersigned, and provided with the necessary power by a decree of the ministry of foreign affairs, and of which inclosed you will find the translation, held that it should first address itself to the signers of the agreement of August 12, for the purpose of informing them of its organization and of requesting them to furnish the necessary information which it needs for a proper discharge of the duties with which it is intrusted.
It is with a view to the accomplishment of this, for us so honorable, mission, that we beg you, sir, to communicate to us the ideas and reso lutions of your government on this point; also, what steps should be taken to establish promptly and surely the service of scientific, literary, and art exchanges between Portugal and Belgium, on a permanent, official, and as extensive a basis as possible.
It is also our duty to inform you that the Portuguese Government has instructed its representatives abroad to communicate to the govern. ments to which they are accredited the establishment of our commis. sion of international exchanges, and also the names of the members of which it is composed. Accept, sir, the assurance of our most distinguished consideration.
MARQUIS DE SOUZA HOLSTEIN.
Circular of the Belgian commission to the learned societies of Belgium.
We have had the honor of explaining to you in a former circular, which was addressed to you in 1873, that by royal decree of May 17, 1871, a commission was appointed charged with the organization of a system of exchange between Belgium and foreign countries, of either writings in every branch of intellectual activity or reproductions of the principal monuments, or the most valuable objects in connection with the graphic or plastic arts. This commission has been divided in three sections; the second, representing the interests of literature, bibliography, and numismatics, has inaugurated its labors by the publication of a catalogue in which is contained a statement of all periodic publications issued in Belgium by learned societies, the departments, associations, and private individuals. In the preparation of this list our section made use of the documents transmitted by you in answer to the above-named circular. This list appeared in the course of the year 1874 under the title of “Introduction to the bibliography of Belgium, Brussels. Henry Manceaux.” At the instance of our section the gov. ernment has also accorded its patronage to the same publisher for a bibliography of Belgium. After having taken other steps with a view to the completion of its organization, our section has now finally been placed in the position of coinmencing active operations. We have been