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The Earl of Clarendon to Sir F. Bruce.
FOREIGN OFFICE, April 14, 1866. Sir: Mr. Adams called upon me three days ago and read to me a contidential dispatch from Mr. Seward respecting the Fepian agitation.
Mr. Seward said that ho did not think that either time or occasion had arrived for making any communication on the subject to Her Majesty's Government, but in view of the news which had arrived of the suspension of the act of habeas corpus in Ireland, Mr. Seward thought Mr. Adams ought to be informed of the sentiments of the President in regard to Fenianism.
The Fenian excitement in the United States was, Mr. Seward said, a political qnestion, exclusively atfecting Ireland as one of the United Kiugdoms. Those engaged in the agitation were, as a general rule, native Irishmen, of whom some had, while others had not, become naturalized in the United States. In moving, controlling, and directing the Fenian agitation these persons were influenced by feeling, sentiments, and views which they cherish as Irishmen, notwithstanding their change of domicile or place of residence or citizenship. In a word, the Fenian was a British, and not an American movement.
The only question for the United States Government, Mr. Seward said, was not whether the motives or designs of these agitations in regard to Ireland were just, wise beneficent, and humane, or the reverse, but whether, in seeking to promote their designs, they commit any violation of the laws of the United States which have been adopted to prevent military or naval aggression against nations with whom the United States are at peace.
Thus far, Mr. Seward said, no such violation of the law bad been brought to the knowledge of the United States Government, either by its own agents or by the British Legation, and it did not appear to the United States Government to be wise to denounce the proceedings of the agitators so long as they were confined within those limits of moral agitation recognized equally by the United States and Great Britain as legitimate.
It was not unreasonable to suppose that any unlawful enterprises against Ireland and the Colonies contrived in the United States would prove abortive and even absurd unless the movement bad some connection with an uprising in the country to be invaded. It was not for the United States Government to pronounce upon the improbability or otherwise of such an uprising in Ireland. It was, however, reasonable to suppose that if anything of the sort was contemplated, the suspension of the act of habeas corpus would bring matters to a crisis, and if no uprising had taken place, it might be supposed either that such a movement had not been meditated, or that it had been averted. In either case it was not to be apprehended that a violation of United States neutrality would now be committed. On the other hand, if any insurrection should have already broken out in Ireland, it would be by no means the purpose or policy of the United States to suffer their own laws to be violated, and their dignity and honor to be compromised.
Mr. Seward further said that it might be expected that some Irish-born bat naturalized American citizens who might be now sojourving or traveling in Ireland would be arrested upon complaints of complicity in seditious proceedings. Of these, some would probably be innocent, and others guilty. The situation would thus for a time necessarily become inconvenient and embarrassing; but Mr. Seward frankly admitted that Americans, whether native born or naturalized, owe submission to the same laws in Great Britain as British subjects while residing there and enjoying the protection of the British Government, and Mr. Seward added that the Voited States Government had applied the converse of that principle to British subjects who were sojourning or traveling in the United States during the late rebelliou.
Mr. Adams was, therefore, to give a careful examination to each complaint, dealing at all times frankly with the British Government, and asking on their part strict jus. tice where American citizens were concerned.
I told Mr. Adams that I had listened with much satisfaction to the views and opinions of Mr. Seward, as stated in the dispatch which he had just read to me, and that It rusted tbat both the state of Ireland and the prudence of the lord lieutenant would prevent any difference between Her Majesty's Government and that of the United States upon a question involving a principle, the discussion of which, in connection with Fenianism, it would be desirable not to enter npon. I have, &c.,
Convention between Her Vajesty and the United States of America relative to naturalization.
Signed at London May 13, 1870.
Her Majesty the Qneen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the President of the United States of America, being desirous to regulate the citizenship of British subjects who have emigrated or who may emigrate from the British dominions to the United States of America, and of citizens of the United States of America who have emigrated or who may emigrate from the United States of America to the British dominions, have resolved to conclude a convention for that purpose, and have named as their plenipotentiaries, that is to say:
Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the right honorable George William Frederick, Earl of Clarendon, Baron Hyde of Hindon, a Peer of the United Kingdom, a member of Her Britannic Majesty's most honorable Privy Council, knight of the most noble Order of the Garter, kuight Grand Cross of the most honorable Order of the Bath, Her Majesty's principal secretary of state for foreiga affairs;
And the President of the United States of America, Jobn Lothrop Motley, esquire, envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of the United States of America to Her Britannic Majesty;
Who, after having communicated to each other their respective full powers, found to be in good and due form, bave agreed upon and concluded the following articles :
British subjects who have become, or shall become, and are naturalized according to law within the United States of America as citizens thereof, shall, subject to the provisions of Article 11, be held by Great Britain to be in all respects, and for all purposes, citizens of the United States, and shall be treated as such by Great Britain.
Reciprocally, citizens of the United States of America who have become, or shall become, and are naturalized according to law within the British dominions as Britishi subjects, shall, subject to the provisions of Article II, be beld by the United States to be in all respects and for all purposes British subjects, and shall be treated as such by the United States.
Snch Britisb snbjects, as aforesaid, who bave become and are naturalized as citizens within the United States, shall be at liberty to renonnce their naturalization and to Tesume their British nationality, provided that such renunciation be publicly declared within two years after the twelfth day of May, 1870.
Such citizens of the United States as aforesaid who have become and are naturalized within the dominions of Her Britannic Majesty as British subjects, shall be at liberty to renounce their naturalization, and to resume their nationality as citizens of the United States, provided that such renunciation be publicly declared within two years after the exchange of the ratifcations of the present convention.
The manner in which this renunciation may be made and publicly declared shall be agreed upon by the governments of the respective countries.
If any such British subject as aforesaid, naturalized in the United States, should renew liis residence within the dominions of Her Britannic Majesty, Her Majesty's Government may, on his own application and on such conditions as that government inay think fit to impose, readmit him to the character and privileges of a British subject, and the United States shall not, in that case, claim him as a citizen of the United States on account of his former naturalization.
In the same mauner, if any such citizen of the United States, as aforesaid, natural.. ized within the dominions of Her Britannic Majesty, should renew his residence in the Crited States, the United States Government may, on his own application and on such conditions as that government may think fit to impose, read mit him to the character and privileges of a citizen of the United States, and Great Britain shall not, in that case, claim him as a British subject on account of his former naturalization.
The present convention shall be ratified by ller B.itannic Majesty and by the Presi
dent of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at London as soon as may be within twelve months from the date hereof.
In witness whereof the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and have affixed thereto their respective s'als.
Done at London, the thirteenth day of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy. [L. s.]
CLARENDON. [L. S.]
JOHN LOTHROP MOTLET.
Convention between Her Majesty and the United States of America, supplementary to the con
rention of May 13, 1870, respecting naturalization.—Signed at Washington, February 23, 1871.
Whereas by the second article of the convention between Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the United States of America for regulating the citizenship of subjects and citizens of the contracting parties who have emigrated or may emigrate from the dominions of the one to those of the other party, signed at London on the 13th May, 1870, it was stipulated that the manner in which the renunciation by such subjects and citizens of their naturalization, and the resumption of their native allegiance, may be made and publicly declared, should be agreed upon by the governments of the respective countries; Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the President of the United States of America, for the purpose of effecting such agreement, have resolved to con. clude a supplemental convention, and have named as their plenipotentiaries, that is to say: Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Sir Edward Thornton, knight commander of the most honorable Order of the Bath, and her envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to the United States of America, and the President of the United States of America, Himilton Fish, Secre. tary of State, who have agreed as follows:
Any person being originally a citizen of the United States who bad, previously to the 13th May, 1870, been naturalized as a British subject, may at any time before the 10th August, 1872, and any British subject who, at the date first aforesaid, had been naturalized as a citizen within the United States, may, at any time before the 12th May, 1872, publicly declare his renunciation of soch naturalization by subscribing an instrument in writing, substantially in the form bereunto appended and designated as Annex (A).
Such renunciation by an original citizen of the United States of British nationality shall, within the territories and jurisdiction of the United States, be made in duplicate, in the presence of any court authorized by law for the time being to admit aliens to naturalization, or before the clerk or prothonotary of any such court; if the declar. ant be beyond the territories of the United States, it shall be made in duplicate before any diplomatic or consular officer of the United States. One of such duplicates shall remain of record in the custody of the court or officer in whose presence it was made; the other shall be, without delay, transmitted to the Department of State.
Such renunciation, if declared by an original British subject, of his acquired nationality as a citizen of the United States, shall, if the declarant be in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, be made in duplicate, in the presence of a justice of the peace; if elsewbere in Her Britannic Majesty's dominions, in triplicate, in the presence of any judge of civil or criminal jurisdiction, of any justice of the peace, or of any other officer for the time being anthorized by law, in the place in which the declarant is, to administer an oath for any judicial or other legal purpose; if out of Her Majesty's dominions, in triplicate, in the presence of any officer in the diplomatic or consular service of Her Majesty.
The contracting parties hereby engage to communicate each to the other, from time to time, lists of the persons who, within their respective dominions and territories, or before their diplomatic and consular officers, have declared their renunciation of naturalization, with the dates and places of making such declarations, and such information as to the abode of the declarants, and the times and places of their naturalization, as they may have furnished.
The present convention shall be ratified by Her Britannic Majesty and by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at Washington as soon as may be convenient.
In witness whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries bave signed the same, and have affixed thereto their respective seals.
Done at Washington, the twenty-third day of February, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-one. (LS.)
EDWD. THORNTON. [L. S.]
I, A. B., of (insert abode), being originally a citizen of the United States of America (or a British subject), and having become naturalized within the dominions of Her Britannic Majesty as a British subject (or us a citizen within the United States of America), do hereby renounce my naturalization as a British subject (or citizen of the United States), and declare that it is my desire to resume my nationality as a citizen of the United States (or British subject). (Signed)
A. B. Made and subscribed before me,
in (insert country or other subdivision, and State, province, colony, legation, or consulate), this day of
187 — (Signed)
Justice of the Peace (or other title). (L. S.]
EDWD. THORNTON. (L 8.]
(Inclosure 2 in No. 331.)
Mr. Brophy to Mr. Barrouc8.
NAAS Prison, April 6, 1882. Mr. Coxsul-SIR: I was arrested on the 4th of March last, on the lord lieutenant's warrant. I now demand the protection of the American Government as an American citizen either to have my release or a speedy trial. I inclose my papers of citizenship.
WILLIAM BROPHY. (Incloses certificate of supreme court of New York of citizenship of William Brophy, dated October 9, 1868.) Above forwarded by Consul Barrows April 12, 1882.
[Inclosure 3 in No. 351.)
Mr. Lowell to Mr. Barrows.
UNITED STATES LEGATION,
London, April 14, 1882. B. H. BARROWS, Esq.,
L'nited States Consul, Dublin, Ireland : Sir: I have to acknowledge the reception of your letter of the 12th, iuclosing communications from William Brophy, at present confined in Naas jail with a copy of his naturalization certificate, and from John L. Gannon, imprisoned in Galway.
Isball give my attention to these cases. Meanwhile will you kindly inform me the cases stated in the warrant for Bropby's arrest. I am, &c.,
J. R. LOWELL.
[Iaclosure 4 in No. 351.1
Mr. Gannon to Jr. Barrowc3.
THE JAIL, GALWAY, April 8, 1882. THE AMERICAN CONSUL,
Consulate, Dublin : Sir: As I observe by the newspapers that representations are being made by the American Government on belialf of the Americau citizens who are imprisoned under "coercion act" in Ireland, I beg to put the facts of my case in your hands, that you may have attention drawn to it through Mr. Lowell, the American minister. I am imprisoned in this jail, under the “coercion act,” since May 7, 1881, on suspicion of being one of an unlawful assembly. I have nuver been brought to trial, nor do I know anything of the charge against me, nor of my accuser.
I am a native American citizen, having been born at Hampton Hill, State of Connecticut, on the 13th December, 1852. My birth was duly recorded by Dr. Dyer Hughes. The governor of the State at the time was, I think, Governor Cleveland. Will you kindly forward these facts at once to the proper quarter, and have attention drawn to my case, as I am now eleven months imprisoned here without trial. A note in reply will confer a favor on Yours, &c.,
JOHN LEONARD GANXOX. (Forwarded by Consul Barrows, April 12, 1822.)
Inclosure 5 in No. 331.
Mr. Slattery to Mr. Lorell.
LIMERICK JAIL, April 18. J. R. LOWELL, Esq.:
HONORED SIR: I received your letter of the 4th of April, stating that yon brought my case to the attention of the British Government, and I am extremely obliged to you for doing so. But I have not heard a word from the British Government since about it.
And I again ask you with the greatest confidence to call their attention again to it, and to get me a speedy trial at once, or else an unconditional release. Hoping to hear from you again at your earliest convenience, I have, &c.,
(Inclosure 6 in No. 351.]
Mr. O'Jahony to Mr. Lowell.
Monaghax Prison, 20th April, 1822. HOSORABLE SIR: Herewith inclosed is my naturalization papers for your consideration; kindly let me know if I am entitled to the protection of an American citizen or not; if I am, I would wish to be granted a right of trial, as I have over eight months spent in prison as a reasonable suspect. If I am not entitled to the protection of an American citizen kindly return me my papers and state your objections. I am necessarily compelled to forward this letter through my wife in order to forward the papers and get it registered. A reply at your earliest convenience will oblige, Yours, respectfully,
HENRY O'MAHONY. To Minister Lowell,
United States Consul, London. (Inclosuce :) A certificate from the court of Erie County, New York, of Henry O'Mahony's citizenship, dated February 25, 1880.