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ernment of the facts of the case in Kurdistan, and respecting the going of my son to Sonj Boulak.
The Kurdish nation, consisting of more than 500,000 families, a people apart. Their religion is different to that of others, and their laws and cnstoms are distinct. It is known among all nations as mischievous and corrupt. This is how Kurdistan has been depicted. If one person from among them does an evil deed a thousand peaceable and orderly persons gain an ill repute. Be it known to you for certain that this has all been caused by the laches of the Turkish and Persian authorities, for Kurdis. tan is in the midst between these two countries, and both governments, for their own reasons, do not distinguish between good and evil characters. It is thus that bad characters remain unreformed, and respectable people get an ill repute, and become ruined.
Among other evil things, you have probably heard of the tribe of Ali Agha Shekak, who are famous for their evil and ruin-causing deeds, rainous alike to native and foreign sects, Mohammedans and others. Every government has heard of their wicked doings. Owing to huglect or want of power on the part of Persia, these people will never be civilized, and will remain in their savage state. The evil deeds of the Harkee tribe, who are Turkish subjects, are also apparent. The Ottoman Government also, like the Persian, either has not the means of civilizing these people or else neglects them. Kurdistan has got a bad reputation, and has been disgraced. Distinction is not made between peaceable and evil-disposed persons. The chiefs and rulers of Kurdistan, whether Turkish or Persian subjects, and the inhabitants of Kurdistan, one and all, are united and agreed that matters cannot be carried on in this way with the two governments, and that necessarily something must be done, so that European governments having understood the matter, shall inquire into our state. We also are a nation apart. We want our affairs to be in our own hands, so that in the punishment of our own offenders we may be strong and independent and have privileges like other nations; and respecting our offenders, we are ready to take upon ourselves that no harm or damage shall accrue to any nation. This is our object, and the reasons of my son's going to Souj Boulak, so as to obtain inquiry into the state of Kurdistan, and no mischief occur, otherwise the whole of Kurdistan will take the matter into their own hands, as they are unable to put up with these continual evil deeds, and the oppression which they suffer at the hands of the two governments.
(Telegram from Mr. Thompson.)
L. TEHERAN, December 30, 1880. I am informed by American missionaries at Oroomiah that they have been very graciously received by the Sepah Salar, and that the latter assured them that they would be protected, and that the reports circulated against them met with no credence at the hands of the Persian Government.
Sir Edward Thornton to Mr. Blaine.
WASHINGTON, March 15, 1881. (Received March 16.) SIR: In compliance with an instruction which I have received from Earl Granville, I have the honor to transmit herewith copy of letters written by Her Majesty's consul-general at Tabreez, respecting the false reports circulated to the prejudice of the American missionaries at Oroomiah, of their complicity with Sheikh Obeidullah, and the measures adopted by that officer to remove the erroneous impression thus produced. I have, &c.,
(Inclosure in Sir Edward Thornton's note to Mr. Blaine.)
Consul-General Abbott to Earl Granville.
TABREEZ, December 30, 1880. MY LORD: I have the honor to transmit to your lordship copies of two dispatches and an inclosure which I have addressed to Her Majesty's minister at Teheran respect
ing the false reports circulated to the prejudice of the American missionaries at Oroomiah, of their complicity with Sheikh Obeidullah, and the measures adopted by me to remove the erroneous impression thus produced, as well as for the protection of those gentlemen and their families. Trusting that your lordship will approve of the action I have taken in this matter, I have, &c.,
WILLIAM G. ABBOTT.
(Inclosure in Mr. Abbott's note to Earl Granville.)
Consul-General Abbott to Mr. Thomson.
TABREEZ, December 10, 1880. Sir: I had this day the honor to send your excellency the following cipher telegram, marked No. 14:
"American missionaries in their last letters to me state that their relations with Persian authorities at Oroomiah are cordial, and that the false reports regarding them had greatly subsided. On receipt of your telegram I had interview with foreign office agent, who promised to communicate with Veli Ahd, and that instrnctions on subject would be sent immediately by express messenger to Sepeh Salar, who was very probably already at Oroomiah."
During the investment of Oroomiah by the Kurdish insurgents the American missionaries were placed in a very difficult position. Sheikh Obeidullah encamped with his army outside the town, in the immediate vicinity of the college buildings, and it would have been the height of imprudence if the missionaries had assumed a demeanor of open hostility towards him, or failed to take advantage of the friendly feelings he professed for them. But they were careful, at the same time, to give convincing proofs that their sentiments towards the Persian authorities were as cordial as ever and remained unimpaired. They behaved throughout with unexampled loyalty. Every communication they received from the sheikh was, at my suggestion, made known to the governor of Oroomiah; and when an assault upon the town seemed imminent they afforded shelter to as many of their Persian neighbors as their premises in the city would accommodate. This was done to remove the erroneous impression that they were only anxious to save Christians.
Monseigneur Cluzel, the French archbishop, having invoked my protection for himself and the members of the Lazarist mission, I sent a message to the sheikh on their behalf, and the Sisters of Charity were invited by the American ladies to reside with them at the college till the danger was over, but did not accept the invitation. The Union Jack floated side by side with the Stars and Stripes over the college buildings, and an inscription in Persian was affixed to the gates, " The residence of the Euglish consol and the American missionaries."
Upwards of 300 Nestorians took refuge within the precincts of the American college, and a large number of Persians. The mission house in town was held by the Rev. Mr. Whipple, at considerable risk to his life.
I take this opportunity of stating officially that such reports as those which have been circulated to the prejudice of the American missionaries are mischievons slanders, completely devoid of truth. The United States have every reason to be proud of men who, at all times conspicuous for their practical piety, displayed at Oroomiah, amidst famine, pestilence, and war, a coolness and pluck which will never be forgotten by those who were present during that season of trial.
In making representations to the Azerbaijan authorities on behalf of the missionaries, I have brought the preceding facts to their notice, and intimated that any molestation offered to those gentlemen or their families would be viewed with grave displeasnre by Her Majesty's Government. I have, &c.,
WILLIAM G. ABBOTT.
(Inclosure 2 in Mr. Abbott's note to Earl Granville.)
Mr. Abbott to Mr. Thompson.
TABREEZ, December 29, 1880. Sir: I had this day the honor to send your excellency the following telegram in cipher, marked No. 18:
"Oroomiah letter, dated 23d instant, from American missionaries, informs me that they have met with very gracious reception from Sepeb Salar, who assured them of
H. Ex. 151--2
his willingness to afford them protection, and that Persian Government gave no credence to slanders circulated against them.” I inclose an extract of the letter referred to above. I have, &c.,
WILLIAM G. ABBOTT.
Mr. Blaine to Mr. Dawes.
WASHINGTON, March 17, 1881. SIR: Referring to your letter of the 20th of November last, in relation to the dangers then threatening certain American missionaries at Oroomiah, in Persia, and to the subsequent correspondence on the same subject, I now have the honor to transmit herewith for your information a copy of a note (from the British minister), dated the 15th instant, with copies of the letters therein referred to, which were written by Her Majesty's consul-general at Tabreez, respecting the false reports circulated to the prejudice of American missionaries at Oroomiah, of their complicity with Sheik Obeidullah, and the measures adopted by that officer to remove the erroneous impression thus produced. I have the honor, &c.,
JAMES G. BLAINE. (For inclosure, Sir Edward Thornton's note of March 15, 1881, vide ante, No. 12.)
Mr. Blaine to Sir Edward Thornton.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, March 18, 1881. SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of the 15th instant, transmitting copy of letters written by Her Majesty's consul. general at Tabreez, respecting the false reports circulated to the prejudice of the American missionaries at Oroomiah, Persia, of their complicity with Sheik Obeidullah, and the measures adopted by that officer to remove the erroneous impression thus produced.
In view of the deep interest felt in this country concerning the fate of the above-mentioned American missionaries, the letters communicated by your note have been read with much gratification; and I therefore beg you to have the kindness to convey to Mr. Abbott, Her Maj. esty's consul-general at Tabreez, the thanks of the President for the active and efficient measures adopted by him for the protection of the American missionaries in Persia. I have, &c.,
JAMES G. BLAINE.
Mr. Lowell to Mr. Blaine. No. 148.]
LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES,
London, March 25, 1881. (Received April 8.) SIR: On the 18th of March instant, I received a letter from the Rev. Mr. Labarre, of Oroomiah, Persia, expressing the gratitude of the Amer
can missionaries there for the intervention of the British Government in their behalf, and also for the kind suggestion to that effect made by the Department of State.
I have sent a copy of Mr. Labarre's letter to Lord Granville and the Prince Malcom Khan, the minister of Persia at this court, and I now have the honor to inclose herewith copies of Mr. Labarre's letter and of Prince Malcom's reply to my communication. I have, &c.,
J. R. LOWELL.
(Inclosure 1 in No. 148.]
Mr. Labarre to Mr. Lowell.
OROOMIAH, PERSIA, Abruary 15, 1881. DEAR SIR: A few weeks since, in an interview with his highness the Sepah Salar, the Shah's minister of war, he told us that he had that morning received a communication stating that Earl Granville, at the request of the American minister in London, acting under instructions from his government, had telegraphed to the British minister in Teheran, directing him to request of the Shah's government the efficient protection of the American missionaries in Oroomiah, exposed to peculiar dangers in conseqnence of the invasion of the Kurdish Sheik Obeidullah.
His highness proceeded to assure us of the confidence of the Shah's government in the integrity and sincerity of all our actions, and its appreciation of benevolent labors among the subjects of His Majesty the Shal.
He relieved us of all anxiety lest the charges of the ignorant populace of complicity with the Sheik had made any unfavorable impression on his mind, in cordial and emphatic language. At other times he took special pains in public to show his regard for us, and assure us of the fullest protection of the government.
When leaving he commended us particularly to the care of his brother, his excellency the Nasar-ul-Moolk, remaining as military governor, who has shown us marked attention, visiting our schools, and evincing much interest in the welfare of the Christian population.
We desire to express to our government, and to the British Government, as also to yourself, our hearty appreciation of the kind and very opportune action taken in our bebalf. The peculiar exigency of our situation, such unexpected interposition on the part of our government, and its happy effects, lifting from us a heavy load of anxiety, all go to swell our
gratitude and strengthen our loyal esteem for the noble administration at the head of affairs in our native land,
You would confer on us a further favor if you would express to the Persian minister in London, an intelligent Christian gentleman, I am told, our appreciation of the faFor showu us by his his highness the Sepah Salar, a man of much merit and culture, and by the Nasar-ul-Moolk, a man of liberal opinions and kind disposition to foreigners.
With sentiments of very sincere personal esteem, I remain, in behalf of the American missionaries, very truly, &c.,
BENJ. LABARRE, JR.
(Inclosure 2 in No. 148.1
Prince Malcom Khan to Mr. Lowell.
March 24, 1881. MY DEAR COLLEAGUE: I am plunged into deep grief; I can but feebly express the feelings wbich I experienced on reading the letter of the Rev. B. Labarre, jr. I bave always considered the presence of your missionaries in Persia as a providential blessing. I do not speak of their religious mission, but of the admiral'le and far more praiseworthy efforts which they make to shed the light of European education thronghont the entire East. I can assure you, moreover, that the eminently liberal spirit of His Majesty the Shah, and the intelligent men who are now his counselors, fully appreciates the value of the services rendered by your worthy countrymen to the cause of civilization in Persia.
The Sepah Salar and his brother are my intimate friends, and they will be glad to learn, through me, how highly their sentiments are appreciated by the Rev. B. Labarre. As to myself, I have always gladly availed myself of every opportunity to lend my feeble aid to these apostles of a civilization which I so earnestly desire to see introduced into my country. I have, &c.,
Mr. Blaine to Mr. Dawes.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, April 14, 1881. SIR: I bave the honor to inclose herewith, for your information, a copy of a dispatch from Mr. Lowell, transmitting copies of letters from the Reverend Mr. Labarre, and the Persian minister in London, in re. lation to the British intervention on behalf of the American missionaries at Oroomiah, Persia. I have the honor, &c.,
JAMES G. BLAINE. (For inclosure, Mr. Lowell's No. 148 of March 25, 1881, vide ante, No. 15.)
Mr. Blaine to Mr. Lowell.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, April 14, 1881. SIR: I bave to acknowledge the receipt of your dispatch No. 148, of the 25th ultimo, inclosing copies of letters from the Rev. Mr. Labarre and the Persian minister in London, in relation to the British intervention on behalf of the American missionaries at Oroomiah.
I have coinmunicated the contents of your dispatch to the Hon. Rufus R. Dawes, the member of Congress, who brought the subject to the attention of the Department. I am, sir, &c.,
JAMES G. BLAINE.
Sir Edward Thornton to Mr. Blaine.
WASHINGTON, May 19, 1881. (Received May 20.) SIR: With reference to my note of the 15th of March last, relative to the American missionaries at Oroomiah, I have the honor, in accordance with an instruction from Earl Granville, to transmit herewith, for the information of the Government of the United States, copy of a dispatch addressed to his lórdship by Her Majesty's minister to Persia, accom. panied by the copy of a letter to the latter from the above-mentioned missionaries. I have, &c.,
(Inclosure 1 in Sir Edward Thornton's note to Mr. Blaine.)
Mr. Thomson to Earl Granville.
TEHERAN, March 12, 1881. MY LORD: I have the honor to inclose herewith, for your lordship’s information, copy of a letter which I have received from the Rev. Mr. Labaree, the chief of the