An Introduction to English Phonetics
Edinburgh University Press, 2009 - 194 halaman
This book introduces undergraduates to the concepts, terminology and representations needed for an understanding of how English is pronounced around the world. Assuming no prior knowledge, the book guides readers through the vocal tract and explains how sounds of speech are made. Two main forms of representation are used: phonetic transcription and simple acoustic data. As far as possible, the book is based on naturally-occurring, conversational speech so that readers are familiar with the details of everyday talk (and not just the careful pronunciations represented in dictionaries). Examples are taken from around the English-speaking world, including North America, Australia, New Zealand and varieties of British English. Introductory chapters cover the basic phonetic framework, while later chapters discuss groups of sounds in more detail. The book takes an open-minded approach to what sounds of English might be significant for making meaning, and highlights the significance of word meaning, morphology, sociolinguistics and conversational interaction in phonetic analysis.
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1 Introduction to phonetics
2 Overview of the human speech mechanism
3 Representing the sounds of speech
4 The larynx voicing and voice quality
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acoustic representations affricate airstream airstream mechanism alveolar plosive alveolar ridge amplitude Anglo-English Australian bilabial cardinal vowels cartilage Chapter close clusters complete closure constriction creaky voice dental diacritic diphthongs ejectives example Figure ﬁnal ﬁnally ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬂow formants fricatives friction noise front fully voiced glottal stop glottis intonation kind labiodental labiovelar language larynx linguistic lip posture lip-rounding look lower marked means mouth nasal cavities nasal consonant nasal release nasalised vowels non-rhotic nose occur open approximation period phonetic details phoneticians phonology pitch place of articulation postalveolar pressure produced pronounced raised reﬂect release represent rhotic secondary articulation sequence speakers spectrogram syllabic nasals syllable-ﬁnal symbols teeth tongue body tongue shape tongue tip transcribed transcription varieties of English velar closure velarisation velum vocal fold vibration vocal folds vocal tract vocalic portion voice quality voice voice voiceless waveform words